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Chapter 04 - Evolution, Biological Communities, and Species Interactions

Chapter 04
Evolution, Biological Communities, and Species Interactions

Multiple Choice Questions


1. Evolution occurs as a result of
A. The discovery of a desirable characteristic in a population
B. An individual's physiological modification
C. An environmental change that forces modification in a resident species
D. Better survival or reproduction rates by individuals with a particular characteristic
E. A population's physiological modification

Bloom's: 2. Understand
Section 04.01
Topic: Evolution

2. Natural selection will ultimately make a species


A. More intelligent
B. Physically bigger
C. Better adapted to its environment
D. More aggressive
E. Less vulnerable to its predators

Bloom's: 2. Understand
Section 04.01
Topic: Evolution

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Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.

Chapter 04 - Evolution, Biological Communities, and Species Interactions

3. Regular lawn mowing selects for short-headed rather than tall-headed dandelions because
A. Tall flowers spread their seeds farther
B. Tall flowers are cut before they can produce seeds
C. Short flowers can reproduce
D. Short flowers spread their seeds farther
E. Short flowers have less competition when the lawn is mowed often

Bloom's: 2. Understand
Section 04.01
Topic: Evolution

4. Cheetahs can run extremely fast because


A. They need to outrun lions
B. Their ancestors who were able to run fast had an advantage and passed those genes on to
their offsprings
C. Over time, they gradually built up speed as they adapted to faster and faster prey species
D. They are competing with stronger lions and hyenas for their food, so they need to be fast
E. All of the options above

Bloom's: 2. Understand
Section 04.01
Topic: Evolution

5. Tolerance limits are _______ that limit a species' survival.


A. Temperature ranges
B. Any environmental conditions
C. Population sizes
D. Narrow salinity levels
E. Undesirable toxin concentrations

Bloom's: 1. Remember
Section 04.01
Topic: Ecology

4-2
Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.

Chapter 04 - Evolution, Biological Communities, and Species Interactions

6. There are usually many tolerance limits responsible for limiting the number and location of
a species. However, some organisms have ____________ that limit/limits their distribution.
A. a specific critical factor
B. other environmental conditions
C. many factors
D. nothing

Bloom's: 2. Understand
Section 04.01
Topic: Ecology

7. A species can withstand a wide range of pH as an adult but the juveniles can only withstand
a narrow range of pH. The abiotic factor, pH, would best be described as a
A. Stress factor
B. Intolerance factor
C. Tolerance limit
D. Critical factor
E. Physical factor

Bloom's: 2. Understand
Section 04.01
Topic: Ecology

8. Which of the following fish species would be the best indicator of clean, well-oxygenated
water?
A. Carp
B. Largemouth bass
C. Catfish
D. Rainbow trout
E. Sunfish

Bloom's: 1. Remember
Section 04.01
Topic: Ecology

4-3
Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.

Chapter 04 - Evolution, Biological Communities, and Species Interactions

9. Populations can be critically limited by


A. Available food
B. Suitable shelter from the elements
C. Available water
D. Suitable shelter from predators
E. Any of these, depending on the system

Bloom's: 2. Understand
Section 04.01
Topic: Ecology

10. Indicator species, such as lichens, generally have a(n) ___________ tolerance range for a
____________.
A. Narrow; critical factor
B. Narrow; number of physical factors
C. Average; number of physical factors
D. Broad; number of critical factors
E. Broad; critical factor

Bloom's: 2. Understand
Section 04.01
Topic: Ecology

Use the following example:


A species can withstand a narrow range of temperature. Above 100F there are no species
present. In the range from 97F to 100F and 90F to 94F there are a few species present. Below
90F there are no species present.

Section 04.01

4-4
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McGraw-Hill Education.

Chapter 04 - Evolution, Biological Communities, and Species Interactions

11. What would you label the range of temperature from 90F to 94F for this particular
species?
A. Zone of intolerance
B. Zone of physiological stress
C. Tolerance limit range
D. Optimal range
E. Range of tolerance

Bloom's: 3. Apply
Section 04.01
Topic: Ecology

12. What would you label the range of temperature from 95F to 96F for this particular species
in the scenario?
A. Zone of intolerance
B. Tolerance limit range
C. Zone of physiological stress
D. Optimal range
E. Range of tolerance

Bloom's: 3. Apply
Section 04.01
Topic: Ecology

13. The most common reason that introduced species negatively impact an environment is
because they
A. Are larger than native species
B. Disrupt preexisting niches
C. Are unusually efficient predators
D. None of these is correct

Bloom's: 2. Understand
Section: 04.04
Topic: Ecology

4-5
Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.

