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An International Journal

the Convective Drying Behavior of a Single Rice

Kernel

Ramadan Elgamal , Frederik Ronsse , Sherif M. Radwan & Jan G. Pieters

To cite this article: Ramadan Elgamal , Frederik Ronsse , Sherif M. Radwan & Jan G. Pieters

(2014) Coupling CFD and Diffusion Models for Analyzing the Convective Drying Behavior of a

Single Rice Kernel, Drying Technology, 32:3, 311-320, DOI: 10.1080/07373937.2013.829088

To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07373937.2013.829088

http://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?journalCode=ldrt20

Download by: [Banaras Hindu University BHU]

Copyright 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

ISSN: 0737-3937 print/1532-2300 online

DOI: 10.1080/07373937.2013.829088

the Convective Drying Behavior of a Single Rice Kernel

Ramadan ElGamal,12 Frederik Ronsse,1 Sherif M. Radwan,2 and Jan G. Pieters1

1

Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Department of Biosystems Engineering, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium

Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt

convective drying was analyzed numerically by solving heat and

moisture transfer equations using a coupled computational uid

dynamics (CFD) and diffusion model. The transfer coefcients

were computed simultaneously with the external ow eld and the

internal diffusive eld of the grain. The model was validated using

results of a thin-layer drying experiments from the literature.

The effects of velocity and temperature of the drying air on the

rice kernel were analyzed. It was found that the air temperature

was the major variable that affected the drying rate of the rice

kernel. The initial drying rates (in rst 20 min) were 7, 12, and

19% per hour at inlet air temperatures of 30, 45, and 60 C,

respectively. Important temperature gradients within the grain

existed only in the rst few minutes of the drying process. The

moisture content gradients reached a maximum value of 11.7%

(db) mm1 at approximately 45 min along the short axis in the

thickness direction. The variation in the inlet air velocity showed

a minor effect on the drying rate of the rice kernel. The heat and

mass transfer coefcients varied from 16.57 to 203.46 Wm2 K1

and from 0.0160 to 0.1959 ms1 , respectively. The importance

of the computation of the transfer coefcients with the heat and

mass transfer model is demonstrated.

Keywords CFD; Diffusion model; Grain drying; Heat and mass

transfer; Mathematical modeling

INTRODUCTION

Rice is an important agricultural product worldwide with

a total annual production of about 730.2 million tonnes of

rough rice in 2012.1 Rough rice is generally harvested at

1822% moisture content on a wet basis (wb) and requires

drying down to around 13% for safe storage.2 Therefore,

rough rice is typically dried immediately after harvest to be

stored safely. Proper drying helps to improve rice grain quality

and increase storage time. In general, two kinds of methods

are commonly used to dry grains: convective drying methods

Correspondence: Jan G. Pieters, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Department of Biosystems Engineering, Ghent University,

Coupure Links 653, 9000 Ghent, Belgium; E-mail: Jan.Pieters@

UGent.be

Color versions of one or more of the gures in the article can be

found online at www.tandfonline.com/ldrt.

using solar radiation or infrared radiation. At an industrial scale,

drying is typically carried out by blowing heated air over the

grains. Due to its importance and complexity, rice drying has

been an area of intensive research.3 The rate at which grain

can be dried convectively is dependent on its temperature and

moisture content as well as on the air ow characteristics.4

Moisture and heat transfer inside and outside a rough rice kernel

are two governing physical processes that occur simultaneously

and interactively because evaporation of liquid into vapor

consumes latent heat. In addition, convection drying of

agricultural and food materials is energy consuming. Therefore,

improvement in the efciency of the process, including the

high quality of dry products with the lowest possible energy

consumption and shorter drying time, is essential for the food

processing industry.

Mathematical modeling has now become a common practice

in analyzing drying phenomena due to the cost and time

involved in experimental studies.5 Over the past few decades,

several approaches have been proposed to deal with mass and

heat transfer phenomena in materials during drying. No single

universal model of drying can be used successfully for all kinds

of grains and apparatuses in different regimes because of the

multitude of variations in internal and external conditions,6

including the theoretical formulation of the transport model, the

numerical procedures used to solve the governing equations,

a proper denition of the transport properties of both air and

food material, and the evaluation of heat and mass transfer

coefcients performed on the basis of literature data or ad hoc

experiments.7

A considerable number of theoretical and experimental

studies have been conducted to describe the drying process of

grains. Husain et al.8 assumed the rice kernel to be a long

cylinder and presented a numerical model of simultaneous

heat and mass transfer for rough rice kernel drying.

