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MUHAMMAD SHAHZAD ASLAM

116003
M-TECH (CIVIL)

REGESTRATION NO: 10UMSEMESTER: SUMMER

2016

ASSIGNMENT NO. 01

SUBJECT
Design-1

Advance

Reinforced

NAME

:MUHAMMAD SHAHZAD ASLAM

REGESTRATION NO: 10UM-116003


PROGRAMME

: MTECH (CIVIL)

PRESTON UNIVERSITY ISLAMABAD CAMPUS


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MUHAMMAD SHAHZAD ASLAM


116003
M-TECH (CIVIL)

REGESTRATION NO: 10UMSEMESTER: SUMMER

2016

CONTENTS

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MUHAMMAD SHAHZAD ASLAM


116003
M-TECH (CIVIL)

REGESTRATION NO: 10UMSEMESTER: SUMMER

2016

Question No.1
(a) Design the spandrel beam as shown in fig. given below Fc = 4000 psi , fy =
60000psi

Answer:
Plasticity
fy= 60,000 psi
fc= 4,000 psi
Actual steel ratio,
= 5.64 / (12 x 16) = 0.0294
from equation 13, the minimum allowable reinforcement ratio
min = 3 cf' / fy
= 3 4000/ 60000 = 0.0032
but not less than 200/fy= 200/60000 = 0.0033 < 0.0294 " "" "OK
Depth of compressive block from equation 5:
a = Asfy/ 0.85fcb = 5.64 x 60,000 / 0.85 x 4,000 x 12 = 8.29 in
1= 0.85

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116003
M-TECH (CIVIL)

REGESTRATION NO: 10UMSEMESTER: SUMMER

2016

The neutral axis location, c = a / 1= 8.29 / 0.85 = 9.76 in


c / dt= 9.76 / 16 = 0.61 > 0.60
Check the strain in the steel from equation 12:
t= 0.003 ( dt c)/ c = 0.003 (16 9.76)/9.76 = 0.0019 < y = 0.0021" ""
"NG
Since t is less than the yield strain y, brittle behavior governs, and the
section is in the compression-controlled zone and does not satisfy the ACI code
requirements for flexural beams
Question No. 2
(a)
What are the main types of structural cracks in a beam and non
structural cracks in a building ?
Answer:
STRUCTURAL CRACKS
(a) Flexural Cracks
Cracking in reinforced concrete flexural members subjected to bending
starts in the tensile zone, e.g: at the soffit of beams. Generally beams and slabs
may be subjected to significant loads and deflection under these loads, with the
steel reinforcement and the surrounding concrete subject to tension and
stretching. When the tension exceeds the tensile strength of the concrete, a
transverse or flexural crack is formed. Although in the short term the width of
flexural cracks narrows from the surface to the steel, in the long-term under
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116003
M-TECH (CIVIL)

REGESTRATION NO: 10UMSEMESTER: SUMMER

2016

sustained loading, the crack width increases and becomes more uniform across
the member.
(b) Shear Cracks
These are caused by structural loading or movement after the concrete has
hardened. Shear cracks are better described as diagonal tension cracks due to the
combined effects of bending and shearing action. Beams and columns are
generally prone to such cracking.
(c)

Internal Micro-Cracks
Micro cracking can occur in severe stress zones, due to large differential

cooling rates, or due to compressive loading. These are discontinuous microscopic


cracks which can become continuous and become a visible sign of impending
structural problems.
Cracks in concrete beams due to increased shear stress

Fig 2.1

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MUHAMMAD SHAHZAD ASLAM


116003
M-TECH (CIVIL)

REGESTRATION NO: 10UMSEMESTER: SUMMER

2016

Fig 2.2
Cracks in concrete beams due to corrosion or insufficient concrete cover

Fig 2.3

Cracks parallel to main steel in case of corrosion in beams

Fig 2.4

Cracks due to increased bending stress in beams


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116003
M-TECH (CIVIL)

REGESTRATION NO: 10UMSEMESTER: SUMMER

2016

Fig 2.5
Cracks due to compression failure in beams

Fig 2.6

The severity of a crack can be characterized in terms of its direction, width, and depth; cracks may
be longitudinal, transverse, vertical, diagonal or random. Different risks for cracking exist for cured
versus uncured concrete, and for reinforced concrete. Breakages occur through thermal, chemical or
mechanical processes causing shrinkage, expansion or flexural stress. Below is a list of types of
concrete cracks, and some of their possible causes:
A. Plastic-shrinkage cracking: Cracks that run to the mid-depth of the concrete, are distributed
across the surface unevenly, and are usually short in length.

