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2002
16 2003

10

00

20
1900 8 5
David Hilbert 1862-1943
1

23

Riemann
Goldbach
Hilbert 1900 23
20
23 20

20 20
Hilbert
D. Hilbert 19 20
Henri Poincar, 1854-1912Felix Klein1849
1925 19
20 Hilbert 1900 38

DHilbert

20 21
20 Hilbert 23
20 20
21
21

Hilbert 23
Hilbert 23
2Hilbert

17 60

19
Hilbert

60 400 Hilbert
Hilbert

Hilbert

3400

246

13

xyzw
16

Hilbert

M.
al-khowarizmi, 783 850
p
p
x=
q
2
2
2

x + px + q = 0
2

1545 G. Cardano, 1501-1576N. Fontana,


1499-1557L.
Ferrari, 1522-1556

1770
J. Lagrange, 1736-1813
1824 N. Abel, 1802-1829

E. Galois, 1811-1832
Galois Galois
Abel Galois

1872 Klein

Erlanger Program,

12
3
5

Abel, Galois

Pythagoras, 580 500


Euclid
ElementsEuclid 300
13 3 5 5 119 465

R. Descartes, 1596-1650
P. de Fermat, 1601-1665
x, y

Descartes

17 Descartes
Fermat

Apollonius 262 190

Euclid

19 Euclid

Euclid

19 C. F.
Gauss, 1777 1855 J. Bolyai, 1802-1860 N. U.
Lobatchevsky, 1792-1856

Gauss

1854 B. Riemann,1826-1866 Euler,


Gauss Riemann
Riemann
Euclid

Riemann
A. Einstein
Riemann

10

Euclid Euclid

Euclid

sinx, cosx,

13

x 2 + 1 = 0 1 = i
16 L. Euler, 1707-1783 Euler
ei = cos + i sin

Euler

Euler

Euler
Euler

11

Riemann

Euler

Hilbert

Remann

12

Euler ei = cos + i sin


Euler

Euler

13

Euclid

14

Gauss, Bolyai, Lobatchevsky

Lagrange, Abel Galois

Hilbert, D, Gottinger Nachrichten, 253-297, 1900, The Bulletin of


American Mathematical Society, Vol. 8, p. 437-445, 478-479, 1902.
2000
Euclid, The thirteen books of the Elements, Trans from text of Heiberg with
introduction and commentary by T. L. Heath, 3rds, Cambridge, 1908.

15

3
1995 377

1 1991 309

I saac Newton, 1642-1727Gottfried Wilhelm


Leibniz, 1646-1716Newton 1665 1667
1687 1704 1736 Leibniz
1673 1676 1684 1686
17 60 70

16

1863 7 6

30 1975 357
1865 5
20

dx

dy

31 1972 124

1882 11 22

35 1971 110
1870

24
1972 78
1975

1883 6
24

17

36 1975 42

1881

1881 8 18

35 1971 21

1995 349

1995 776777
,

3 1995
351

1995 477

18

20 1971 602

1915

2 1995 556

1 1991 306

Archimedes,

287

212
3
Newton Leibniz
y = x n
n

Newton Leibniz
Newton-Leibniz

19

f (t ) [ a, b] x [ a, b]

( x) = f (t )dt a<x<b
a

( x) [ a, b]
a<x<b
'( x) = f ( x )
d ( x ) = f ( x )dx

f ( x ) ( x) ( x) f ( x ) dx f ( x )
x

f ( x ) dx ( x) = f (t )dt
a

d ( x ) = f ( x )dx
( x) [ a, b]

d ( x)

dx

f (t )

f (t )dt = ( x) (a) a x b

( x) f ( x ) dx f ( x ) ( x) ( x)
( x)
x

f ( x ) dx ( x) (a ) = f (t )dt
a

Newton Leibniz

20

f ( x ) [ a, b] x0 [ a, b]
f ( x0 + x ) f ( x0 )
x 0 f ( x )
x
df ( x0 )
x = x0
f '( x0 ) f '( x0 )dx f x = x0
dx

lim

x 0

x = x0
[ a, b] n 1 x1 ,L , xn 1 a = x0 b = xn
a = x0 < x1 < x2 < L < xn 1 < xn = b xi = xi xi 1 i [ xi xi 1 ]
n

