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Global Disclosure of Economics and Business, Volume 3, No 1 (2014)

ISSN 2305-9168

Green Marketing for Creating Awareness for


Green Consumerism
Mohammad Yunus1 & Mohammad Toufiqur Rahman2
1

Associate Professor, Dept. of Business Administration, International Islamic University Chittagong, Bangladesh
Asistant Professor, Dept. of Business Administration, International Islamic University Chittagong, Bangladesh

ABSTRACT
Green businesses are enterprises which consider environmental protection
as an essential component for their long-term business objectives, both by
promoting eco-efficient production activities and by marketing sustainable
products and services (Barnes, n.d.). Green products may be defined as
products or services that have a lesser or reduced bad effect on human
health and the environment when compared with competing products or
services that serve the same purpose (Website). The purposed of green
business are (i) to promote more socially inclusive development (ii) to
reduce environmental degradation (iii) to mitigate the effects of climate
change (iv) to deal with pressures of population growth (v) to manage,
issues of increased scarcity and volatile prices of raw materials effectively.
Examples of green product are compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs), which
use 75% less energy than ordinary incandescent ones, organic foods, which
are grown and processed without antibiotics, pesticides, or synthetic
fertilizers, hybrid electric vehicles such as the Toyota Prius, which achieves
a fuel economy of 48 city-mpg and 45 highway-mpg (Website)., and green
hotels, which are trying to conserve water, energy, and materials usage
(Sharkey, 2008). Green business in practically existent everywhere around
us. Company such as Wal-mart and General Electric transforming their
business practices into green ones (Yeganeh & Glavas, 2008). In a study
conducted by MeKinsey of 4,238 business executives in 116 countries, 84%
believed that business should contribute to the public good; however, only
3% believe that their companies are currently doing a good job (McKinsey,
2006). Thus, green business is an enterprise that has no negative impact on
the (i) environment (ii) economy (iii) society (iv) community. Further, it
meets the requirement of the triple bottom line such as financial benefits of
the company, natural world betterment and social advantages for
employees and members of the local community. The triple bottom line
gives importance on initial value instead of the after effects.
Key words: Green Consumerism, Green products, Green business, volatile
prices, triple bottom line.
JEL Classification Code: M31; Q13; P46

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Global Disclosure of Economics and Business, Volume 3, No 1 (2014)

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CRITERIA OF GREEN BUSINESS


The green business meets the following four criteria viz. (a) the business decisions of the
company incorporate sustainability principles (b) the company manufactures environmentally
friendly products/ services (c) it replaces demand for non-green products (d) it ensures
enduring commitment to implement environmental principles in all business operations
management (e) the company is totally different in concept as well as in practice. Thus, it is a
business that meets the needs of the present world without compromising the ability of the
future generations to meet their own needs. The green business with the supply chain try to
trade-off among the tree components of the triple bottom line concepts such as better impact
on the environment, high growth of business and social development. As such, it argued that
green business is a three legged stool of (i) people (ii) planet. However, the time line of key
events in green product consumerism from 1998 to 2010 has been show in Fig.1.
1980

Few. Products carry environmental marketing messages.


But organic and natural foods gain popularity
Consumer awareness is heightened and more green choices arise :
homemade cleaning products and resource lists for shopping are
examples.

1990

Green becomes a talk of the town only in the market but also in
academic.
Consumer willingness to pay for green features leads to a dramatic
increase in green consumerism.
92% European multinational companies rework product development
to reflect green concern; 85% alter production systems.
Green brands are niche markets. High levels of consumer concern are
not reflected in purchasing power.

2000

Market shifts towards global business and affordable energy leading to


less spending on green products.
Green building rating systems, eco labels and certification programs
increase in number. These programs largely focus on reduction of
greenhouse gas emissions, conservation and wise use of natural
resources and building occupant productivity related to IEQ.
Research determines that protecting individual and family health is the
#1 motivator for consumers to actively work towards protecting the
environment. Chemical emissions and exposure to very small traces of
VOCs from common indoor materials and finishes are found to impact
human health.
Total number of green products in stores increase by an average of 79% .

Studies show that 60% of those surveyed look for minimally packaged
goods, 58% purchase green cleaning products and 31% buy green
personal care products.
2010 Green chemistry emerges and the federal government activity considers
integrating into legislation.
[Source: Air Quality Sciences, Inc. (2010), p.2]

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Global Disclosure of Economics and Business, Volume 3, No 1 (2014)

ISSN 2305-9168

GREEN PRODUCTS
Green business produces green products. The green business should consider the strategies like
water conservation, energy conversation, solid waste reduction and recycling, pollution,
prevention, etc. Data, thus, collected regarding green products in study areas have been shown in
the pie chart-1. The pie chart-1 shows that 27% respondents were sapling plantation; 17% poultry
farming; 15% fruits production; 11% manufacturing garments; 8% goat rearing; 7% rice
production; 5% dairy farming; 6% flower production and 4% furniture manufacturing.