Most often occurs while concrete is curing, due to the surface of the concrete drying too
rapidly relative to the concrete below.

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116003
M-TECH (CIVIL)

REGESTRATION NO: 10UMSEMESTER: SUMMER

2016

B. Crazing/Map cracking/Checking: A web of fine, shallow cracks across the surface of the
concrete.

Also occur during curing due to the surface of concrete drying faster than the interior
concrete, but the surface drying occurs at a lesser depth.

Because this type of cracking is limited to the surface, it does not usually pose serious
structural problems.

C. Hairline cracking: Very thin but deep cracks.

Due to settlement of the concrete while it is curing.

Due to their depth, these cracks can allow for more serious cracking once the concrete is
hardened.

D. Pop-Outs: Conical depressions in the concrete surface

Occurs when a piece of aggregate near the concrete surface is particularly absorbent,
causing it to expand and pop out of the surface of the concrete.

E. Scaling: Small pock marks in the concrete surface, exposing aggregate underneath.

Once cured, if concrete does have an adequate finish to prevent water penetration, water
that seeps into the concrete will expand when it freezes, pushing off pieces of the
concrete surface.

Scaling can also be caused by delamination, which occurs when too much water (due to
insufficient curing) or air (due to insufficient vibrating) remains in the concrete when it
is finished. The water and air rise to the top and form pockets below the surface. These
pockets may form blisters or which may break open to create scaling.

F. Spalling: Surface depressions that are larger and deeper than scaling, often linear when
following the length of a rebar.

Also caused by pressure from under the surface of the concrete.


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116003
M-TECH (CIVIL)

REGESTRATION NO: 10UMSEMESTER: SUMMER

2016

Most often occur due to improperly constructed joints or the corrosion of rebar in the
concrete

Corrosion creates pressure as rust forms, which can push away large chunks of concrete,
and expose the corroded metal below.

Spalling that exposes corroded metal can be particularly problematic because the
corrosion is likely to accelerate due to exposure to air and water.

G. D-Cracking: Cracks that runs roughly parallel or stem from a concrete joint and are deeper than
surface cracks.

Due to moisture infiltration at the joint.

H. Offset cracking: Cracks where the concrete on one side of the crack is lower than the concrete
on the other side.

Due to uneven surfaces below the concrete, such as subgrade settlement or pressure
from objects such as tree roots, previously-placed concrete, or rebar.

I. Diagonal corner cracking: Cracks that run from one joint to its perpendicular joint at the corner
of a slab

The corners of concrete slabs can be prone to curling (due to differences in temperature
at different depths in the curing concrete) or warping (due to differences in moisture
evaporation at different depths in the curing concrete). The dryer or colder level of
concrete will shrink more and create cracks as the concrete dries.

Because the warped or curled-up corners often have some empty space below them, they
are also prone to cracking after curing due to weight overload causing the corner to snap
downward into the empty space.

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MUHAMMAD SHAHZAD ASLAM


116003
M-TECH (CIVIL)

REGESTRATION NO: 10UMSEMESTER: SUMMER

2016

Question No.3
Design the part AB of the continuous beam as shown in the following fig.
fc=3000psi
Fy= 60000psi
D.L = 800 Ib/ft including self weight
L.L= 200 Ib/ft
Answer:
To compute the positive moment at mid span of beam B3andnegative moment at the exterior end of beam B3, it is necessary to load spans AB and CD with
live load. Because the majority of the moment in the left span results from loads
onthat span, we shall take the tributary area to be the area over beam B3,
extending halfway to the adjacent beams:
From Eq. (2-12), the reduced live load is where the unreduced live load,
is100 psf and for a typical floor beam

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MUHAMMAD SHAHZAD ASLAM


116003
M-TECH (CIVIL)

REGESTRATION NO: 10UMSEMESTER: SUMMER

2016

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MUHAMMAD SHAHZAD ASLAM


116003
M-TECH (CIVIL)

REGESTRATION NO: 10UMSEMESTER: SUMMER

2016

Question No. 4
A typical floor panel measuring 16 X 20 feet on centers of of 9 thick wall with its
two adjacent edges are continuous as shown in the following fig. carries a service
of live load of 100 psf in addition to its own weight . floor finishing includes 50 psf
Using fc = 3000psi and fy= 60000 psi, calculate +ve and ve bending mements.
Answer:
The