S n = f (i ) xi = max xi n , 0 lim Sn
n , 0

i =1

f ( x ) [ a, b] Riemann
ba f ( x) dx S n Riemann

y = x m m [ 0,1]
y = x m
y = x m [ 0,1] m = 2 [ 0,1] n
i = xi 1
2
2
2
1 1 2
n 1
S n = + + L +

n n n
n

1 2
2
1 + 22 + L + ( n 1)
3

n
1 ( n 1) n ( 2n 1)
= 3
n
6
1 1
1 1
= 1 2
6 n
n 3
=

12 + 22 + L + ( n 1) m = 3
2

21

y = x 3 13 + 23 + L + ( n 1)
3

m y = x m
[ 0,1] 1m + 2 m + L + ( n 1)
m

[ 0,1]
y = x m m [ a, b] 0 < a < b OC = a, OD = b
C , D M 1 ,L , M n 1 OM 1 = aq, OM 2 = aq 2 ,L , OM n = aq n
n

M n = D C = M 0 , q =

b
[ a, b]
a

N k y = x m x = OM k N k M k ( aq k ) m Pk N k 1
x N k M k 21
y

B
Nk
N k 1

Pk

A
O

M K 1 M k

2.1

M k 1 N k 1 Pk M k
(aq k aq k 1 )(aq k 1 ) m = (q 1)(aq k 1 ) m +1
y = x m [ a, b]

22

Sn = (q 1)(aq11 ) m +1 + (q 1)(aq 21 ) m +1 + L + (q 1)(aq n 1 ) m +1


= (q 1)a m +1 (1 + q m +1 + L + q ( m +1)( n 1) )
= (q 1)a m +1

q ( m +1) n 1
.
q m +1 1

b
( ) m +1 1
b
q n = S n = a m +1 a m +1
q
a
q 1

n q 1

q m +1 1
b m +1 a m +1
b m +1 a m +1
m + 1 S n
ba x m dx =
m
m +1
m +1
q 1
0 < a < b

y = x m m
y = x m

Newton Leibniz

f ( x ) ( x)
'( x) = f ( x ) ( x) f ( x ) y = x m ( x)

'( x) = x m

23

Euclid

George Green, 1793-1841 D xy

x,y D
L P( x, y )Q

Pdx + Qdy = D (

Q P
)dxdy
x y

L 22

George Gabril Stokes, 1819-1903


L P( x, y.z ), Q( x, y, z )R(x,y,z)
L Pdx + Qdy + Rdz = (

R Q
P R
Q P

)dydz + ( ) dzdx + (
)dxdy
y z
z x
x y

23

0
0

y
x

22

23

Carl Friedrich Gauss, 1777-1855


24

Michel Ostrogradsky, 1801-1862V


P( x, y.z ), Q( x, y, z )R(x,y,z)V

Pdydz + Qdzdx + Rdxdy = V (

P Q R
+
+ )dV
x y z

dV V 24

V
0
y

x
24

Euclid Euclid

Georges William de Rham1

Thom

25


L A B
A B B A A B
B A

a
b

f ( x )dx = ba f ( x ) dx

ABCD
25

Poincar
19
A

D
A(C)

B(D)

25

f ( x, y ) D

f ( x, y )dA = lim f (i ,i ) Ai

D x y
Ai (i ,i ) Ai Ai lim
Ai
26

26

D
Ai

26

D Ai

x = x ( u , v ),
y = y ( u , v ),

dA = dxdy =

( x, y )
dudv
(u, v)

f ( x, y )dxdy = D ' f ( x(u , v), y (u , v))

( x, y )
dudv
(u, v)

D ' D

x = x ( u , v ),

y = y ( u ,v ), D

f ( x, y )dxdy = D ' f ( x(u , v), y (u , v))

( x, y )
dudv
(u, v)

