You are on page 1of 27

General truths

Current habits
Permanent situations and states

The teft-hand side of the brain controls the righthand sideof the body.
I don't always go to lectures that are early in the morning!

Live sports commentary

Angie teaches French at a local adult education centre.


So, a man goes to see hls psychiatrist ...
Adams passes to Kareshi. lt's a goal!

Telling jokes and other informal stories

WNS

Newspaper headlines

HAWKING

Reviews and summaries

The

lnstructions and directions

You turn left atthe end of the road and the school is up ahead.
Too many cooks spoil the broth.

Proverbs and sayings

filn ends

NOBEL PRIZE

with us not knowing whether they have been successlul

The future (for fixed events)


(see Unit 5 for more information)

Term ends on 21st December.

The future (in time clauses)


(see Unit 5 for more information)

t'tt

be so relieved when

or

not.

lfinish this crossword.

To emphasise contrast

Adam doesn't know much about psychiatry but he does know quite a lot
about psychology.

To emphasise strong feeling

do like playing word games!

Words and phrases often used with the preseflt

simple

always/usualty/generalty/often/sometimes/rare,lylseld,om./never./whenever/nowadays/thesedays/frornfrmeto
time / every naw and then / mosVmuch of the trme / tt's/That's the lasf tlme

Actions happening now

The boys

Actions happening around now


Temporary situations and series of actions

What book are you doing in English at the moment?

Changing and developing situations

are doing theu homework right

now.

We aren't having any exams while the lecturers are stilt on strike.
More and more people are recognising the advantages of being able to speak
a foreign language.

Annoying or amusing habits


(usually wtlh always)

Dan's always

Background information in jokes and other


informal stories

A man goes to see his psychiatrist. He's carrying a bag futl of honey ...

The future (for arrangements)


(see Unit 5 for more information)

When are you taking your driving test?

The future (in time clauses)


(see Unit 5 for more information)

t'tl probably be

w"iJ. ,iO

coming up with tha'craziest ideas!

a bit

scared when

l'm waiting outslde for

the exam

phrases often used with the present continuous

nent/forthetimebeing/atpresent/today/thisweek/etc/

ta

to start.

j
i

Present

iuations and states that started in

l've been a member of

time Unit

MENSA for over five years.

:"e past and are still true

: series of actions continuing


-:mpleted

up

to now

actions at a time in the past

She's done a BA, an MA and a PhD so far.

Have you ever read any books by Edward De Bono?

,,,rich is not important or relevant

lrmpleted actions where the important

She's been awarded a scholarship to study at Harvard.

.- 'ig is the present result


- ^rinns cnmnlptpd rpcpntlv

/'ve

--e

lust receirte,l my ex:m re-sult-c.


Tell me when you've finished the report.

future (in time clauses)

see Unit 5 for more information)

lYords and phrases often used with the pre$ent perfect simple
I

=-te/for/ttsthefirst&econd/etctime/before/akeady/yetlever/just/sftll/recently/uptonow
,a) until nawl so far

-E*ffiGtu**"t
.
,

^bf

the present perfect simple.


UK: Have you found the answer yet?
UK: l've already found the answer.

ln American English, the past simple is often used instead

US: Did you find the answer yet?


US: I akeady tound the answer.

ln informalAmerican English, gotten is sometimes used as a past participle instead of gotwhen it means'obtain',
'become' or'move'.
UK: I haven't got the books yet.
US: I haven't gotten the books yet. ( = I haven't bought the books yet.)

-::ions and situations continuing up to

--: present (or just before the present)


--e future (in time clauses)

We've all been wondering what to get Tony for his birthday and we just
can't decide.
I won't take my driving test unti/

l've been having lessons for at least two months

:ee Unit 5 for more information)


to specify a particular number of times/things,

We usually use the present perfect simple


,/ l've wrilten two essays fhis week.

We usually use the present perfect continuous

,/

to emphasise the duration of an action/situation.


,/ l've been working here for five years. (emphasises the duration)

l've worked here for five years. (no emphasis)

-tf+rds and phrases often used with the present perfect continuous
.::=e / for / iust / all day/weel</etc
,r,hen certain verbs are used

to describe states, they are generally used in simple tenses rather than continuous tenses.

agree, deny, disagree


believe, consider, doubt, expect, imagine, know, mean,

suspect, think, understand

be, extst
adore, appeal, appreciate, desire, despise, detest,
mind, need, pity, prefer, safisf-y, trust, want, wish
r

fear, feel, forgive, hate,

-= ationships between

appear, hear, look. noilce. recognise, resemble. see, seem: smell, sound, taste
belong, concern, consist, contain, cost, depend, equal, fit, have, include, involve, lack, measure, owe,
own, possess, suit, weigh

- --er

deserve

=:ception

:: ssession

C'

!=

and

Many of the verbs above can also be used in continuous tenses when they describe actions rather than states. These
verbs include: appeal, be, consider, depend, feel, have, include, look, mean, mind, see, sme/I, taste, think, weigh
I think it's important to know how to use a computer. (state: think = believe)
,/ l'm thinking about going on a computer course. (action: think = consider)

ItTrrIII

Single completed

Past time

actions

Repeated or habitual actions in the past


General truths about the

past
states

Permanent situations and

story

The main events in a


The present (in conditional sentences)
(see Unit 11 for more information)

time,

The present (after wish, lt's


would rather, elc)
(see Unit 13 for more information)

Sony and Philips

invented the CD in the early 1980s.

I We moved house a lot when I was a kid.


I Early clocks were usually very unreliable.
I

Oia tne ancient Egyptians have more advanced technology than other civilisattons?

I
|

Frank turned on the W and sat on the sofa.

l'd rather Michaeldidn't waste so much time playing video games.

lf we didn't have computers, what would the world be like?

To emphasise contrast in the past

Perhaps our grandparents didn'thave e-mail, butthey did have the telephone and
telegrams.

To emphasise strong feeling in the past

I did enjoy our visit to the Sclence Museum last summer.

u,

to refer to periods of time or moments which are finished. The present perfect is used to
periods
which
refer to
of time
continue up to the present.
The nineteenth century saw many technological advances, such as the camera and the electric light bulb.
,/ There have been many technological advances in recent years, the most important being the spread of the lnternet.
The past simple is used to refer to events at a specific time in the past. The present perfect is used when the specific time
something happened isn't important or relevant, or when the present result of a past event is important.
I sent my first e-mail six months ago.
,/ Have you ever sent an e-mail before?
ln general, the past simple is used

Actions in progress at a particular


moment in the past
Actions in progress around a particular
moment in the past
Temporary situations and series of
actions rn the past

&tu

Were you chatting to Matt online at midnight last night?


the turn of the twentteth century, many discoveries were being made
in physics and other sciences.
At the time, I was working for a large softvtare company in California.

At

my internet provider so t

to

Changing and developing situations


in the past

twas getting frustrated

Annoying or amusing past habits


(usuallv with always)

When she was young, Tina was always taking things apartto see how they worked.

Background information in a story

It was raining outside and people were making thek way home after work.

Actions in progress over a period of time


Two actions in progress at the same time
The present and the future (in conditional

Were you writing e-mails all yesterday morning?


While lwas playing a computer game, my brother was doing his homework.
Would you be happier if you were studying computer science?

sentences)
(see Unit 11 for more information)
The present and the future (after wish,
it's time, would rather, etc)
(see Unit 13 for more information)

I wish we were going to the computer fair next weekend.

with

decided

change.

Past

time Unit 3

We often use the past continuous

'/

to describe background events in progress and the past simple for the main events.
we were talking about MP3s when Andrea mentioned her new music website.

We normally use the past simple to describe regular or repeated actions in the past, not the past continuous.
./ When I was a child, lvisited my grandmother every week.

ln general, the past continuous is used to refer to actions in progress during periods of time or at moments which are
finished. The present perfect continuous is used to refer to actions in progress during periods of time which continue up to
the present.
We

were working on my computer for four hours yesterday.

/"/ We have been working on my computer for four hours so far.

Situations and states before the past

Had you had your computer long before

Completed actions before a moment


in the past

When talking films appeared, the cinema had already

of entertainment.