ACI design factors for calculating shear and moment in slab Limitation
1. There are two or more spans.2. Spans are approximately equal. The two adjacent spans shall not be
more than 20 percent difference inlength.3. Load distributes uniformly.4. Live load shall not exceed
three times of dead load.5. Members are prismatic.
Factored Moments: Three or more spans Positive moment:
Interior span:
Mu= Wuln2 /16
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116003
M-TECH (CIVIL)

REGESTRATION NO: 10UMSEMESTER: SUMMER

2016

End span (discontinuous end unrestrained) : Mu= Wuln2 /11


End span (discontinuous integral with support): Mu= Wuln2 /14
Negative moments:
Negative moments at exterior face of first interior support: Mu= Wuln2 /10
Negative moments at other face of first interior support: Mu= Wuln2 /11
Negative moments at interior face of exterior support by spandrel beam: Mu= Wul n2/24
Negative moments at interior face of exterior support by column: Mu= Wul n2 /16
At ultimate stress situation, the concrete at top portion is subjected to compression. The
compressive stresses distribute uniformly over a depth a. The resultant of compressive stress, C is
located at a distance/2, from the top surface. Tensile force is taken by rebars at an effective distance, d,
from the top surface. By equilibrium, the tensile force is equal to the compression resultant
T= Asfy= C = 0.85fc ab
Where fy is the yield strength of reinforcing steel and As is the area of steel. Therefore, The depth of
stress block,
a = Asfy /(0.85fcb), or a = Asfyd/(0.85fcbd),
Let the reinforcement ratio,
= As/bd, then
a =fyd/0.85fc
Let m = fy /0.85fc, then,
a =d m The nominal moment strength of the section,
Mn= C (d-a/2) = 0.85fc ab(d-a/2)
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116003
M-TECH (CIVIL)

REGESTRATION NO: 10UMSEMESTER: SUMMER

2016

Then, The nominal moment strength of the section,


Mn = Asfy(d-a/2) = Asfy(d-dm/2) = Asfyd- Asfydm/2
ACI code requires that the factored moment,
Mu Mn
Where, = 0.9, is the strength reduction factor for beam design.
Let Mu=Mn, We have Mu= (Asfyd- Asfy dm/2)
Divide both side by bd2, we have Mu / bd = (As /bd)fy-(As /bd) fy m/2) =fy- fy 2m/2)
Let Rn= Mu/ bd2, and we cab rewrite the equation as
2(m/2) -- Rn /fy= 0Solving the equation, the reinforcement ratio,= (1/m)(1-2mRn /fy)1/2
The area of reinforcement is As=b d

Question No. 5
Find out the depth of slab and steel reinforcement in both directions for the slab
panel of Q#4 and draw the sketch.

For square panels, the span ratio = la/lb= 1.0, for all the panels. As mentioned, panel A, B and C
represents Case 4, 8
(or 9) and 2 respectively. Therefore,
In Panel A, Ca(D)+ = Cb(D)+ = 0.027, Ca(L)+ = Cb(L)+ = 0.032, Ca = Cb = 0.050
In Panel B, Ca(D)+ = 0.020, Cb(D)+ = 0.023, Ca(L)+ = 0.028, Cb(L)+ = 0.030, Ca = 0.033, Cb = 0.061
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116003
M-TECH (CIVIL)

REGESTRATION NO: 10UMSEMESTER: SUMMER

2016

In Panel C, Ca(D)+ = Cb(D)+ = 0.018, Ca(L)+ = Cb(L)+ = 0.027, Ca = Cb = 0.045


Assumed slab thickness, t = (13 + 19) 2/180 = 4.33; i.e., 4.5
d = 3.5 (or 3 for Mmin)
Self Wt.= 56.25 psf
DL = 56.25 + 30 + 50 = 136.25 psf = 0.136 ksf
LL = 60 psf = 0.06 ksf
Total Load per slab area = 0.136 + 0.06 = 0.196 ksf
Factored DL = 1.4 x 136.25 = 190.75 psf = 0.191 ksf,
LL = 1.7 x 60 = 102 psf = 0.102 ksf
Total factored load per slab area = 0.191 + 0.102 = 0.293 ksf