Chapter 04 - Evolution, Biological Communities, and Species Interactions

14. Some communities, such as grasslands, may never really reach F.E. Clements's concept of
a climax stage because
A. Ecological succession works too slowly
B. There is no optimum community for these environments
C. They are adapted to periodic disturbance
D. Their environmental conditions are too unstable
E. Primary succession is a slow process

Bloom's: 2. Understand
Section: 04.04
Topic: Ecology

15. As ecological development proceeds, a biological community


A. Gradually stagnates
B. Becomes more diverse
C. Goes through repeated secondary succession stages
D. Goes through repeated primary succession stages
E. Becomes less complex

Bloom's: 2. Understand
Section: 04.04
Topic: Ecology

16. Which of the following are pioneer species?


A. Wood warblers
B. Dandelions
C. Starlings
D. Lichens
E. Humans

Bloom's: 1. Remember
Section: 04.04
Topic: Ecology

4-6
Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.

Chapter 04 - Evolution, Biological Communities, and Species Interactions

17. Primary succession occurs when a community develops ____________ while secondary
succession occurs when one ________.
A. Into a climax community; species replaces another
B. And replaces another; ecosystem becomes stable
C. On bare rock; biological community replaces another
D. And then fails; niche changes
E. Intraspecific competition; experiences interspecific competition

Bloom's: 2. Understand
Section: 04.04
Topic: Ecology

18. A climax community is one that


A. Is relatively stable and long lasting
B. Lasts forever
C. Contains oaks or white spruce
D. Is impervious to disruption
E. Is adapted to periodic disruption

Bloom's: 2. Understand
Section: 04.04
Topic: Ecology

19. A "closed community" has a


A. Narrow ecotone
B. Gradual transition zone
C. Wide ecotone
D. Very small area
E. Large core area

Bloom's: 2. Understand
Section: 04.03
Topic: Ecology

4-7
Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.

Chapter 04 - Evolution, Biological Communities, and Species Interactions

20. In the coastal forest of Oregon an area was clear-cut for logging. Trees at the edge of the
clearing and 200 meters into the forest died within a few months after the logging began.
What is the best explanation for the death of the trees?
A. The trees at the edge of the forest were more prone to disease
B. Increased sunlight, wind and temperature negatively affected the trees
C. The roots of all of the trees were damaged
D. Nitrogen fixing bacteria in the roots of the trees were killed

Bloom's: 2. Understand
Section: 04.03
Topic: Ecology

21. A community that changes very little over time is said to have great
A. Renewal ability
B. Complexity
C. Diversity
D. Constancy
E. Connectedness

Bloom's: 2. Understand
Section: 04.03
Topic: Ecology

22. A community with hundreds of different types of primary producers, a few herbivores and
only one carnivore, has
A. Little complexity
B. Little diversity
C. A great deal of complexity
D. Low productivity
E. A great deal of productivity

Bloom's: 2. Understand
Section: 04.03
Topic: Ecology

4-8
Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.

Chapter 04 - Evolution, Biological Communities, and Species Interactions

23. Complexity in an ecological community has to do with the number of


A. Species in the population
B. Species at each trophic level
C. Genetic variations within a species
D. Primary producers available
E. Primary producers relative to the number of consumers

Bloom's: 1. Remember
Section: 04.03
Topic: Ecology

24. As a rule, near the Earth's north and south poles,


A. Diversity is high and abundance is low
B. Abundance is high and diversity is high
C. Neither abundance nor diversity is high
D. Abundance is high and diversity is low
E. Abundance and diversity are about the same

Bloom's: 2. Understand
Section: 04.03
Topic: Ecology

25. In a biological community where diversity is great, such as a tropical rainforest, the
abundance of any one species is likely to be
A. Great
B. Small
C. Widely variable from year to year
D. The same from year to year
E. None of these, abundance does not depend on diversity

Bloom's: 1. Remember
Section: 04.03
Topic: Ecology

4-9
Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.