A series of actions continuing up to

By the ilme of his death, Thomas Edison had invented a number of things that

When Dimitra called,


a

moment in the past

Actions and situations continuing up to a


moment in the past (or just before a
moment in the past)

a hit.

Past habits, particularly for the

The ancient Greeks

EE

E =Er
@4!1

She'd been writing computer games for over ten years before she finaily had

would rely on the power of slaves, rather than machines.

Would can also be used with a continuous infinitive when we are referring to a habit involving actions in progress.
Whenever lwent to James's house, he would usually be playing on his computer.

Wouldis not usually used to refer to past states.

Past habits and states, particularly for

captain because l'd played it a tot with my brother.

the distant past

.,:,

become a popular form

chanscd encrvdav lifc

I beat Jason at lnternational

4t

broke down?

I had manaeed to fix her comouter.

Completed actions where the important

clt

it

/t used to seem strange to be able to communicate over long distances.

Remember that used to is not the same as be used to. Be used to refers to a situation that is now familiar or
no longer strange.
At first, people found it strange sending messages by mobile, but now everyone's used to it.
we use get used to to refer to the process of becoming familiar with a situation.
lt's surprising how quickly people in the nineteeth century got used to travetling by train.

&,5

ilrusrrr
=GIiI

ffi

Future time

Often the same future event can be described in different ways:


,/ The shop is closing at 3 pm tomorrow.
The shop closes at 3 Pm tomorrow.
The shop is going to crose at 3 pm tomorrow'
The shoip wilt close at 3 pm tomorrow.

/
I

which way you choose to describe something depends on a number of things:


Function (For example do you want to express a request, a promise or an offer?)
changed, the
How you see the future evenysituation. (For example, if you see a future event as a fixed event that cannot be
present simple may be appropriate.)
Level of formality (wi/lis usually more formal than be goingto)

*
*

ln the tables below are the

main uses of will, be goingto, etc for the future.

Predictions

It looks as if Jake will lose his job.

Future facts

The factory

Decisions made at the moment of speaking

I know! l'll ask for a pay rise tomorrow.

0ffers

t'll help you with the advertising campaign.


I promise you you won't lose your iob'

Promises
Requests
Refusals (won't)

will open

in JulY.

Will you give a presentatton on the sales figures?


lwon't give a presentation on the sa/es figures.

No,

For offers and suggestions in the question form, with Iand we, we use shallnot will.
Shatt thelp you with the advertising campaign? (offerl
,/ Shall we discuss this in the morning? (suggestion)
polite than will and can.
For requests, we can also use would, could or can. Would and could are more
,/ Would/Coutd/Can you give a presentation on the sales figures?

For refusals, we can also use couldn'tor can't. Couldn'tis more polite than won'tand can't'
,r No, I couldn't/can't give a presentation on the sales figures.

--'-l

rffirsffictarn*
I
I

is sometimes used with I and we in place of will.


lwill be in touch again soon.
I shatl be in touch again soon.

gritish English,
shall
Jllol
LilE,l)ll,
lllDIILI)il
ln

1/

Predictions based on present evidence

Look at that wall.lt looks as if it's going to fall down.

lntentions

l'm going to get

Arrangements

l'm meeting Fiona on Friday to discuss the adverttsing campatgn'


l'm asking for a pay rise tomorrow.

lntentions

a
a

ffi
38

my degree, then get a wellpaid iob.

usually used
Both be going to and present continuous can be used for intentions. However, present continuous.is not

for intentions in the distant future.

l'm going to work for a really successful company one

day.

I
I
I

Future

Fixed future

events

The shop

closes at 3 pm next Saturday.

Continuing situations up to a certain time

iob by the end of the week.


This time next month, l'll have worked at the company for exactly 25 years'

Continuing situations up to a certain time


(emphasises duration)

This time next month, l'll have been working at the company for exactly
25 years.

Situations in progress at a certain time


in the future

This time next week l'll be travelling round Russia on business.

Situations which will happen in the future


in the normal course of events
Habits or repeated actions at a point

The company Chairperson will

Completed situations before a certain time

in the future

Afta,

time Unit 5

It looks as

if

Jake witt have

lost

his

be arriving on Thursday.

tthink that, in the future, more and more people will be commuting to work
by plane.

*rny time words and phrases, such as when, while,

once, as soon as, etc, we do not use will or be going to.

We use:

,/ l'lt give you a pay rise when yau staft working harder!
simple
give you a pay rise once you're bringing in three new customers a week.
present continuous /
present perfect simple / I'll give you a pay rise as soon as you've proved you're a hard worker.
present perfect continuous / I won't give you a pay rise until you've been working here for three years.
present

t'tl

be (iust) about to

for the (very) near future

be (.tust) on the Point/verge of

for the (very) near future

l'm just aboutto ask for mY PaY rise.


l'm just on the point/verge of asking f or my pay rise.

be due to

for formal arrangements

l'm due to meet

be to do

for obligations
for formal announcements

my boss at eleven o'clock'


You're to get those reports written before Friday!
The factory is to oPen in JulY.

other modals

to express certaintY,

(see Unit 9 for more information)

possibiliiy, etc

I might

ask for a pay rise tomorrow.

past. Wrll becomes would,


When we look back at what was the future once, we usually make the future verb forms

is going to

become was goingto, etc. Tenses such as present simple also change, by going back one tense'

will

Then: I think the factory will open in September.


Now: I thought the factory would open in September'

would

present simple

past simple

Then: l'm in a rush because the train leaves at 4.


Now: I was in a rush because the train lefi at 4.

3g

-T

I
ffi - P,56r,irtes, and causatives
,

When we don't know who does/did something

When it's obvious who does/did something

stolen at approximately 1.30 am'


Having been introduced in 1988, the Road Traffic Act regulates allvehicle

The car was

use on UK roads.

To emphasise new information

plenty of
The xL50O was designed with young families in mind, so there's
room in the boot.
This type of submarine was developed during the Second world war by the

(which appears at the end of the sentence)

Americans.

To avoid starting clauses with long expressions

we were surprised by the number of

To produce a formal stYle

long weekend.
(Mo"re natural ihan The number of peopte trying to leave the city for
the tong weekend surprised us.)
All passengers are required to present their ttcketto the inspector'

Form

Common verbs

Example

noun + verb in passive form + infinitive


perfecl infinitive

agree, assume, believe, claim,

consider, estimate, exPect, feel,


find, guarantee, know, mean,

Tourism is expected to become a


major part of the country's economy.

There + verb in passive form + infinitive

presume, regard, rePort, saY,


suppose, think, understand

There are reqofted to have been


a record number of accidents on the
roads this year.

accept, agree, argue, assume,


believe, calculate, claim, consider,
estimate, expect, feel, know,
presume, rePort, saY, suggest,
suppose, think, understand

It is thought that the new railway will

When it's not important who does/did something

perfect tnfinitive

It + verb in passive form + that clause

people trying

to

teave the city

for the

provide employment opportunities for


local people.

(usually a person). Common verbs


in active sentences can be followed by both a direct and an indirect object
promise,
send' show' take' teach, tell, write, etc.
pav,
refuse'
pass,
o*e,
iiur, truuii', lend, make, ,ffe,,
There are two possible passive forms.

S.r. ,.rbr

;;il.,ffi; ,ii,,iii,

Active sentence: Michael

ave the

tickets to Jill.

With indirect object as sublect of passive verb


With direct object as subject of passive verb

t
!s

preposition before indirect object pronouns,


ln the second structure in the table above, we sometimes omit the
Sharon's Rolls-Royce was left ftd her by her grandfather'

,r

pronouns cannot be omitted They cannot


With the verbs explain and suggest, the preposition before indirect object
be used with the first structure in the table above.

x
,/

54

Jitl was given the plane tickets (by Michael)'


The plane tickets were given to Jill(by Michael).

How to drive the train was explained to me.

Passives and causatives

The passive is not normally used with verbs in the present perfect continuous, past perfect continuous, future continuous or
future perfect continuous tenses. Various prepositional phrases are used to avoid the passive in these tenses, including the
following.

xPreBaratts*sJerlheW

tn progress

,/

Preparattons for the flight will be

in progress

in training

on display

,/ At the end of this year, I will have been in training


x

under construction

as a pilot for four years.