D '
x
( x, y )
u
dxdy =
dudv =
y
(u , v)
u

x
v
dudv
y
v

27

y = x
x
u
dxdx =
x
u

x
v
dudv = 0
x
v

x, y
y
( y, x)
u
dydx =
dudv =
x
(u, v)
u

y
v
dudv =
x
v

x
u
y
u

x
v
dudv = dxdy
y
v

dydx dxdy dx, dy

dx dy

dx dx = 0

dx dy = dy dx
dx dx = 0 dx dy = dy dx

P,Q,R,A,B,C,H x, y , z
Pdx + Qdy + Rdz

Adx dy + Bdy dz + Cdz dx

Hdx dy dz

P,Q,R,A,B,C,H f
0

28


ABCDEFGPQ R x, y , z

= Adx + Bdy + Cdz ,


= Edx + Fdy + Gdz ,
= Pdy dz + Qdz dx + Rdx dy,

= ( Adx + Bdy + Cdz ) ( Edx + Fdy + Gdz )


= AEdx dx + BEdy dx + CEdz dx
+ AFdx dy + BFdy dy + CFdz dy
+ AGdx dz + BGdy dz + CGdz dz.

dx dx = dy dy = dz dz = 0,
dy dx = dx dy, dz dy = dy dz , dx dz = dz dx

= ( BG CF )dy dz + (CE AG ) dz dx + ( AF BE ) dx dy

= ( Adx + Bdy + Cdz ) ( Pdy dz + Qdz dx + Rdx dy ) = ( AP + BQ + CR ) dx dy dz

, ,
1

( + ) = + ,
( + ) = +

2 ( ) = ( )

3 p q

= (1) pq .
dx dx = 0 dx dy = dy dx

29

a, b
a a = 0, a b = b a

f
df =

f
f
f
dx + dy + dz
x
y
z

= Pdx + Qdy + Rdz

d = dP dx + dQ dy + dR dz

P,Q,R

P
P
P
dx +
dy +
dz ,
x
y
z
Q
Q
Q
dQ =
dx +
dy +
dz ,
x
y
z
R
R
R
dR =
dx +
dy +
dz ,
x
y
z
dP =

P
Q
P
P
Q
Q
d =
dx +
dy +
dz dx +
dx +
dy +
dz dy
y
z
y
z
x
x
R
R
R
+
dx +
dy +
dz dz.
y
z
x

R Q
Q P
P dR
d =

dy dz +
dx dy
dz dx +
z x
y z
x y

= Ady dz + Bdz dx + Cdx dy

30


d = dA dy dz + dB dz dx + dC dx dy

dA, dB, dC

A B C
d = +
+
dx dy dz
x y z

= Hdx dy dz

d = dH dx dy dz

d = 0

dH =

H
H
H
dx +
dy +
dz, dx dy dz
x
y
z

Poincar
dd = 0

Poincar p d = 0 p-1
= d

Green

Q P
Pdx + Qdy = D

dxdy
x y

1 = Pdx + Qdy 1

31

Q P
d1 =

dx dy
x y
Green

= d
1

Stoke

R Q
Q P
P R
Pdx + Qdy + Rdz =

dydz +
dxdy
dzdx +
z x
y z
x dy

L Pdx + Qdy + Rdz =

R Q
Q P
P R
d =

dy dz +
dx dy
dz dx +
z x
y z
x y
Stokes

= d
Gauss

P Q R
Pdydz + Qdzdx + Rdxdy = V
+
+
dxdydz
x y z

V Pdydz + Qdzdx + Rdxdy

2 = Pdy dz + Qdz dx + Rdx dy

P Q R
d 2 =
+
+
dx dy dz
x dy z
Gauss

= d
2

Euclid Green Stokes Gauss

StokesStokes

32

= d

d d
d
Green Stokes Gauss
Euclid

0
f ( x ) [ a, b] a b d
b d
df ( x)
dx *
f ( x)dx = f ( x)
a
dx
dx

b
a

= f (b) f (a )