Chapter 04 - Evolution, Biological Communities, and Species Interactions

26. "Abundance" describes the total number of _________ while "diversity" describes the
number of _________.
A. Species in a community; individual organisms in a community
B. Organisms in a community; species in a community
C. Individuals in a niche; niches available to a given species
D. Species in a bioregion; trophic levels in a community
E. Biomes; habitats available for different species

Bloom's: 1. Remember
Section: 04.03
Topic: Ecology

27. A biological community's productivity is a measure of


A. Its number of species
B. The number of individuals in the community
C. Available solar energy that can be converted to biomass
D. The amount of biomass produced in the community
E. All of these are combined in measuring a community's productivity

Bloom's: 1. Remember
Section: 04.03
Topic: Ecology

28. Epiphytes growing on tropical trees exemplify


A. Mutualism
B. Predation
C. Parasitism
D. Commensalism
E. Intraspecific competition

Bloom's: 1. Remember
Section: 04.02
Topic: Ecology

4-10
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McGraw-Hill Education.

Chapter 04 - Evolution, Biological Communities, and Species Interactions

29. In a commensal relationship,


A. One species benefits while the other neither suffers nor benefits
B. One species benefits while the other suffers
C. Two species live together and both suffer
D. Two species live together and neither benefits nor suffers
E. Two species live together and both benefit

Bloom's: 1. Remember
Section: 04.02
Topic: Ecology

30. A keystone species is a species whose presence


A. Is the main reason a community exists
B. Provides food for all other species in a community
C. Is an indicator of environmental health
D. Influences the population size of many other species in its community
E. Is always at the top of the trophic levels as a top predator

Bloom's: 2. Understand
Section: 04.02
Topic: Ecology

31. ____________________ is the term used to describe two species that look alike and are
both danergous or unpalatable.
A. Mullerian mimicry
B. Batesian mimicry
C. Symbiosis
D. Commensalism

Bloom's: 1. Remember
Section: 04.02
Topic: Evolution

4-11
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McGraw-Hill Education.

Chapter 04 - Evolution, Biological Communities, and Species Interactions

32. A viceroy butterfly that closely resembles the bad tasting monarch is an example of
__________, and the example of beetles that look like stinging wasps is an example of
__________.
A. Batesian mimicry; Batesian mimicry
B. Batesian mimicry; Muellerian mimicry
C. Muellerian mimicry; Muellerian mimicry
D. Muellerian mimicry; Batesian mimicry
E. Commensalism; symbiosis

Bloom's: 1. Remember
Section: 04.02
Topic: Ecology

33. Which of the following statements is true?


A. In a mutualistic relationship one partner benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helped
B. In a mutualistic relationship both partners benefit from the relationship
C. In a commensalistic relationship one partner benefits and the other is adversely affected
D. In a commensalistic relationship both partners benefit equally
E. In a parasitic relationship both partners are adversely affected

Bloom's: 1. Remember
Section: 04.02
Topic: Ecology

34. In the partnership of a lichen, the fungus provides _________ and the relationship is best
described as _______.
A. Most of the photosynthesis; symbiosis
B. Poisons that deter predation; commensalism
C. Structure and moisture-holding ability; mutualism
D. Very little to the algal partner; parasitism
E. Some of the photosynthesis; commensalism

Bloom's: 1. Remember
Section: 04.02
Topic: Ecology

4-12
Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.

Chapter 04 - Evolution, Biological Communities, and Species Interactions

35. Symbiosis means


A. A relationship in which both species benefit
B. A parasitic relationship
C. Commensalism
D. Living together
E. A relationship in which one species benefits and the other does not benefit

Bloom's: 1. Remember
Section: 04.02
Topic: Ecology

36. Predation influences evolution when


A. Prey species develop defensive characteristics over generations
B. An individual predator adapts and becomes more efficient in catching its prey
C. Predators kill off all of their prey
D. A population of predators develop defensive characteristics
E. Prey species change their reproductive rate to match predation in the local ecosystem

Bloom's: 2. Understand
Section: 04.02
Topic: Ecology

37. In some species, young individuals float freely as plankton while mature members are
fixed on the seafloor. This is an effective strategy because
A. The different life phases of these species do not compete for food
B. Fixed adults are more likely to survive
C. Predators cannot catch plankton
D. The adults can find mates more readily

Bloom's: 2. Understand
Section: 04.02
Topic: Ecology

4-13
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McGraw-Hill Education.