/ Vintage cars have been on display in the town centre allthis week.
x
/ By the time they came to a decision, the problem had been under consideration
x@@arffiow/ The new railway statlon has been under construction for two years now.

under consideration

*
*

as the President arrives at the airport.

e+ine
for some time.

Some verbs are not usually used in the passive. They include intransitive verbs such as appear, arrive, die, etc.
ManY verbs used statively are also not usually used in the passive. They include conslst, deserve, fit, have, tack, look,
mind, realise, resemble, seem, suit, etc,

nn The verb /et is not used

in the passive when it means 'allow', although phrasal verbs with let can be used in

the passive.

,/

Alice was clearly guilty, but she

was let off with a warning.

Some verbs can be followed by the bare infinitive (without to) in active sentences. They are followed by the full infinitive
in passive sentences. These verbs include hear, help, make and see.
We heard Jim say he was going to Albania. (active)
,/ Jim was heard to say he was going to Albania. (passive)

Actions we arrange for other people to do for us


Things we experience (usually negative and not intended)

In general,

Did you finally get


I heard that Susle

your bike fixed?


had her motorbike stolen.

get is more informal than have in causative structures.

We can use other verbs instead of get and have with a causative meaning. They include need, want and would tike.

l'd like those cars washed by this evening, please.

The structure get sth done can also mean 'finish doing something'.
We'llset off as soon as l've got the car fixed.

Actions we make somebody/something do for us

Actions we make somebody/something start doing

E
!3
e!

tit

Most of the time, we do not show who does/did an action (the 'agent') in a passive or causative sentence. When we do
want to refer to the agent, we use by.
,/ We should get the car looked at by a professional.

When we want to refer to materials or instruments used in a passive or causative sentence, we use wrth.
The engine is starfed with a special electronic card instead of a key.

"/

M*/

We use other prepositions after some past participles that are used like adjectives.

:::i-::-:::11.airl:*

l am frightened of driving on motorways

My car is covered in dkt.

Unit ?

tillmnmr ra

u
J

afi*semi

o-aals

have only one form (re they do not change


The nine main modals (witt, woutd, can, could, may, might, shall, should, must)
(eg
+ do, be doing, have done, have been
could
infinitive
bare
contiiuous
or
simple
tense or person) and are followed by a
(eg
could + be done' have been done\'
aoirgl. fh.V Can also Oe toLtoweO by a bare infinitive in the passive

Semi-modalshavesimilarmeaningstomodals.Theyinclude: need(to),oughtto,hadbetterandhave@ot)to'
person, Others, such as have (got) to, do'
Some semi-modals, such as had better, do not change tense or
have to.
can be used in combination with modals, producing phrases such as might
Some semi-modals

:liTl

[Iil

Real abrlity

can, can't

Past ability

could, couldn't

Decisions made now about


future ability

can, can't, could,


couldn't

Future ability

will/won't be able to

One day, maybe, alt adutts will

could, couldn't

I couldn't go on a quiz show. l'd be too scared!

Future hypothetical abilitY

could, couldn't

Past hypothetical abilitY

could have,

Hypothetical Current or general


hypothetical abilitY
ability

couldn't have

t3

al

You can't really speak seven languages fluently, can you?


There's no way you could read when you were two!

Current or general abilitY

I can

get you

paper when I go to the shop, if you tike'

be alE

to:g!

an!

*r!e'

could go with them to the cinema tomorrow but I won't


because l've alreadY seen the film.
They could have asked the Prime Minister much more
searching questions. lwonder why they didn't'

is cannot, which is one word'


The full negative form of modals is written as two words, eg could not. The exception
Can and could cannot be used as infinitives. We can use to be able to instead'
./ t'd tove to be able to come with you to the cinema tomorrow but I iust can't.
able to, managed or succeeded, etc'
We don,t usually use couldfor past ability on one occasion. We use was/were

,/ Luckity, she was abte to finish the article in time.


Uoweuet,withverbssuchas see,hear,feel,etCWeCanusecouldforpastabilityononeoccasion'
I could see that she was tied.

Asking for permission


Giving/ref using permission

can't

may, could, couldn't, can,


may, may not, could, couldn't, can,

Can tfinish watching this before I go to bed?

cant I No,y9u ca L

polite and formal than can.


May is more polite and {ormal than could, and could is more
was/were allowed to'
We don't usually use modals to talk about past permission. We can use

cit

,/ We were attowed to buy one comic each.

mtrf;Wffi

(see Unit 25 for more information)


However, we do use couldto talk about past permission in reported speech.
Mum said we could buy one comic each.

.YAil"fml:

Askingforandgivingadvice|should,shouldn't,oughtto,ouc

I
t5

CE$

We can only use hadn't better in questlons.

Hadn't you belter check that these f acts are actually true?
This suggests that, although the suggestion
We can also use might/may as we/ito give advice and make suggestions.
is not perfect, there is no better option.

We may as well watch this as there's nothing e/se on'

Modals and semi-modats

Criticising past behaviour

should have, shouldn't have,

oughtto have, oughtn'tto have


Expressing annoyance at past
behaviour

could have, might have

You shouldn't have spoken to Mrs Todd


like that.
You

could/might have totd

me you were

going to be late!

Criticising general behaviour

will

He will slam the door every time he goes out.

Criticising a specific example of

would

You would take the car just when I wanted to


go out.

someone's general behaviour

a?
b
R

We can also use might as wel/

ffi =

to suggest criticism.
I might as well be dead for all you care.

Current or general obligation

must, mustn't, have (got)to,


need (to)

You have to be a good communicator to be


press spokesperson.

A lack of current or general


obligation

don't have to, haven't got to,


needn't, don't need (to)

You don't always need to have a degree to


become a journalist.

Future obligation

will have to, must, mustn't,


have (got) to, (will) need (to)

You'll have to do quite a lot of research before


you write this report.

A lack of future obligation

don't/won't have to, haven't got to, l'm glad we won't have to write any more
needn't, don't/won't need (to)
essays on this course.
had to, needed (to)
We had to come up with three questions each.
didn't have to, didn't need (to),
ln the past, politicians didn't have to deat with
needn't have
being in a 24-hour media spoilight.

Past obligation
A lack of past obligation

6
CT

6
!r,

We are more likely to use musf for personal obligation (making our own decision
about what we must do) and
for external obligation (someone else making a dlcision about what we must do).
Uslng mustfor questions is extremely formal. We usually use haye to.
Do you have to have a degree to be a journatist?
Mustn't is used for prohibition. Don'thave to is used for a lack of obligation.

have to

We can use didn't have

to and didn't need to for things that we did or didn't actually do. However, we only use needn,t
have done for things that we actually did but weren,t obliged to do.

Certainty (or near certainty) about


now, the future or generally

will, would, must, can, can't,


could, couldn't

Certainty (or near certainty)


about the past

'There's someone atthe door.'


'That'll be the postman.'
'lt can't be. He's already been.'

will have, won't have, would have,


wouldn't have, must have, can't
have, couldn't have

'They won't have heard the news, wiil they?,


'They must have heard by now, surely.'

Probability about now, the future


or generally

should, shouldn't, ought to,


oughtn't to, may/might well (not),
could well, might easily

'The weather should be good tomorrow,


shouldn't it?'
'Actually, the forecast said it may well rain.,

Probability about the past

should have, shouldn't have,


oughtto have, oughtn'tto have,
may/might well (not) have, might
easily (not) have

by now, shouldn't she?'

'Jan shoutd have finished writing her articte


'She

may well have done, but lhaven,t seen

it yet.'

Possibility about now, the future or


generally

could, may (not), might, mightn't,


may/might/could just

t might (just) have

Possibility about the real past

could have, may (not) have, might


have, mightn't have

Jim might not have checked his

a
g

TE

time

to

get

to

the library

before it c/oses.
e-mait

yet.

shou/dand shouldhave can be used in thatclauses afterwords expressing importance and


reactions.
lt's strange that you should say
Was it necessary that Alan shoutd have been invited to the meeting?

y'

that. /

?3

llBit

ttlll

General or scientific facts and definitions

lf you burn fossil fuels, carbon dioxide is produced'

Real conditions in the present or future and


their results in the present or future

lf we continue to

pollute our planet, future generations will suffer.