Newton-Leibniz Green
Stokes
Gauss

Newton-Leibniz

Green

Stokes

Gauss

* Euclid

33

*
Poincar
*
Euclid 3 Stokes *

* Stokes
* Euclid
Euclid
3

Stokes *Stokes *

Hilbert

Green Stokes Gauss

Stokes*,
*

34

Euclid
gradientcurldivergence

= f ( x, y , z )

d = df =

f
f
f
dx + dy + dz
x
y
z

f f f
grad f = , ,
x y z

1 = Pdx + Qdy + Rdz

R Q
Q P
P R
d1 =

dy dz +
dx dy
dz dx +
z x
dy dz
x y
dy dz dz dx dx dy
=

x
P

y
Q

z
R

u= ( P, Q, R )

i
R Q P R
Q P

rot u =

i +
k =
j +
x
y z z x
x y
P

y
Q

z
R

i, j, k xyz

35

2 = Ady z + Bdz dx + Cdx dy

A B C
d 2 =
+
+
dx dy dz.
x y z
v = ( A, B, C )

div v =

A B C
+
+

x y z

Euclid Euclid

Euclid

Poincar

dd = 0

= f ddf = 0

rotgrad f = 0
1 = Pdx + Qdy + Rdz u = ( P, Q, R), dd1 = 0

divrot u=0
Poincarv
v v=grad f rot v=0 Poincar
36

d = 0 = d

v v v=rot b div v=0


Poincar d = 0 = d

[1]de Rham, George William, Differential manifold, Springer-Verlag, 1981

[2]2000 1 44
45

37

Stokes

arithemetic,composition,
inverse

(u ( x) + v( x )) ' = u '( x ) + v '( x)


(u ( x) v ( x )) ' = u '( x ) v '( x )
(u ( x)v ( x )) ' = u '( x )v ( x) + u ( x )v '( x )

38

u ( x) u '( x)v( x) u ( x)v '( x)


=
v 2 ( x)
v( x)
dy
y = f (u ), u = ( x ),
= f '(u ) '( x )
dx

g '( y ) =

x = g ( y)

y = f ( x)

f '( x ) 0

f '( x)

( f ( x ) + g ( x )) dx = f ( x ) dx + g ( x) dx ;
u '( x )v( x) dx = u ( x )v ( x ) u ( x )v '( x )dx
f '(u ) '( x )dx = f ( ( x )) + c,

u = ( x ) c

u ( x) + (v( x))

u ( x) v( x)

u ( x)

v( x) = u ( x) g ( f ( x)) = x
v( x)

P ( x ) Q ( x )

P ( x)
Q( x)

P( x)

Q( x) dx,

39

1 (c ) ' = 0 c
2 ( x ) ' = x 1

( )

3 (sin x) ' = cos x


4 (cos x ) ' = sin x
5 (tgx) ' = sec 2 x
6 (ctgx) ' = csc 2 x
7 (sec x ) ' = sec xtgx
8 (csc x ) ' = csc xctgx
9 (ln x) ' =

10 (log a x ) ' =

x ln a

11 (e x ) ' = e x
12 (a x ) ' = a x ln a
13 (arcsin x) ' =

14 (arccos x ) ' =

1
1 x2
1
1 x2

40

1 + x2
1
16 (arcctgx ) ' =

1 + x2

15 (arctgx) ' =

116 23911

x n +1
+c
n +1

2'.

n
x dx =

3'.

cos xdx = sin x + c

9'.

xdx = ln x + c

11'.

n 1 c

e dx =e
x

+c

23911,

23911
2 ', 3', 9 ', 11' 23911

23911

F ( x)

[ a, b ]

[ a, b ]

41


F (b ) F ( a )
= F '( ).
ba

f ( x)

[ a, b ]

[ a, b]

b
a

f ( x )dx = (b a ) f ( ).

[ a, b]
y = F ( x ) ( a, F ( a )) (b, F (b))
31 [ a, b]
y = f ( x)

[ a, b ]

ba

f ( )

31

ax f (t ) dt = F ( x )

y
y=f(x)
y=F(x)
F(b)-F(a)

0
a

31

42

Broox Taylor16851731

f ( x)

x=a

n+1

f ( x)

x=a

f ( x) = f (a ) + f '(a)( x a) +

f ''(a)
f ( n ) (a)
( x a)2 + L +
( x a) 2 + Rn ( x)
2!
n!

Rn ( x) Taylor
Rn ( x)

Rn ( x) =

f ( n +1) ( )( x a)n +1
(n + 1)!

a x Rn ( x)
Rn ( x ) =

1 x
n
( n +1)
(t ) dt
a (x t) f

n!