Question No. 6
Write a note on different types of loads for design of RCC structure ?
Answer:
The loads are broadly classified as vertical loads, horizontal loads and longitudinal loads. The
vertical loads consist of dead load, live load and impact load. The horizontal loads comprises of wind
load and earthquake load. The longitudinal loads i.e. tractive and braking forces are considered in
special case of design of bridges, gantry girders etc.
Imposed loads or live loads:
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116003
M-TECH (CIVIL)

REGESTRATION NO: 10UMSEMESTER: SUMMER

2016

Live loads are either movable or moving loads with out any acceleration or impact. There are
assumed to be produced by the intended use or occupancy of the building including weights of movable
partitions or furniture etc. The floor slabs have to be designed to carry either uniformly distributed
loads or concentrated loads whichever produce greater stresses in the part under consideration. Since it
is unlikely that any one particular time all floors will not be simultaneously carrying maximum loading,
the code permits some reduction in imposed loads in designing columns, load bearing walls, piers
supports and foundations.
Dead load:
Dead loads are permanent or stationary loads which are transferred to structure throughout the
life span. Dead load is primarily due to self weight of structural members, permanent partition walls,
fixed permanent equipments and weight of different materials.
Impact loads:
Impact load is caused by vibration or impact or acceleration. Thus, impact load is equal to
imposed load incremented by some percentage called impact factor or impact allowance depending
upon the intensity of impact.
Wind loads:
Wind load is primarily horizontal load caused by the movement of air relative to earth. Wind
load is required to be considered in design especially when the heath of the building exceeds two times
the dimensions transverse to the exposed wind surface.
For low rise building say up to four to five storeys, the wind load is not critical because the
moment of resistance provided by the continuity of floor system to column connection and walls
provided between columns are sufficient to accommodate the effect of these forces. Further in limit
state method the factor for design load is reduced to 1.2 (DL+LL+WL) when wind is considered as
against the factor of 1.5(DL+LL) when wind is not considered. IS 1893 (part 3) code book is to be used
for design purpose.
Earthquake load:

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MUHAMMAD SHAHZAD ASLAM


116003
M-TECH (CIVIL)

REGESTRATION NO: 10UMSEMESTER: SUMMER

2016

Earthquake loads are horizontal loads caused by the earthquake and shall be computed in
accordance with IS 1893. For monolithic reinforced concrete structures located in the seismic zone 2,
and 3 without more than 5 storey high and importance factor less than 1, the seismic forces are not
critical.

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116003
M-TECH (CIVIL)

REGESTRATION NO: 10UMSEMESTER: SUMMER

2016

Question No. 7
Design the cantilever beam of span 10 feet as shown in the following fig to carry a
service load of 4 Kip/ft and live load of 3 Kip/ft. use fc= 4000 psi , fy=60000 psi.
Answer:

D.L + L.L

10 Ft
Length of beam

: 10 ft

D.L/S.L

: 4 Kip/ft

L.L

: 3 kip/ft

fc

: 4000 psi

fy

: 60000 psi

wu

= 1.2(DL) + 1.6(LL)
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116003
M-TECH (CIVIL)

REGESTRATION NO: 10UMSEMESTER: SUMMER

2016

= 1.2( 4)

+ 1.6 (3)

= 9.6 kips/ft
Maximum Reaction:
RA =

qL

RA =

9.6 X 10

RA = 96 kips / ft

Maximum Reaction:
Mu
Mu
Mu

= Wu

L2 / 2

2
= 9.6 x 10 / 2

= 480 kip-ft

Shear Force Diagram

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116003
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REGESTRATION NO: 10UMSEMESTER: SUMMER

2016

Bending Moment Diagram


Zx

M n 186(12)

61.9 in.3
Fy
36

From try W 16 36
For beam weight, wu = 1.2(0.036) = 0.0432 kips/ft
New Mn = 190 kip-ft, Zx = 63.3 in.3, selection still OK

Question No. 8

Design a short tied column axially loaded to support a service D.L of 250000 ibs
and L.L of 300000 Ibs. Use fc = 4000 psi, fy = 60000 psi

Answer:

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116003
M-TECH (CIVIL)

REGESTRATION NO: 10UMSEMESTER: SUMMER

2016

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116003
M-TECH (CIVIL)

REGESTRATION NO: 10UMSEMESTER: SUMMER

2016

Question No. 9
Write a note on different kinds of ties in RCC structures. What are the different
codes for earthquake resistant design of structures ?
Answer:
Different type of structure ties in RCC structures.