To give conditional instructions

tt the peopte from

Greenpeace call, tetl them l'll call them back later'

t
ta
{E

clause in first conditionals. These include


other modals and semr-modals can be used instead of will in the result
to'
Oi go*g to, can, could, may, might, shall, should, have to and ought

fre might

prevent disaster if we change the way we live now'

Hypothetical conditions in the present or


future and their hypothetical results in the
present or future

(t
!t
it!

what would the tocat government do

if

there was an earthquake in the area?

These Include might and could'


other modals can be used instead of would in the result clause in second conditionals.
,/ tf the weather was better, we could have a picnic'

ffi ,t ffi Gt"-."t

and third person singular.were is more common ln a


ln British English, we can use both was and wereatter if with first
were'
use
formal style. ln American English, it rs usual to
UK: li I was/were a gambler, l'd put money on Jim being late'
US: lf I were a gambter, I'd put money on Jim being late'
phrase lf lwere you'
ln both British and American English, were is usually used in the

Hypothetical conditions in the past and their


results in the Past

:
.I

ltt

A lot more people would have been traiieid by the ftood if there hadn't

conditionals. These include might, could


Other modals can be used instead of wouldin the result clause in third
and should.
,/ lf you hadn't had a lot of luck, you could have lost allyour money'

Hypothetical conditrons in the past and


their results in the Present
Hypothetical conditions in the present and

their results in the Past

gambling'
You might not be in so much trouble if you hadn't stafted

tf lwere you, lwould have made

Pauta

buy her own lottery ticket'

Gonditionals

More formal form of the first conditional


(with shou/d)
More formal form of the second conditional

When the verb

,/ Had we not

C9

G.

to be inverted is negative, we put nof after the subject.


attended the meeting, we would have had no idea of the council's plans.

When the if clause comes before the result clause, we usually separate the two clauses with a comma. When the

=
ffi

result clause comesfirst, we do not use a comma.


lf you share a car to work, you can save on energy.

d/P r ovidin

P r ovide

(th

at)

0n conditton (that)
Suppose/Supposing
lf it wasn'Vweren't for + noun
Were it not for

Butfor +

+ noun

noun

lf it hadn't been for + noun

it

You can save on energy if you share a car

to work.

to the mountains this weekend as long as the weather's okay.


a pet provided that you promise to look after it properly.
Applicattons for membership are accepted on condition that applicants are over 78.

We'll go up

As/so long as

Had

Should the drought continue, many people willbe forced to leave their villages.
( = lf the drought should continue ... / lf the drought continues ... )
Were we to stop using fossil fuels tomorrow, it would strll take decades for the
planetto recover. ( = lf we were to stop ... lf we stopped ...)
Had Charles Darwin not visited the Galapagos /slands, he night never have
developed his theory of evolution. ( = lf Charles Darwin hadn't visited . . . )

More formal form of the third conditional

E
a

Unit

not been for

+ noun

lf .. . Ghould) happen to
lf ... should
lf .. . happened to
lf .. . were to
lf so/not

You can have

Supposing the price of oiltripled tomorrow. What do you think would happen?
I think l'd be quite lonely if it wasn't/weren't for my dog, Buster.
Were it not for my dog, Buster, lthink l'd be quite lonely.
But for your help, I wouldn't have been able to quit gambling.
lf it hadn't been for your help, I wouldn't have been able to quit gambling.
Had it not been tor your help, I wouldn't have been able to quit gambling.
lf you (should) happen to see Davina, ask her whether she would look after
the cats this weekend.
lf you should see Davina, ask her whether she would look after the cats this weekend.
lf you happened to see sorneone drop lilter in the street, what would you do?

you think it would reduce pollution


on petrol?
Do

Are

if

the government

you concerned about the environment?

lf

so,

were to introduce a new tax

you might be interested

in

joining Greenpeace.

Unless

You should have your air conditioner serviced, otherwise you'll waste a lot of energy.
Unless governments act now, the environment is really going to suffer.

ln case of + noun

ln case of fire,

ln case

Take a coat with you in case the weather gets worse.

To mean 'if it is true that'

lf you were at the meetrng, why didn't you raise the issue of recycling?
lf you'llfollow me, l'll show you into the park manager's office.
lf you like zoos, the one in Singapore is fantastic.

Otherwise

To mean 'if you are willing to'


To mean 'l'm saying this in case'

leave the building by the nearest emergency exit.

s7

11

:,i::.':):.:-.:.!:tIi

a,-,:

;::. l

Sometimes we use the past simple and continuous to refer to the present, the future or a general situation.
Sometimes we use the past perfect simple and continuous to refer to a hypothetical past that didn't actually happen.

{!
CI

tG'&

ffi

For all of the situations below with the past simple and past continuous, with the verb to be after I and he/she/it, there
,/ I wish lwere rich.
lwish lwas rich.
is a choice of was or
Both was and were are common in informal English but were is sometimes more appropriate in formal, written English
and is always used in the phrase lf lwere you ...

were. /

For hypothetical and unlikely current, future or


general conditions (see Unit 11 for more
information)

I wouldn't accept a job unless lwas absolutely sure what the salary was.
lf you were travelling to Russia, would you get roubles before you left or

For hypothetical past conditions


(see Unit 11 for more information)

lf lhad known, lwould have taken some dollars with me.


lf I had been running the bank, I would have given you an overdraft!

To consider hypothetical or unlikely current, future

Supposing you were given ten million euros, what would you spend it on?
What if you were walking down the street and you suddenly found
a wallet? Would you hand it in?
Suppose you had won the lottery last night. What would you have done?
tmagine you'd been working there for 40 years. What kind of pension
would you have got?

when you arrived?

or general situations
To consider hypothetical or unllkely past situations

'.@:

ia
alt

.t.

H#

We can also use a present tense instead of past simple or past continuous after these words and phrases. This

indicates that the situation is more likely to happen.


you become a millionaire, how will it change your life? (more likely)
Supposing you became a millionaire, how would it change your life? (less likely)

./ Supposing

,/

For current, future or general untrue, hypothetical

comparisons
For past untrue, hypothetical comparisons

She acts as if/though she was a millionaie.


Colin acts as if/though he were making a million pounds a month.
Tony looks as if/though sorneone had just handed him a million euros.
It's a/most as if/though they'd been working for free'

;ffi;,.rO-O.t"r. ,,r,rt noufils in a present or present perfect tense, we only use a past tense for comparisons

true.

were really wealthy. ( = She's not really wealthy.)


When the verb before as if/though is in a present or present perfect tense, for comparisons that are possible, we use
a present or present perfect tense after as if/though.
She looks as if shet realty wealthy. ( = lt's very possible that she is wealthy.)
When the verb before as if/though is in a past tense, we use a past tense after as if/though for comparisons that are
that we know aren't

either true or hypothetical.

rs6

She behaves as if she

Unreal

time Unit

To make questions and requests more polite

How much money did you want to spend, madam?


I was wondering whether you might be able to give me some advice'

To suggest that someihing should be done now or


in the immediate future

It's (high/about) time I got a mortgage.


It's hieh/about) time we were leaving.

er,

13

past simple and past continuous.


With lt,s (high/about) time, there is often no real difference in meaning between
goinghome.
I
was
time
lt's
./ tt's trme
We can also use a full infinitive after lt's time, but not after lt's high/aboutttme.

lwenthome. /

G
rather/sooner we bought a house than carried on renting.
you
rather/sooner I was begging in the streetsT
Would
We'd rather/sooner you hadn't lent Kurdip the money.
Jan woutd

For current, general or future preference


For past preference

g
I

*t

+ past simple/continuous is only used to talk about preference regarding someone else' When
thereisno.'hung.of subject,weuse wouldrather/sooner+ bareinfinitive, orwouldprefer+full infinitive.
r' She,d rathei not boriow any money from you. She'd prefer not to borrow any money from you.
Woutd rather/sooner

you wish you had a bigger house?


lf only lwas earning a reasonable salary'
lf only I'd bought a lottery ticket this morning.
carla wished she'd been keeping a much closer eye on her investments.