Taylor
Taylor
G. LHospital, 1661-1704

1 x

43

2 sin x cos x L arcsin x arccos x L


3 e x ln x L

Euler
eiz = cos z + i sin z

eiz e iz
eiz + e iz
sin z =
, cos z =

2i
2
z = e ln z z

Taylor J.
Fourier,

1768-1830

Fourier Fourier

44

( s ) = 0 t s 1e t dt

s>0

B
B ( p, q ) = 10 t p 1 (1 t ) q 1 dt

p>0, q>0

f ( x ) x = a
f ''(a )
( x a)2 + L
2!

f ( x ) = f (a ) + f '(a )( x a ) +

Taylor y = f ( a ) + f '( a )( x a )

f ( x)

x=a

f ( x ) x = a

f ( x )

x = a Taylor
f ( x ) Fourier
f ( x) =

an =

a0
+ (an cos nx + bn sin nx)
2 n =1

f ( x ) cos nxdx b

f ( x) sin nxdx n = 0,1, 2,L


f ( x )
Fourier f ( x ) Fourier
Taylor Taylor Fourier Fourier

45


Euler eix = cos x + i sin x
Fourier

f ( x)

ce

k =

ck =

1
2

ikx

f ( x)eikx dx,

k = 0 1 2 L

Taylor Fourier

x1

x = M n Euclid
x
n
f1 ( x)

D f ( x) = M D
f ( x)
n
a1

a = M D , f ( x ) x = a Taylor
a
n

f
f1 ( x) f1 (a) f
x1 a1


1 (a),L , 1 (a)

M
xn
M M x1

M M
M
LLLL

=
+
+L

M
M M

M M f n (a),L , f n (a) M


xn
xn an
f n ( x) f n (a) 1

f ( x ) = f ( a ) + J f ( a )( x a ) +L

J f ( a ) f Jacobi a f ( a ) + J f (a )( x a )
x=a J f ( a )

46

1 1991 320

322

an

n=0

f ( x)dx

un ( x) f (u, x)du Fourier


n =0

1
1
a0 + (an cos nx + bn sin nx) Fourier
2
2
n =0

f ( )e i ( ) d

Fourier

Fourier

47

1 Cauchy

a0 + a1 + L + an + L
> 0 N ( )

n > m > N
Sn Sm <

am+1 + am+ 2 + L + an <


S j = a0 + a1 + L + a j j = 1, 2,L
Cauchy

f ( x)

> 0 X > a x, x ' > X

x'
x

f ( x)dx <

2 Cauchy un ( x)
n =1

[ a, b] > 0

x N n > N
un +1 ( x) + un + 2 ( x) + L + un +l ( x) <
l > 0
Cauchy

48

f (u , x) dx [ , ] > 0

A0 A ', A '' > A0

A ''
A'

f (u, x)du <

[ , ] x

3 Fourier f ( x) [ 0, 2 ] H.

L. Lebesgue18751941
Parsevel
1

f 2 ( x)dx =

1 2
a0 + (an 2 + bn 2 )
2
n =1

an , bn

f ( x)

Fourier

1
a0 + (an cos nx + bn sin nx)
2
n =1

Fourier
Fourier Parsevel Planchrel
f ( x)(, ) Lebesgue
1
f (u ) =
2

f (t )e iut dt

f Fourier Fourier Fourier

f 2 ( x)dx =

f ( x) dx

Parsevel Planchrel
f 2 dx f
f Fourier

49

Fourier

Riemann

f ( x ) df = f '( x ) dx
f = f ( x + x ) f ( x )