Chapter 04 - Evolution, Biological Communities, and Species Interactions

38. Territoriality is an important form of _________ for many animal species.


A. Symbiotic behavior
B. Interspecific competition
C. Intraspecific competition
D. Commensalism
E. Resource partitioning

Bloom's: 2. Understand
Section: 04.02
Topic: Ecology

39. An especially effective strategy for reducing intraspecific competition is


A. Assigning different ecological niches for juveniles and adults of the same species
B. Rapid reproduction
C. Eating fruit before it is ripe for other species
D. Resource partitioning

Bloom's: 2. Understand
Section: 04.02
Topic: Ecology

40. Which of the following is NOT a strategy for successfully avoiding interspecific
competition?
A. Eating fruit before it is ripe for other species
B. Trees spreading seeds or offspring far and fast
C. Producing substances that are toxic to competitors
D. All of these are strategies for successful interspecific competition

Bloom's: 2. Understand
Section: 04.02
Topic: Ecology

4-14
Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.

Chapter 04 - Evolution, Biological Communities, and Species Interactions

41. Intraspecific competition is competition among ________ for resources.


A. Predators and prey
B. Plants and animals
C. Producers, consumers and detritivores
D. Members of different species
E. Members of a single species

Bloom's: 1. Remember
Section: 04.02
Topic: Ecology

42. Two birds, a titmouse and a chickadee are living in the same territory and are using some
of the same resources. This interaction can be best classified as
A. Mutualism
B. Intraspecific competition
C. Interspecific competition
D. Symbiosis
E. Commensalism

Bloom's: 2. Understand
Section: 04.02
Topic: Ecology

43. Resource partitioning tends to lead to a high degree of _______ in species.


A. Specialization
B. Evolution
C. Convergent evolution
D. Generalization
E. Divergent evolution

Bloom's: 1. Remember
Section 04.01
Topic: Ecology

4-15
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McGraw-Hill Education.

Chapter 04 - Evolution, Biological Communities, and Species Interactions

44. Resource partitioning leads species to


A. Feed at different times
B. Utilize slightly different prey
C. Develop different physiological adaptations
D. Live in slightly different regions
E. All of these would be a result of resource partitioning

Bloom's: 2. Understand
Section 04.01
Topic: Ecology

45. Most organisms' niches are controlled by


A. Genetic trait for adaptive characteristics
B. Lessons learned from parents
C. Behavior learned from others in their social groups
D. Luck
E. The predators and competitors they encounter

Bloom's: 2. Understand
Section 04.01
Topic: Ecology

46. Humans can best be described as


A. Occupying a narrow niche
B. An example of convergent evolution
C. Outside the rules of natural selection
D. Specialists
E. Generalists

Bloom's: 2. Understand
Section 04.01
Topic: Ecology

4-16
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McGraw-Hill Education.

Chapter 04 - Evolution, Biological Communities, and Species Interactions

47. Certain night-active moths and day-active birds are specialized nectar feeders. How do
these species coexist if they are using the same resource for food?
A. Because they both use the nectar, eventually one of the two species will need to move to a
new area
B. They do not compete for the nectar because they feed at different times of the day
C. There is enough nectar to supply both the birds and the moths with their feeding needs
D. Eventually the niche breadth will increase and there will be less competition
E. None of the choices is correct

Bloom's: 2. Understand
Section 04.01
Topic: Ecology

48. A generalist is a species that


A. Occupies a large habitat range
B. Occupies a wide range of ecological niches
C. Can reproduce under highly variable conditions
D. Can reproduce only under specific conditions
E. None of these are characteristics of a generalist species

Bloom's: 1. Remember
Section 04.01
Topic: Ecology

4-17
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McGraw-Hill Education.