Do

Wishes about now, the future or


generally
Wishes about the Past

G
]G=

or
When wish is in the past simple, it is still followed by the past simple or past continuous for current, future
general wishes.
Si*o, dearly wished that he had a bigger house. ,/ I sat there and wished I was earning a reasonable salary.

it

To criticise other people or wish

for a situation

lf only + would

I wish they would offer me a pay rise'

/
Wish /

lf only + could

lwish I could find

lf only + could + perfect infinitive

twish t coutd have got a mortgage


with a fixed interest rate.

Wish

to be different
a

iob that pays well.

Wishes about ability or permission


Wishes about past ability or permission

Wish

To express desires in a very formal way

Wrsh + full infinitive

I wish

Msh + noun

I wish him evely success.

To wish someone

luck/happiness/success/etc

We do not usually use would when the subject

to express desires about a real, possible

We can use hope instead.

x#,@

manager.

of wish is the same as the subject of would.

x Pete-wrsh,es-he'lva-d'#arffire:
We do not use wish

to speak to the bank

future. /

,/ I hope the cheque

Pete wishes he

earnt/ could earn more

arrives tomorrow.

107

noun

I love Your new house


Ilt'vvvtvet

Before a
Deluredlluull

After verbs such as appear, be, become, feel,


grow,look, seem, smell, sound, taste and turn

11

CI

qt

get, I The materiat this dress is made out of feels rough.

followed by adverbs
The verbs in the table above are not normally followed by adverbs. However, some of them can be
when the verb refers to an action.
She looked angW at the man behind the counter.

After as, how, so, this ( = so), that ( = so) and too, adjectives come before the article.
I couttd never live in as crowded a city as Tokyo. ,/ Tokyo's so/that crowded a clty that I'd hate to live there.
t could never live in Tokyo - it's too crowded a city.
How crowded a city is
a-, such as
Some adjectives only appear after a verb and not before a noun. These include adjectives beginning with
etc
awake,
afraid, aghast, alike, alive, alone, asleep,
A boy was asleeP in the

I
/

Tokyo?

street.

When more than one adjective is used before a noun,


they usually appear in the following order, sometimes
separated by commas: judgement, size, shape,

We've got a lovely little wooden cabin in the mountains.

llove your long, red, Chinese, silk curtains'


What you need for your living room is a large oak dining table.

colour, origin, material, PUrPose

To refer

to members of a general social group

To refer

to members of a specific group

We need to provide better housing for the poor'


When the building coltapsed, the iniured were rushed to hospital.

To refer

to some nationalities

The French have introduced new housing regulations in Paris.

at the end and with


There are three places in a clause where an adverb (or adverbial phrase) might appear:.at the beginning,
go
one
more
than
in
positions,
may
go
and
some
in
different
adverb
kinds
of
Different
the verb.

p!$gt-..-

Adverbs do not normally appear between a verb and its


direct object.
With verbs formed uslng auxiliary verbs, the adverb normally
follows the (first) auxiliary.
Adverbs of frequency @lways, often, etc) follow auxiliary
verbs and be and come before other verbs'
Connecting adverbs usually go at the beginning of a clause.

xW
/

./

They built the house very quicklY.


The town has always been popular with tourists.

,/ Our house will probably

have been decorated

by the time you get there.

,/ |m rarety

/
/

in the city centre.

rarely go to the citY centre.

We bought it as an investment; then, allthe property prices


in the area fell.

Adjectives and adverhs

Comparative: to compare things or people that are different

Your flat is rnuch bigger and more comfortable than ours.

Superlative: to compare one member of a group of people or


things with the whole group

Mexico City is probably my leastlavourite city.


I think my home town is the best place in the world.

Modifiers with comparatives: (quite) a bit, a great deal, a good


deal, a little, @uitd a lot, any, considerably, even, far, just,
little, much, no, slightly, somewhat

This area has become considerably more crowded and


noisier in the last ten years.

Modifiers with superlatives: by far, far and away, easily,


far from, much, quite

lf you ask me, Ladybridge is easily the nicest area of town

(n

/alm o st/ju st/h alf/twi c e/e a s ily/etd as

e a r ly

not hearly/quite)

..

Platinum is abouttwice as expensive as gold.

. as

as/so ... as

lron isn't nearly as hard

kon is nothing like as

3!

,/ Paper is not nearly

as

diamond.

nowhere near as hard as diamond.


The tatler the building, the greater the fire risk.

the...,the...

a
IE

far

to live in.

nothing like as ... as / nowhere near as

ra

Unit

as strong as plastic. (large difference between the thlngs being referred to)

Gold is not guite as valuable as it was last month. (small difference between the things being referred to)

q+4Ff-6

Ungradable adjectives describe qualities which are extreme and which cannot be 'more' or 'less', eg
amazing, dead, exhausted, fantastic, helpless, impossible, incredible, necessary, pertect, porntless, right, splendid,
unacceptable, wonderful, wrong, etc.Other adjectives are gradable.
if iers with un grada ble adjectives : ab solutely, completely,
quite, totally, utterly, ehc

After working on the building site all day, Tim was absolutely

Modifiers with gradable adjectives: a bit, a little,


really, too, very, etc

Pete was a bit tired after working on the building site all day,
but it wasn't too bad.

Mod

(!'l
g
IE

*,

?ffi.

exhausted.

quite,

When quite is used with gradable adjectives, it means'rather, fairly'. When guite is used with ungradable adjectives,
it means'absolutely, completely'.

Our flals guite nice, but not Oerle1L

I love your flat! The balconies

are quite splendid!

Some words have the same form as an adjective and as an adverb and some also form adjectives with -ly. The different forms
can have different meanings. These include:
fair
free
late
short
fast
hard
near nearly
fine
hilh
right
wetl
wide widely

/ freely
/ shortly
/ fakly
/ lately
straight
/ finety
/ hiehly
/ rilhtly
./ Hit it too hard and you'll break it.
/ Sandstone is not a very hard material.
y
+^^ h^rAh, ^^A t,^, t'll L\y^^1,
/ I could hardly hear the music.
rJi+ ;+

..q.

e,,

u'

'v

tvu

vt vut\

/ hardly
/

i+

tlt

GI

Some adjectives end in -ly, eg costly, deadly, friendly, likely, lively, lonely, lovely.
They do not form adverbs, but we often use a phrase such as in a ... way to describe how something is done.

6
!E

EI

She looked at me

in a very friendly way.

tsfffiilG$

T??

15

:rT
who

to refer to people (and animals when we want


give them a personality)
I to

which

to refer to things and concepts (and animals when we


don't want to give them a personality)

whom

a formal word

There are

a lot of people who hate having injections.


which the doctor gave me.

This is the prescription

That's the consultant with whom I spoke.

for who; as an object; must be used

directly after a preposition

that

a more informal word for who, which, when, where,


why; only used in defining relative clauses

when
where

to refer to time; = in/on/ehc which


to refer to place or situation; = in/at/etc which

why

often after the word reason; = the reason for which;

This is

the prescription that the doctor gave me.

I'll never forget the day when I broke my finger.

Harley Street, where she was born, is famous


for its clinics.
And that's fthe reason) why I wanted to become a vet'

only used in defining relative clauses


There are several kids in my class whose parents
are doctors.

whose

the possessive of who and which; can also come


after a preposition

what

=!B

When we use a preposition with a relative pronoun, it is more formal

,r

t
G

the thing(s) which; only used in defining relative clauses

What I don't understand is why she didn't take her pills.

to put the preposition before the pronoun.

Thjs is the medicat encyclopaedia to which I referred. (very formal)


This is the medicat encyclopaedia which I referred to. (less {ormal)

Which can re{er to the whole preceding clause, rather than just the preceding noun.
She announced that she wanted to be a pathotogist, which reatly shocked us. ( = the announcement shocked us)

Defining relative clauses

Non-defining relative clauses

These tell us which one of a group of things/people we are


talking about. The sentence doesn't usually make complete
sense if we remove the relative clause.
That's the doctor who did Karen's operation.