Columns

Beams

Plates

Arches

Shells

Catenaries
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116003
M-TECH (CIVIL)

REGESTRATION NO: 10UMSEMESTER: SUMMER

2016

Many of these elements can be classified according to form (straight, plane/curve) and dimensionality
(one-dimensional/two-dimensional):
Columns
Columns are elements that carry only axial forceeither tension or compressionor both axial
force and bending (which is technically called a beam-column but practically, just a column). The
design of a column must check the axial capacity of the element, and the buckling capacity.
The buckling capacity is the capacity of the element to withstand the propensity to buckle. Its capacity
depends upon its geometry, material, and the effective length of the column, which depends upon the
restraint conditions at the top and bottom of the column. The effective length is
where is the real
length of the column.
The capacity of a column to carry axial load depends on the degree of bending it is subjected to, and
vice versa. This is represented on an interaction chart and is a complex non-linear relationship.
Beams
A beam may be:
Cantilevered (supported at one end only with a fixed connection)
Simply supported (supported vertically at each end but able to rotate at the supports)
Continuous (supported by three or more supports)
A combination of the above (ex. supported at one end and in the middle)
Beams are elements which carry pure bending only. Bending causes one section of a beam (divided
along its length) to go into compression and the other section into tension. The compression section
must be designed to resist buckling and crushing, while the tension section must be able to adequately
resist the tension.
A truss is a structure comprising two types of structural element, ie struts and ties. A strut is a
relatively lightweight column and a tie is a slender element designed to withstand tension forces. In a
pin-jointed truss (where all joints are essentially hinges), the individual elements of a truss theoretically
carry only axial load. From experiments it can be shown that even trusses with rigid joints will behave
as though the joints are pinned.
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116003
M-TECH (CIVIL)

REGESTRATION NO: 10UMSEMESTER: SUMMER

2016

Trusses are usually utilized to span large distances, where it would be uneconomical and
unattractive to use solid beams.
Plates
Plates carry bending in two directions. A concrete flat slab is an example of a plate. Plates are
understood by using continuum mechanics, but due to the complexity involved they are most often
designed using a codified empirical approach, or computer analysis.
They can also be designed with yield line theory, where an assumed collapse mechanism is
analyzed to give an upper bound on the collapse load (see Plasticity). This is rarely used in practice.
Shells
Shells derive their strength from their form, and carry forces in compression in two directions.
A dome is an example of a shell. They can be designed by making a hanging-chain model, which will
act as a catenary in pure tension, and inverting the form to achieve pure compression.
Arches
Arches carry forces in compression in one direction only, which is why it is appropriate to build arches
out of masonry. They are designed by ensuring that the line of thrust of the force remains within the
depth of the arch.
Catenaries
Catenaries derive their strength from their form, and carry transverse forces in pure tension by
deflecting (just as a tightrope will sag when someone walks on it). They are almost always cable or
fabric structures. A fabric structure acts as a centenary in two directions.

Different codes for earthquake resistant design of structures


Earthquake resistant building design guidelines are provided by set of Indian Standard codes
(IS Codes). After observing Indian earthquakes for several years Bureau of Indian Standard has divided
the country into five zones depending upon the severity of earthquake. IS 1893-1984 shows the various
zones.
The following IS codes will be of great importance for the structural design engineers:
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IS 18932002: Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures (5th revision).

IS 49281993: Code of practice for Earthquake Resistant Design and Construction of


Buildings. (2nd revision).

IS 138271992: Guidelines for Improving Earthquake Resistance of Low Strength Masonry


Building.

IS: 139201997: Code of practice for Ductile Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Structures
Subjected to Seismic Forces.

IS: 139351993: Guidelines for Repair and Seismic Strengthening of Buildings.

Question No. 10
Analyze the frame as shown in the following fig.

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2016

Answer:

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2016

References:

Advanced Reinforced Concrete Design by P. C. Varghese


http://theconstructor.org
http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org
https://en.wikipedia.org
http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com

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