V. Volterra,1860 1940
E.I.Fredholm,18661927 Hilbert

4
1995 369
Taylor
Taylor

50

51


1
R.Courant 1949 C.B.Boyer1

M. Kline

M.Kline
M. Kline

134

Newton-Leibniz

EuclidArchimedes
429500
5 11

15

15

52

Leonando da
Vince(1452-1519),

P. de Fermat
R. Descartes

17 17

Galileo Galilei ,1564-1642


Johannes Kepler, 1571-1630

1
2
3

Galilei

17

53

FermatDescartesPascalKeplerRobervalBarrow
CavalieriGalileo 1617

Kepler 1615

Fermat
Descartes
Descartes 1637
1637
Fermat
a

2 x n dx n
0

Fermat Bonaventura Cavalieri15981647


1635
Cavalieri
Isaac Barrow16301677 1669

Barrow Newton
Lucas Newton
1669 Lucas 27 Newton

Barrow
Newton Leibniz

54

Barrow Newton
Leibniz
Newton Leibniz

Newton Leibniz

Newton Leibniz

Newton 1642
17

Newton
1661 Barrow1665 8
Newton

Newton 1664 GalileoKeplerWallis


Descartes 1665 5

1666 5 1666 10

Tract on Fluxions

41
ab = x q = f ( x ) acf
abc y de // ab ad // be = p = 1
cbe eb
dx
= p = 1 cb
dt
dy
dx
abc = y
=q
= q
dt
dt

abed = x

55

dy
dt

dx q
= = q = f ( x)
dt p

yx q
y = x n 0 x
x n +1
x n +1

y =
x n
n +1
n +1
Newton

16

Newton

1 De analysi per acquationes numero


terminorum infinitas ,1669;
2 Methodus Fluxionum et sevierum
infinitarum,1671;
3
Tractatus de quadratura curvarum,1691
,

121
56

y = f ( x) y = ax m / n 0 x
z =

na ( m + n ) / n
x t
x
m+n

o x + o x z + o z
x + oy =

na
( x + o) ( m + n ) / n
m+n

o o y = ax m / n
y = ax m / n

na ( m + n ) / n

x
m+n

3Newton 12

y = x n x x + o x n
( x + o) n = x n + nox n 1 +

n( n 1) 2 n 2
o x +L
2

( x + o) x
1
=
n
n
n(n 1) n 2
( x + o) x
nx n 1 +
x o +L
2

1
x x n
n 1
nx

Newton 1687 Philosophiae naturalis


puincipia mathematica

Kepler
Einstein

Newton

Newton
57

Leibniz 1646 1667


GalileoKepler,
PascalDescartes Barrow 1672 1676

Newton Leibniz
Pascal 1673
P P Q
PQ ds x dx y
dy ds, dx dy Leibniz

Leibniz
1666
0149162536

1357911

22222

y x x
y
y = x
1676

dx = e 1dx

x dx =

x +1

+1

> 0 1677
58

yLeibniz
z

dz
= y ydx = dz ydx = dz = z
dx

y
z

dz
= y
dx

1684 Leibniz
Nova methodus pro maximis et minimis, itemque tangentibus, quae
nec irrationals quantiquantitetes morater, et singulaze pro illi calculi genus,
1686
De geometria recondita et analysi
indivisibilium atque infinitorum
Leibniz dx
Leibniz

d n (uv) = Cin (d i u )( d n i v )
i =0

Leibniz

Newton Leibniz

Newton Leibniz
1699 N.F.Newton

Leibniz
Newton
Leibniz Newton

59

Leibniz Leibniz
Newton Leibniz
Leibniz Newton
18
Newton
18 Leibniz

18

1718
B. Taylor C.
Maclaurin
A. de MoivreJ. Stirling
Maclarin
Leibniz
Jacob Bernoulli,1654-1705
John Bernoulli,1667-1748L.EulerA. C. Clairaut,
1713-1765J. B. L. R. dAlemlert,17171783J.L.Lagange
G. Monge17461818P. S. M. de Laplace,17491827
(A. M. Legendre,1752-1833)Euler
5

Newton Leibniz

60


Newton Leibniz

1872

1695
B.Nieuwentyt Newton Leibniz
G. Berkeley1685
17531734
The analyst,
a discourse addressed to an infidel mathematician,
Newton E.HaleyBerkeley
Newton
Newton x n
x o x n nx n 1 +

n( n 1) n 2
x o + L
2

o x n nx n1 Berkeley 0

Leibniz

Berkeley
1
1882

DAlembertEuler Lagrange

19
18

61


19
B.Bolzano,1781-1848 1817

A.L.Cauchy,1789-1851

Cous danalyse de lEcole polytechnique 1821,


Rsum des lesons sur le calcul infinitesimal,1823
Leccons
sur le calcul differential 1929