Dutta et al.9 numerically studied the drying characteristics

of a spherical grain using the Crank-Nicholson implicit

numerical procedure with a Dirichlet boundary condition

(known boundary temperature and moisture content) instead of

a convective boundary condition. Yang et al.10 experimentally

investigated the drying and tempering behavior of rough rice

311

312

ELGAMAL ET AL.

element model for a single kernel with experimental data.

They used constant heat and mass transfer coefcients to

dene the Neumann boundary on the kernel surface. The

predicted results agreed well with experimental data. Mandas

and Habte11 developed a simulation tool using the nite

difference method to simulate a nonequilibrium mathematical

model for deep-bed drying of barley. In their model, the

thermal properties of the grain and air were assumed to

be constant. Hemis et al.12 developed a nonequilibrium

mathematical model to simulate the deep-bed convective

drying of wheat and barley grains. The model was solved using

a nite difference discretization scheme and was validated

using experimental data. The predicted results agreed well with

the experimental data. Wu et al.13 used 2D and 3D nite

volume methods to compute heat and mass transfer inside

a single rice kernel and validate the models with their

experimental data. They concluded that it is sufcient to use

2D simulation in determining important features inside a rice

kernel such as the time for the occurrence of the maximum

moisture content gradient. Ghosh et al.14 developed a 3D

simultaneous heat and moisture transfer drying model for a

single wheat kernel. The boundary conditions were assumed

to be of the Neumann type (known ux or adiabatic) with

constant heat and mass transfer coefcients. Dong et al.15

performed a theoretical analysis for moisture content

responses of rough rice to drying and tempering treatments.

A simplied sphere drying model was used to predict the

intrakernel moisture content distributions. Chueaprasat and

Chitsomboon3 solved the governing equations describing the

simultaneous heat and mass transfer for a rice grain during a

drying process using a computational uid dynamics (CFD)

code based on the nite volume method. In their study, the

external air ow was excluded and transfer coefcients at the

boundaries were specied.

The majority of the above listed studies assumed either

(1) constant convective heat and mass transfer coefcients,

(2) a Dirichlet boundary condition instead of a convective

boundary condition, and (3) a simplied 1D or 2D

geometry. Adopting constant convective heat and mass

transfer coefcients in the analysis is not quite an accurate

representation of nature. In convective drying, the boundary

surfaces are subjected to convective heat and mass

transfer with a owing stream of dry and warm air. This

necessitates a mathematical model with convective (Robin)

boundary conditions instead of a Dirichlet or Neumann

boundary condition.16 So far, computational drying

technology is mainly a semitheoretical procedure where

boundary data such as heat and mass transfer coefcients

are specied from experimental correlations. It is highly

desirable for all transfer coefcients be computed rather than

specied.3

To the authors knowledge, no simulations have been

described in the literature to predict the rate of heat and mass

ow with respect to the external ow and temperature elds.

Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the

drying process of a rough rice grain by CFD simulation where

all local transfer coefcients are computed simultaneously with

the external ow eld and the internal diffusive eld of the

grain.

MATHEMATICAL MODEL

Transport Equations

The coupled CFD and diffusion model through a single

kernel was used in this study. The assumptions used for the

mathematical models were as follows: (1) the rice kernel is

a continuous ellipsoid divided into three layers: hull, bran,

and endosperm (Fig. 1); (2) the heat conduction and moisture

diffusion processes are unsteady; (3) shrinkage or deformation

of the rice kernel during drying is negligible; (4) no heat

generation inside the rice kernel (i.e., no heat of respiration is

included); and (5) the air ow is laminar.

To avoid the discontinuity problem occurring at the rice

kernelair interface, the moisture concentration has been

modeled as a continuous variable (i.e., continuous over the

entire domain; thus both the gas phase and rice kernel). To this

end, the moisture concentration of the air is not expressed as the

actual moisture content but as an equilibrium moisture content;

that is, as if the rice domain were extended over the entire air

domain. The actual air moisture concentration is then calculated

based on the desorption concentration, mentioned in Table 1.

Based on the above assumptions, the governing equations

describing the coupled CFD and diffusion model through

a single kernel in a three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate

system (x y z) are given by:

For the rice kernel:

M

= DT M

(1)

t

T

Cp M

= kMT

(2)

t

For the drying air:

M

+ u M = Dw T M (3)

t

FIG. 1. Dimensions (mm) of the hull, bran, and endosperm within a single

rice kernel (only a quarter of the kernel shown); X, Y , and Z axes are in the

direction of length, width, and thickness, respectively, of the kernel.