Figure- 1: Pie Chart-Green Products


It has been reported that the respondents are motivated to work hard for their livelihoods. The
research identified that there are two types of capital required to change the pattern of growth
of the study areas viz. human capital and social capital. Human capital may be defined as the
capabilities of an individual or group i.e. the knowledge, training and skills that contribute to
increase their productivity in their production system. Social capital may be defined as the
connections among different stake-holders within social networks that have a value for their
mutual benefits. It has been reported that the sample respondents of the study areas are in the
following vicious cycle in figure-2:

Figure-2: Vicious Cycle

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Global Disclosure of Economics and Business, Volume 3, No 1 (2014)

ISSN 2305-9168

GREEN CONSUMER
Green consumers are the consumers who choose to purchase environmentally friendly
products. The development of green products whether in the context f human resources,
operations or marketing required new ideas while dealing with added constrained of
environmental and consumer pressures (Cronin, et. al., 2010). However, the activities of green
products are as follows (Amatruda, 2010):

Incorporate recycle content

Renewable resources

Local resources and manufactures

Employ sustainable harvesting practices wood or bio-based

Bio degradable

Easily reused either whole or through dissembling

Be able to readily recycle without significant deterioration of quality

GREEN JOBS
Green jobs may be defined as activities that contribute substantially to preserving
environmental quality. These jobs are plumbers, electricians, general workers, environmental
specialist, etc. The literature review reveals that the sectors of economy can create new green
jobs. These sectors are sustainable agriculture, transportation, energy efficiency, renewable
energy, etc. It has been reported that the livelihoods of he sample respondents may be changed
through green business training. These are (i) to familiarize stakeholders with green business
and related concepts (ii) to illustrate the importance/interrelations among of green businesses
(iii) to identify possible policies and measure for implementation (iv) to make proactive
corporate marketing and active government intervention, etc. The mechanism of government
interventions are (a) regulations (b) to make reformation (c) re-consumption (d) reorientation
(e) reorganization (Dutta, 2009).
Further, it has been revealed that the steps to green business are as (i) learning what it means to
be a green business (ii) reduce consumption, waste and pollution (iii) re-use what ones have
(iv) recycle everything ones can (v) learn low going green can save money (vi) green ones
business from the ground up (vii) develop and implement a green checklist (viii) review ones
processes (ix) environmental education & networking, etc.

CONCLUDING REMARKS
Green consumerism includes mainly 3 R like Reduce, Re-use and Recycle, Reduce
consumption means turn-off lights, recyclable packaging, reduce car use, etc. Re-use means
repurchase rechargeable batteries, washable towels, re-useable shopping bags, etc Recycle
means re-blending, reprocessing, and recyclable products, recycle papers, etc. It has been
observe that cans bottles, plastics, paper, cardboard can all be recycled easily. By analyzing
existing literature and based on our field survey, it may be concluded that green businesses aswell as green jobs may be explored for better livelihoods of the sample respondents of study
areas. As such, for creating fortune for the rural women especially for women the virtuous
cycle may be considered which has been show in figure-03.

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Global Disclosure of Economics and Business, Volume 3, No 1 (2014)

Energy
Security

Quality of
Economic
Growth

Climate
Action

Renewable
Energy
Energy
Efficiency

ISSN 2305-9168

Figure-3: Virtuous Cycle

REFERENCES
[1] Barnes, Ian (n.d), Greening Business, Green Growth Capacity Development Program, ESCAP.
[2] Amatruda J. (2010), Evaluation and Selecting Green products, Whole Building Design Guide
Website. Natonal Institute of Building Sciences. July 23, 2010. Washington, DC.
[3] Cronin, J. Joseph et. al. (2010), Green Marketing Strategies: An Examination of Stakeholders
and the Opportunities They Present, Academy of Marketing Science 2010.
[4] Dutta, B (2009), Sustainable Green Marketing The new Imperative quoted in APJRBM Vol. 1 Issue 2, P.5.
[5] J.Sharkey (2008), Hotels Struggle to Find the Right Eco-Message, The New Times, June 3,
[6] McKinsey, (2006, January). The McKinsey global survey of business executives: Business and
society [Electronic version]. McKinsey Quarterly.
[7] Yeganeh, Bauback and Glavas, Ante (2008), OD Practitioner Vol. 40 No.2,P.8
[8] http://www.ofee.gov/eo/13101.asp
[9] http://www.energystar.gov
[10] http://www.epa.gov.
[11] http://www.toyota.com
[12] www.wbdg.org/resources/greenproducts.php.

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Global Disclosure of Economics and Business, Volume 3, No 1 (2014)

ISSN 2305-9168

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