Riemann Riemann Riemann


Cauchy Riemann

Cauchy

Cauchy
Cauchy

62

Cauchy 19
Cauchy

Bolzano
1861
K.Weierstrass,1815-1897

f ( x) = b n cos( a n x)
n =0

a b (0,1) ab > 1 +

19
Weierstrass

1857 Weierstrass

Cauchy

Weierstrass 1857 Weierstrass


1872 R. Dedekind
G. Cantor,1845-1918H. MeragH. Heine
Weierstrass
G. Peano,1858-1932

1834 Riemann Riemann


63

3 Stokes *

19 Poincar
1899 EElie Cartan18691951
61922 3
Stokes*1899 PoincarPoincar7
E.J.B.Goursat,1858-1936
,

Newton Leibniz

a a , 2 a ,L , n a ,L
m > 0, m n, n a > m
Archimedes

Cauchy n
Archimedes

Newton Leibniz
0

0

64

Newton,Leibniz
1960 A.Robinson

NewtonLeibniz

1562
1633Metteo Ricci Euclid 6

181118821859
A.Wylie,1815-1887
E.Loomis,1811-1899 1851 Elements of analytic geometry and of

differential and integral calculus

65

(C
i =0

) C22pp + r i = (C pr + p ) 2

p 2

1Boyer, C. B., The concepts of the calculus, A critical and historical


discussion of the devivative and the integrals , Hafner Pub. Com. 1949.
1977
22000 1
4445
3

4Kline, M, Mathematical thought from ancient to modern times, Vol. ,


Oxford univ. Press, 1972, 2
1980
51995

6Cartan, E , Sur certains express differentielles et le problem de Pfaff ,


Ann.Sci. Ecole Norm.(3)T. 16, P. 239-322.
7Poincar, H, Les methodes nourelles de la mecanique caleste, 1899.
8Robinson, A, Non-Standard analysis, North-Holland Pub. Com. 1974.
1980

66

67

3 1872
Cauchy,
Weierstrass, Riemann

Stokes *

1 f ( x ) [ a, b] f '( x ) [ a, b]
Riemann

b
a

f '( x ) dx = f (b) f ( a )
67

f ( x)[ a, b] f '( x ) [ a, b] Riemann


f ( x ) = x a = 0 b = 1 f ( x )
a = 0

1
2

12

[ 0,1]

Riemann f ( x )

[ a, b] f '( x) [ a, b] Riemann f

2 Lebesgue
Riemann
Riemann
3

() f n ( x ) n = 1, 2,L [ a, b] f ( x ) f ( x )
[ a, b]
lim ba f n ( x)dx = ba f ( x)dx
n

D [ a, b ] [ c, d ] f D

f ( x, y)dxdy =
D

b
a

dx cd f ( x, y )dy = cd dy ba f ( x, y )dx

Riemann Banach

[ a, b] Riemann
f g
d ( f , g ) = ba f ( x) g ( x) dx
68

{ fn}

[ a, b]

Riemann lim d ( f n , f m ) = 0 ,
m , n

Riemann f lim d ( f n , f ) = 0
n

G. F. Cantor,1845-1918Lebesgue
Lebesgue

Cantor1 1874
LebesgueLebesgue 2
1902
Lebesgue
Lebesgue

[ a, b ]

d1 , d 2 ,L 1 , 2 ,L i
E me ( E ) E [ a, b] E
mi ( E ) mi ( E ) = me ( E ) E m ( E )
f ( x ) E A { x E f ( x ) > A}
f ( x ) E
f ( x ) E x E, A f ( x) B [ A, B ]
l1 ,L , ln 1
A = l0 < l1 < l2 < L < ln 1 < ln = B
er = { x E lr 1 f ( x) lr } r = 1, 2,L , n
69

S = lr m(er ) s = lr 1m(er )

S Js I I=J f E Lebesgue
I = J = E f ( x ) dx f ( x ) E Lebesgue
Lebesgue Riemann
Lebesgue

Riemann

Lebesgue Riemann
Riemann Lebesgue Ditichlet
( x ) [ 0,1] x [ 0,1] ( x ) = 1 x [ 0,1]
( x ) = 0 Riemann
Lebesgue 10 f ( x ) dx = 0 Lebesgue
Riemann

