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General arrangement and planning

Propeller rotation

D5/D7 engine revolution range 19002300 rpm


with conversional shaft/propeller system
Ratio,
approx.
4:13:1

3:12.0:1

For a single installation, a right or left-hand rotating


propeller can be chosen. The rotation direction is
sometimes dependent of the type of reverse gear being used.
For twin installation, the starboard propeller should
always rotate clockwise and the port propeller anticlockwise seen from the aft forward. Otherwise there
is a risk that air bubbles will be drawn down into the
water between the two propellers which can cause
ventilation.

Choice of reduction ratio


The propeller shaft usually has lower speed than the
engine. This is normally achieved with the reduction
in the reverse gear.
As a rule the largest possible ratio should be chosen
for slow-going displacement boats. It then follows
that the propeller diameter can also be relatively
large with high thrust within the applicable speed
range. Depending on the hull type and speed range,
a smaller ratio can be chosen for higher speed, if
required. See the table. This is to obtain highest
thrust within the respective speed range. If the ratio
is chosen outside of the recommendations the thrust
can be lower than the optimum calculated power. The
boats top speed is not necessarily affected.
A check must always be done that the hull has sufcient space for the propeller according to information
in chapter Propeller selection.
In order to select the optimal gear ratio a calculation
have to be made. The following tables could serve as
guidelines.

Main type of
operation
Work boats,
Displacem. boats,
High pulling power,
Towing, Trawling

Speed
range
48 kn.

Work boats,
Displacement boats,
610 kn.
Low speed planing boats,
mainly free run

Semi-planing to planing
2.5:11.5:1 boats, Patrol boats,
Sport shing
and Pleasure boats

1015 kn.

D9/D12/D16 engine revolution range 18002800


rpm with conversional shaft/propeller system
Ratio,
approx.
6:13:1

Main type of
operation
Work boats,
Displacem. boats,
High pulling power,
Towing, Trawling

Work boats,
3:12.5:1 Displacement boats,
Low speed planing boats,
mainly free run
Semi-planing to planing
2.5:12:1 boats, Patrol boats,
Sport shing
and Pleasure boats
Planing boats,
2:11.5:1 Patrol boats,
Sport shing,
and Pleasure boats
High speed planing
1.5:11:1 boats, high
performance,
Pleasure boats and
similar

Speed
range
412 kn.

817 kn.

1626 kn.

2535 kn.

3545 kn.

35

Propeller Overhang

I t is difficult to discuss the s.election of reduction


gp.arratios without mentioning some of the other
factors th at can inlluence the selection. The majar
influencing factors are:

Type of vessel

Themaximum dislance from the stern barinCJ le


the propeller should be IlInited to 110 more lhan O;lE
shaft diameter. Propeller shafts are apt to vibr ,, ![
and produce a whip aclion if lhese Ij nls are ex
ceeded . This condilion s greatly accelefal ed whf! r
a propeller is out of balance due \0 faull y machnif lC
or damage.

Vessei duty cycie

Propeller Rota tion

Pitch ratio

Propeller rotation is determined Irom behnd I[,c


vessel, facing forward The slarboard side s on i l ~
right and lhe porl side on lil e lefl Rolal on 01 l i!F
propeller is determned by lhe direcloll 01 Ihe wh e.,
when lhe vessel is in forward molan. Thus, a clock
wise rotation would describe"a right-halld prope/le'
anda counter-clockwise rotation would be 3 left.
hand propeller (Fig . 21)

Expected vessel speed

Prop eller tip speed


I

Engine horsepower

Figure 20 shows typical reduction ralo ranges found


in various vessel applicalions

TYPICAL REoucnO/'! AA nos

,,,

2:,1

3:1

, 1

--'

1.5:1

~\,O:~~~~~AFn

5 :1

6: 1

1:.1

8: i
I

! 2,~:j
j

HIGH SPED
PLANING BOA TS

.. :1

A. .5 :1

9: I

10:1

I
I

I 1
1

-+-+

LOWSPEED
PtANING BOATS

I~
I . 1
1

1
"liGHSPEED

OISPLACEMENT
80ATS

LO.W5PEED
DISPtACEMENT
80ATS
(HIGH THAU ST 1"10'1"
8 0A TS.SUCHAS
TUGS, TOW80 ATS .
TAAwtE AS . 'ET C
I

1 ",

1) j
1 I

: ~--~---

., 1

,;..