These simply give us more information about


someone/something, The sentence makes complete sense
if we remove the relative clause.
./ Dr Lake, who has been working here for over ten
years, is a very experienced surgeon.

We can use that instead

of who/which/etc. This

is

We cannot use that instead

ol who/which/elc.

more informal,
That's the doctor that did Karen's operation.

We don't use a comma or commas.

That's the doctor who did Karen's operatton.

We can omit the relative pronoun if it is the obiect.

,t

That's the doctor who she saw. (more formal)


That's the doctor she saw. (less formal)

When, where and why can be omitted.

,/

l'llnever forgetthe day when I broke my arm.


l'll never forgetthe day I broke my arm.

We cannot put a number or a determiner such as some,

none, much and many before of which or of whom.

t3&

We must use a comma or commas.

,t Dr Lake, who is an experienced s)rgeon, is my uncle.


We cannot omit the relative pronoun.

,/ Dr Lake, who is my uncle,

is 50 years old.

We do not use why,


We cannot omit where and when.

Hartey Street, where she was born, is famous for its clinics'

as some, none,
whom.
much and many before of which or of
,t t bought some drugs, some of which were expensive.

We can put a number or a determiner such

Clauses

To replace a relative clause

She was the nurse looking after the patlents at the time. (who was looking)
The boy taken to hospitalwas 13 years old. (who was taken)

With prepositions and conjunctions

After giving blood, lwent home.


After having given blood, lwent home.

To explain the reason

for something

Unit

Being frightened of needles, Tony was not looking forward to the injection.
Ali wasn't particularly nervous this time.

Having had several operations before,


To

talk about actions happening

Sitting in the waittng room, I could hear the sound of the denttst drilling.

at the same time


To

talk about actions happening


in sequence

Having found an opttcian close to the office, I made an appointment for that evening.

As an alternative passive form

Given an aspirin,

As an alternative conditional form

Given the chance, l'd definitely study pharmacology. (if I were given the chancel

began

to feetbetter. (when/because I was given an

aspirinl

-{t

When the participle clause doesn't have its own subject, the clause and the rest of the sentence must both refer

ll
G

to the same subject.


Standing in the hot, crowded room, I began to feel dizzy. ( = I was standing)

/
f

.(

To be a successful surgeon is the dream of many young children.


( = lt is the dream of many young children to be a successful surgeon.)

To start a sentence

i After the verb to be

although

in splte of

though

= mY head wasn't standing)

My

even though

/ despite ( + noun or -ing)

job was to give the patients their lunch.

Even though she'd put on sun cream, Tamsin got burnt.


Tamsin got burnt, though she had put on sun cream.
Tamsin put on sun cream. She stillgot burnt, though.

Despite putting on sun cream, Tamsin got burnt.


ln spite of the fact that she put on sun cream, Tamsin got burnt.
Despite the sun cream, Tamsin still got burnt.

while/whereas

While antibiotics are effective against bacteria, they do not work against viruses.
Bacterial infecttons can be cured with anttbiotics, whereas viruses cannot.

however

Penicillin is a powerful anttbiotic. However, some people are allergic to it.


Penicillin is a powerful antibiotic. Some people are allergic to it, however.
Penicillin is a powerful anttbiofrc. Some people, however, are allergic to it.

other phrases and structures

Try as he might, he couldn't put up with the pain.


However hard he (might have) tried, he couldn't put up with the pain.
Hard though/as he tried, he couldn't put up with the pain.
Much as he tied, he couldn't put up with the pain.

/ despite + -ing, both parts of the sentence must refer to the same subject.

fl

With ln spite of

Even if is used to emphasise that it doesn't matter if something happens or is true, another situation remains
the same.
Even it they found a cure for cancer tomorrow, it would take several years before it was available.

Even if is used to suggest that something may or may not happen, whereas even though suggests that the action
actually takes place.
Even if she tried to give her an injectron, she couldn't. ( = She probably hasn't tried yet.)
,/ Even though she tried to give her an injection, she couldn't. ( = She tried and was unsuccessful.)

13S

17

Ergg
hardly ( ... when)

scarcely ( ... when)


barely ( ... when)
no sooner (

...

than)

only
only after
only when

not until
at no ilme/potnt/stage
in no way

little

Hardly had the new raw been introduced when the mistake was rearised.
scarcely had I opened the front door when I heard a noise from the kitchen.
Barely had we solved one problem when another one arose.
No sooner had the alarm gone off than the police arrived.
Only in an emergency should you dial 999.
only atter I had checked that the burgrars had reft did r catt the porice.
only when we agree what measures are needed will we be able to solve
the problem.
Not until the next election will we know how the pubtic feet about
this news;.

At no point did I realise that he was the prime Minister.


ln no way does this decision represent a change in government policy.
Little did Ralph know that the burglar was sttlljnsjde hls house.
Never have lheard such a ridiculous suggestion,l

not

Not one vote did the proposal receive.

not only ( ... but also/too)

Not only has thls government faited but it has also sto/en ldeas from
other parties.
On no account should you try to tackle a burglar yourself.
Rarely do the newspapers present a balanced view of currenteyents.

on no account

rarely
seldom
under no circumstances

a
Cf

*=-

Seldom do people leaving prison stay out of trouble.


wilr we accept an increase in working hours.

under no circumstances

with not until and only (when/after), you have to be careful to invert
the verb and subject in the main clause.
Not unfil / Only when this government reallses what a mistake it is
making willthings

change.

here

Here comes the Minister now.

there

There stood the next king of England.


At the top of sociery are the aristocracy.

adverbial phrases

Beside the Town Hall stood the public library.

participle phrases

ln this prison are housed some of the most dangerous criminals.


On the corner of the street sat a homeless man.
down the road was

in short answers using so,


neither and nor

'Did you?

after as, than, so and such

I am very

'lvoted for Smith.'

So did l.'

man with a woman's

under his arm.

'l don't believe a word this government says.

'No, neither do l.'

worried about builying in the schoor, as are a rot of the parents.


The police in this area make more arrests than do officers
i,
iirtt of the country.
s-o rare is burglary here that many peopre don't bother
to tock thei'doors.
Such public interest was there in the story that it was on the front pagei
of the newspapers.

inii

rn conditional sentences
(see Unit 11)

\9re tle Foreign Secretary to resign, it would cause

?!'oy!a the Foreign Secretary resign, it would

cause

serious problems for the prime Minister.


serious problems for the prime Minister.

Had I known about the crime probrem, t would never have mioved here.

154

Complex sentences

All that Keith wanted was to get his money back,


his money back was all that Keith wanted.

all (that)

To get

It is/was ... who/which/that


the

... thing

the

day/elc when/that

the day/ehc

onln/at

which

It was Carolwho/that called the police.


The first thing is to check to see what's misslng.
To check to see what's missing is the first thing.
The year when this government came to power was 2006.
2006 was the year when this government came to power.
2006 was the year in which this government came to power.

the person who/that

The person who stole the money was Thomas.


Thomas was the person who stole the money.

the place where

The place where the Queen stays in Scotland is Balmoral Castle.


BalmoralCastle is the place where the Queen stays in Scot/and.
The reason (why) I joined this political party was to make a difference.
To make a difference was the reason (why) lioined this polittcal par!.

the reason (why)

The thing that annoys me is the boss's attitude.

the thing that

fhe boss's attttude is the thing that annoys me.

what ... do/did

What annoys me is the boss's attttude.


fhe boss's attttude is what annoys me.
What Churchill did was bring people together.

what happens/happened

What happened was that a witness saw the man leave the house.

what

is/was ...

C}

'g
G

trE:

ffi

With

./

so

itislwas ...

in cleft sentences, there are two possibilities when the subject is a pronoun. They differ in formality.

ltwas I who stole the money. (formal)


lt was me that stole the money. (informal)

I lt alt happened so quickly thatl didn'thave timeto


This problem has gone on f or so long

see the man's face.

that I don't think they'll ever find a solution.