Lebesgue f ( x ) [ a, b]

f (t )dt = f ( x) f (a) x [ a, b] f ( x ) = x [ 0,1]


x

Lebesgue
f [ a, b]
f ' [ a, b] Lebesgue

70

Riemann

Lebesgue

Lebesgue

3 un ( x), n = 1, 2,L E
E u ( x) u ( x) E
E Lebesgue g ( x ) n 1
E un ( x) g ( x)
lim E un ( x)dx = E limun ( x)dx = E u ( x)dx
n

Lebesgue
3 Fubini f
( x, y )

1 x

, f ( x, y )

2
3

f ( x, y ) dy

f ( x, y ) dxdy =

Lebesgue

p + q = n p 0 q 0

Lebesgue

Lebesgue

dx

f ( x, y ) dy =

dy

f ( x, y ) dx

Fubini
4

Riemann Banach

Lebesgue p Lp ( p 1) Banach L2
Hilbert Riemann

1944
J. E. Littlewood188519773

71

Littlewood

Lieelewood

1
1 E

me ( E ) E

> 0 V me (V E ) < ,
A B = (A

B) U ( B

A) , B

A = { x : x Bx A}

E
2
2 f

[ a, b] f

> 0 g h

f g < f h <

3 3Egoroff { f n } E
f > 0 E Am ( A) <
f n EA f
E E

72

Littlewood Littlewood

x 2 + 1 = 0
18 19

Gauss
1

Green = 1dz + 2 dz

1 = 1 ( z, z ), 2 = 2 ( z, z ) z , z d d = +


, =
z
z

= d

3 Stokes *
Cauchy Cauchy Cauchy L
Jordan f ( z )
z

73

f ( z) =

1
f ( )d

2 i L z

Cauchy

f ( z ) dz = 0

Cauchy 1825 1874 4Cauchy


f '( z ) LCauchy
1831

f ( z ) LGoursat

6CauchyCauchy
1825 1831 Cauchy
Cauchy

Cauchy

Cauchy

Weierstrass

Taylor
Laurent
Laurent 1843 P. A. Laurent, 1813-1854
D = {0 r < z a < R +} f ( z ) D

Laurent

c ( z a)

k =

Weierstrass 1841

Laurent 1894 7Laurent

74

Riemann

Riemann1851 Riemann
8 L. V.
Ahlfors,1907
Riemann
Riemann
RiemannD

DD = z

0 2 f ( a ) = b,

z < 1 a D b

arg f '( a ) = f

RiemannDirichlet

1870 C. G. NeumannH.
A. Schwarg
Riemann
1825 1831 Cauchy 1841 Weierstrass
1851 Riemann Riemann

Cauchy
Weierstrass
Laurent
Riemann Riemann

Cauchy
Riemann Weierstrass
Laurent Riemann Riemann

1906 F. M Hartogs9

( n 2)

75

K \ K f \ K f

(n 2)

WeierstrassLaurent

Weierstrass
1907 Poincare

B = z

10

z1 + L + zn < 1 P = z
2

( n 2)

z1 < 1,L , zn < 1

BP z = ( z1 ,L , zn ) Euclid

n 2
RiemannRiemann

19

Frobenius
Division algebraquaternion
Caylay-Dickson
Octonion 8
Octonion
Octonion

76

Hartogs
Poincar
11
3

Euclid Euclid
Euclid

Euclid
Euclid
n Euclid M Hausdoff
n Euclid

M U
ri

i xi = ri o xi

i = 1, 2,L , n (U , ) U , x1 ,L , xn
Euclid M C k (1 k )
{(U , ) A} = F
U U = M
A

, A, o 1 C k
F (U , )

A o 1 o 1 C k , (U , ) F
A f = ( f1 ,L , f n )

f C k f f i , i = 1,L , n D k f ( k )
77

D
Euclid
Euclid
51
k =

51 U I U ,
o 1 C k
, A
Euclid
Euclid

Riemann 2 nxn
GL( N , ) Lie C

Euclid

78

M n (U , ) x1 ,L , xn
m M U m U f U C f m xi

xi


=
dxi

( f o 1 )
m ( f )
ri

( m ),

i = 1,L , n Euclid

1 Euclid 52

3
Euclid
Stokes 3 Stokes *
M n D
( n 1)

d = D

Stokes
79

Euclid Euclid

12

Euclid

&& ber eine sigenschaqt das Inbegriffes all, reelen


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81