/t was so terrible a crime that the judge sentenced him to life in prison.
Ihere is so much crime around here that l'm thinking of moving.

such

l,

This problen has gone on for such a long ttme that I don't think they'll ever find a solution.
It was such a terrible crime that the iudge sentenced him to life in prison
There is such a lot of crime around here that l'm thinking of moving.

too

lhad too little trme to get a good look at

his face.
This problem seems to be too difficult for them to so/ve.
The police responded too slowly to have any chance of catching the burglar.

enough I There just aren't enough police oflicers on the streets.


quick

The police weren't


enough to catch the burglar.
The police didn't respond quickly enough to catch the burglar.

IE

So and such can also be used in various ways without a that clause.
Po/itics is so boring!
There's so much crime around here these days.

u*

We only use too

same as very, really, extremely, etc.

ffi

You're such a bully!

to describe something that is more than necessary and which has a negative effect. lt is not the

It is not necessary to add an extra object in sentences such as the following:

x
Enough usually comes before nouns and after adjectives and adverbs.

Unit

t9

Countable nouns have a singular and plural form.

That painting is amazing.

Those paintings are dreadful.

Some countable nouns ...


have irregular plurals, eg person/people, mouse/mice.
do not change in their plural form, eg the sheep is . . . , the sheep are .. '
With hyphenated countable nouns, we usually form the plural by pluralising the key word, eg brothersin'law and

.
,

over-achievers.
With organisations and groups of people @g group/team/etd, it often makes no difference whether the verb is singular or
plural. ./ The government is/are not doing anything to help the arts.
With some countable nouns, when we want to refer to a group, we use certain phrases ending in of. These include: a flock of
bids/sheep, a herd of cows/elephants, a pack of cards/dogs, a bunch of flowers/grapes/keys, a set of encyclopaedias/keys

lsthe information reliable?


Singular uncountable nouns only have a singularform. They onlytake verbs in the singular.
jewellery,
knowledge, luggage, milk,
Singular uncountable nouns include: advice, blood, bread, furniture, hair, informatton,
money, news, permission, respect, water
With singular uncountable nouns, if we wantto describe one particular item, we have to use a phrase ending in of before the
noun. Cdmmon phrases include: a bar of chocotate/soap, a bit of help/advice, a blade of grass, a block of concrete, a breath
of fresh air, a drop of water, a grain of satt/sand, a gust of wind, a loaf of bread, a lump of sugar, a piece of
breadlnformation, a scrap of paper, a sheet of paper, a stice of bread/cheese, a speck of dust/dirt, a spot of ink

Plural uncountable nouns only have a pluralform. They onlytake verbs in the plural..r The scissors aren'tonthetable.
Plural uncountable nouns include: arms, binoculars, cattle, c/othes, congratulations, earnings, glasses, goods, groceries,
jeans, odds, pants, pliers, premises, pyjamas, regards, remains, savings, scales, scissors, shorts, surroundings, thanks,
tights, trousers, valuables
With plural uncountable nouns, we can sometimes use a pair of, usually when we see something as having two parts/egs/etc
e

E
E.
t!

bi n o c ul ar

s/trous ersls ciss

o r

s/ etc.

Some uncountable nouns end in -s but are singular, eg diabetes, news, physics, politics.
Many nouns are countable with one meaning and uncountable with another meaning. These include: cake, chicken,
chocolate, damage, glass, hair, paper, time, wood, work

,/

The table is made of wood. (uncountable, = the material)


lt's a picture of a local lvood. (countable, = 2 small forest)

Some nouns which are usually uncountable are used as countable nouns in certain expressions, eg a knowledge of , a

great help.

Quantifiers only used with


countable nouns

Quantifiers only used with


singular uncountable nouns

Quantifrers used with


all nouns

a couple of (the), a number of, another (of the),


both (ofl fthe), each (of the), either (of thd,
every, neither (of thd, the enttre, the whole
(ot) (the), ( a) few (of thd, only a few (of thd,
half (ofl fthe), many (of thd, several (of the)

an amount of , a great deal of , a little


bf the), little bf the), much (of the),
only a little bf the)

all (of) (the),

g#
A
a

.il:,
T?O

g a p air of

a few = some; few = not many; only a few = not many


/iftle + countable noun = smalli little + uncountable noun = notmuch;

alittle+

all (of)

a lot of lots of fthe),


(thd, any (of the), enough (of the

more (of the), most

bf

the), no, none (of

thd, plenty of fthe), some (of the)

uncountable noun = some

Noun phrases

talking about one thing, but not being specific


mentioning something for the first time
talking about things generally (formal)

rP*
s
.a

I'd like to go to a concert tonight but there's nothing good on.


l've had a great idea!

poet sees the world differently. (

= pssls see ... )

We use a before a consonant sound, and an before a vowel sound. lt is the sound and not the spelling that is important

(eg a unigue experience, an umbrellal.

m*

We use

s.lHffi

a/anto show what group someone or something belongs to, or to classify lt/him/her.

Liz is

a modernist.

talking generally (formal)

the band you were talking about?


The guitar is one of the o/dest musicalinstruments.
( = Guitars are ... I

plural countable and uncountable nouns

being specific

Ihe

singular uncountable nouns

being specific
talking generally (formal)

Who did the publicity for the show?


Pop music has always appealed more to the young

being specific

singular countable nouns

with some adjectives to mean groups


of people

Is that

scales are balanced to symbolise equality.

than the old.

We often use the with physical things that are unique (eg the moon, the Queen).

We often use the with superlatives (eg fhe bes0 and cardinal numbers {eg the first).

We can use the to mean the well-known or the famous.


,/ I bumped into Damian Hirst, the artist, in the supermarket. ( = the well-known artist)

With plural countable and uncountable nouns

talking generally

Don't let your young child use scissors unsupervised.

With singular uncountable nouns

talking generally

An arttst always needs inspiration.

rF
o

We often use no article

for concepts (ie not physical things), eg society, space, nature.

att

Time

in the 1840s, in the winter, in

in an hour, in a second

the afternoon
the King, the Principal, the President,
the British

job, work as a

People and

have

work

teacher,l met a very nice

Places

ls there a beach near here?

Public buildings

ls there a bank near here?

Entertainment
and sport

Play us a song!, I've got a


tennis ball.

Organisatrons

Does Switzedand have an


army?

Education

have a lesson, take an exam

Travel

take a taxi, catch a bus/train

in 2010, in winter, in December,


on Tuesday, at night
Russians, become President, go to
work, be at work, have work to do

American last nrght

Health

have a cold

/cough/

headache/toothache/
stomach ache

the Himatayas, the Pacific Ocean,


the Seine, the Earth, the Antarctic,
the usA, the uK, the scilly lsles
the bank, the post office, go to the

Mount Everest, Berlin, America,


Antar ctic a, Jupite r, F/eet Street,
Lake Michigan, Mykonos

in the car/taxi, on the bus/plane

on foot, go home, go by car/plane

have the flu/measles

hav

go to school/hospital/prison (as
a stu d e nt/p att ent/p r i s o ner)
hospital/prison/school (as a visitor)
play
play the guitar, the media, on the
tennis, play guitar,listen to
go
N
music,
on television, watch N
watch
the
to the cinema,
radio,
NATO
the BBC, the police, the emergency
services, the United /Vations
geography, be in class/year/form 5
be in the fust year
t,
l

e f lu/measles/to oth a che/


stomach ache

Unit

21

Sue admitted teeling rather upset.

admit
adore
advocate
appreciate

avoid
help

can't

,tt

aC'
G'

I carry on
I compare
I consider
I contemplate
I delay
I deny

discuss
dislike
end up
endure
enjoy

Many verbs are followed by a preposition + -ing form.


Damien insisted on going to the party.
t'm looking forward

to meeting your

mind

resent

miss

resist

postpone

risk

practtse

suggest

put off
recommend

take up

brother.

The verbs feel, hear, see, notice, overhear and watch can also be followed by an object + the bare infinitive
(without to).

lsawMartha cross the road.

(=lsaw allof

When the verb and the gerund refer

escape I give up
face
I include
fancy
I involve
feellike I justify
finish
I keep (on)
foresee I mention

detest

it) {

lsawMartha crossing theroad.(=lsawpartof it.)


to different subjects, we can use an object pronoun or a possessive pronoun to

make it clear.

Do

you mind me/my going out with your sister?

They caught

Can

afford

attempt

agree

beg

aim

cease

appear

choose

apply

claim

arrange

come

aspire

dare

him taking money from the ttll.

you afford to buy that car?

decide I help
demand I hesitate
deserve I hope
desie
I learn
expect I manage
fat
I need
happen I neglect

offer

opt

I resolye
I rush
I seem

plan
prepare I strive
pretend I tend
promise I undertake
refuse
I volunteer

vote

wait
want

work
yearn

My sister advised me to tell Jim the truth.

ask

choose

desire

asslgn

command

employ

expect
force
free
help

assist

compel

empower

hire

authorise

convince

enable

advise

CAUSC

decide

allow

challenge

defy

dare

18fi

intend

I invite
I lead
I motivate
ti

move

order I raise
permit I recommend

persuade I recruit
pick
I remind
preoare I reouest
promot I select

inspire
tnstruct

I need
I nominate

The teacher /et

the class leave early.

signal

teach
tell
tempt

trust
want
warn

Verbal complements

*
*

ln passive forms, make is followed by the full infinitive

I was made

to apologise to my

sister.

The verbs dare and need can be used as modals, in which case they are followed by the bare infinitive.
You needn't invite Ralph if you'd rather not.
I don't dare tell Simone what happened.

consider/
imagine

forget
$O

Mum made me apologise to my sister.

llnit 23

On

like
mean

regret

remember

verb (+ obiectl + infinitive

verb (+ object) + -ing

believe; think something islwas


l've always considered him to be a friend.

think about

not do something you were planning to do


I forgot to ask Brian about the wedding.

not be able to remember a past event


l'll never forget asking Helen to marry me.

stop one action or subject of discussion and start another


We chatted about the football for a while and then he
went on to tell me about his divorce.

continue
How can you go on living with Michael?

be in the habit of doing; think it right to do


I like to eat with my f amily once a week.

enjoy

intend
l'm sure Rania didn't mean

involve

to upset

We're considering getting engaged.

I don't like being spoken to in such a rude manner.

you.

be sorry about giving someone bad news


(used with verbs such as say, tell, inform, etc)
We regret to inform you that the hotel is full.
do something you are,/were planning to do

Being in love means never having to say you're sorry.


be sorry about what (has) happened
Do you regret splitting up with Alec?

think of a past event

Did you remember to order the flowers?

ldon't remember askingfor your

stop

interrupt an action to do something else


Why didn't you stop to think before you acted?

stop an action
Will you please just stop telling me what to do?

try

make an effort to achieve something


Try notto forgether birthday.

do something as an experiment to solve a problem


You could

opinion.

try buying her some flowers.

With some verbs, such as find, think or consider, it is often possible to use it as a preparatory object.

,/ I consider it

incredible that James and Alice are still together.

The subjunctive is a verb form which does not take -s in the third person singular.
It is possible to use the subjunctive in thatclauses after words suggesting that something is necessary or preferable.

./

The doctor suggested that Sam

take some time off

work. /

lt is very important that Greg not know about this.

The subjunctive forms for be are I be, you be, etc.


,/ lt's absolutely essential that I be informed as soon as the President arrives.
We can also use should.
The doctor suggested

that Sam (shoulil take some ttme off work.

rg7

:zS
"?i{...i

XJff,::ffiiJ'['-f'f,f- [i:i3;$ fl1 ;fl* ffi ::HXtffiJ:change

the tense ot

*n't

t'. p."* *t,,rrv

',i*

r,.

Direct
present simple: Sam doesn,t ptay hockey very
often.
present continuous: l'm winning!
present perfect simple:
trophy before!

l've

past simple: Fiona said that Sam didnt ptay hockey very
often.
past continuous: Carol shouted to us that she was winning.
past perfect simple: Paul said that he,d never been given
a trophy

never been given a

before.
past perfect continuous: She to/d us that they,d been playing
for
four hours.

present perfect continuous: They,ve been playing


for four hours.
past simple: We lostthe match.

past perfect simple: Finally he told us that they had lost


the match.
past perfect continuous: She said they had been winning

past continuou s: We were winning until half-time.

until

half-time.

a
=
g
a
.

when something is still true, we can change tense but we don't have
to.
The arttcle said that fishing is/was the host popular sport in Britain.

/
/

Although.we can usually leave out that(Alan totd me (that)


Queen Victoria... ), we cannot leave out that after the verbs
reply and shout.
I replied that going swimming in such cold water was
a ridiculous idea.

&
=
=

If the reporting verb is in the past (eg said), we sometimes have

to change modals and semi-modaf,


Could, would, should, oughtto, had better and need do not change.
'l could swim when lwas three,' said Lizzie. ---'>
Lizzie said thTt she could swim when she was three

Direct

speech

Keporteo

13

we are reporting a scientific or historical fact, we don,t usually change


tense.
Alan told me that Queen victoria hated Gladstone, the prime Miiister. "

!h9.n

&

speech

will/shatt

can

rnust

have to

don't/doesn't have to

would

could

rnust
had to
be to
should

had to

didn't have to

mustn't

may

amls/are going to

mustn't

might

was/were going to

be not to
shouldn't

When we are expressing obligation, must in direct speech usually


changes

speech.

to had to, be to

/'You must do what the referee tells you,'

or

shouldin reported

said the coach.+ The coach said that we had to


do what the referee to/d us.
when we are expressing obligation, mustn'tcan become mustn,t, be notto
or shouldn't.

l'You mustn't

cheat under any circumstancesl


under any circumstances.

We were told that we mustn,t

Must doesn't usually change

y' 'lt must

202

were to

shoutd

were not to / shouldnt cheat

to had to or should when we argexpressing probability.


have felt wonder-ful when they won!' said
Dave said thatjt rnust have fett wonderful when

Dave.

Reporting Urut

25

speech
my: lt's my turn.

Direct

I Reported speech
I his/her: Eddie pointed out that it was his turn.
this/that + noun: I boughtthis fishing rod yesterday. I the/that: Linda said she'd boughtthe fishing rod the day
this/that + verb: Ihis is a great game!
| iVthat: Tony said it was a great game.
these/those + noun: Look at these baseball gloves! I the/those: Alison told us to look at the baseball gloves.
these/those +verb: Theseare thebestbaseball I they:She saidtheywerethebestbaseballgloves
gloves I've ever seen.
I she'd ever seen.
(without
uerb + these/those
an object): I've had these I them; She said she'd had them for years.

We do not need

'{f

/'l'll

.E

ffi

see

before.

to change time words/phrases when the information is still true at the moment of speaking/writing.

you at the match next week,' said Dave.

Dave told us he'd see us at the match next week.

ln narratives, writers often use direct speech time words and phrases for dramatic effect.
,/Carlo turned to Fraser and said that, here, now, they would decide who the champion was once and for all.

Reported speech
now, atthe moment

then, at that moment

the following/next day, the day after

next week/year/etc

the following/next week, the week after

that night

last week/year/elc

the week before, the previous week

the day before, the previous day

ago

before, previously, earlier

there

*
*

With reported questions, we make the same changes regarding tense, pronoun and time and place word,/phrases as we
do with reported speech.
ln reported questions we don't use the question form or question marks.

Direct speech
Questions beginning with the verbs have, do, be and modals
'Do you wantto play Monopoly?'asked Cheryl.

Cheryl asked if/whether we wanted to play Monopoly.

Questions with what, who, which, when, where, why and how
'What fime did the match start?' asked Jimmy.

Jimmy asked Andrea what time the match had started.

g,
g
6

The structure question word + infinitive is very common with reported questions.

She asked me how to tune a piano.

He asked me what to do.

!e!fit#{}

Commands
'Put the cricket bats away!' said Alex.
Requests

'Would vou Dut the cricket bats awav?' asked Alex.

command / order / instruct + sb + full infinitive


told me to put the cricket bats away.
ask + sb + full infinitive
Alex asked me to Dut the cricket bats

tell/
Alex

Different reporting verbs take different grammatical patterns, Some verbs can take more than one pattern, eg deny doing,
Common reporting verbs include: accuse, agree, apologise, ask, beg, claim, command, cry, deny, explain, instruct, order,
promise, refuse, reply, respond, say, shout, state, suggest, tell, whisper

?ft?