313

TABLE 1

Material properties used in this study

Parameter (units)

Value or formulation

Cp (Jkg1 K1

Bran: 0.125/[1/(1201 + 3807 M 0 875/CpEndosperm ]

Hull: 0.2/[1/(1109 + 4477 M 0 1/CpBran 0 7/CpEndosperm ]

c 1456 + 705 M

c for Hull = 0.532, Bran = 1.493, Endosperm = 1.257

0 0637 + 0 0958 M/0 656 0 475 M

D = A exp(B/T + 273 15/3600

Endosperm: A = 1 6163 B = 5289 5

Bran: A = 110 969 B = 7042 5

Hull: A = 3 0101 B = 6000 5

0.229 104 [(Ta + 273 15/2731 75

0 295 0 045 lnTa + 35 01 ln(RH)]

2,500 kJ/kg

(kgm3

k (Wm1 K1

D (m2 s1

Reference

Dw (m2 s1

Me (% db)

21

21

21

22

23

24

T

= Cp Mu T = kMT (4)

t

Outlet T x y z 0 = T0

(9)

Inow M = Me

(10)

Outow n D M = 0

Cp M

+ u = 0

t

(5)

u

+ uu = p + u + uT

t

2

uI

3

(6)

The following conditions were applied to the boundary in

our model:

Vapor mass and heat transfer of the kernelair interface

The kernel surface is considered to be a no-slip wall and

the channel wall is considered to be a slip wall.

The drying air enters the channel at atmospheric pressure

with constant velocity (u and leaves the channel at

atmospheric pressure.

The moisture content of the supplied air is equal to the

equilibrium moisture content of the isotherm relationship

between the kernel and the drying air.

At the kernelair interface (latent heat ux boundary

condition):

k

T

= m

n

(7)

Inlet T x y z 0 = T

(8)

(11)

Initial conditions:

Mx y z 0 = M0

(12)

T x y z 0 = T0

(13)

functions of kernel temperature and/or moisture content and

differed for the different layers in the kernel, and Me and

Dw change with the drying medium temperature and relative

humidity. The formulae of those parameters used in this study

are listed in Table 1.

Dimensions

The rice kernel was modeled as a continuous ellipsoid

divided into three layers from the surface to the center: hull,

bran, and endosperm (Fig. 1). The ellipsoid was assumed to

have the following dimensions: 8.8 mm on the longitudinal

axis (X-axis), 2.4 mm on the short axis (Y -axis), and 1.92 mm

on the shortest axis (Z-axis).13

The rice kernel to be dried was modeled inside a cylindrical

channel with 10-mm radius and 90-mm length and exposed to

air ow through the channel. The kernel was placed centrally

at the middle of the channel and its longitudinal axis parallel

to the air direction (Fig. 2).

Model Implementation

All mathematical models were solved using the COMSOL

Multiphysics simulation program (ver. 4.3 Comsol Inc., Palo

Alto, CA, USA), which uses the nite element method to

314

ELGAMAL ET AL.

TABLE 2

Drying conditions used for the different simulations

Case

T ( C)

RH (%)

u (ms1

60

45

30

60

60

7 5

15 5

35

7 5

7 5

0 1

0 1

0 1

0 05

0 5

Reference case

2

3

4

5

FIG. 2.

drying.

geometry is shown in Fig. 3. The number of elements in

the rice kernel and the channel were 121,366 and 106,862,

respectively. The grid dependency test shows no effect when

increasing the number of cells.

In COMSOL, the time-dependent solver (BDF) was used

with the direct solver (MUMPS). The number of degrees of

freedom solved for was 158,490 and the absolute tolerance was

0.0001. For a drying process of 5,400 s, the simulation takes

about 76 min on an Intel Core i7 PC (Windows 7, 3.4 GHz,

12 GB RAM).

The solution procedure contained the following steps: (1)

giving an initial temperature and moisture content distributions

inside the rice kernel; (2) solving the heat transfer equation to

obtain the temperature elds; (3) calculating that local mass

diffusion coefcient, which is dependent on the local kernel

temperature; (4) solving the mass transfer equation to obtain

the moisture content distributions; (5) calculating the local

values of the thermal conductivity, specic heat, and density

of rice, which are dependent on the local moisture content;

and (6) substituting all of the calculated values for the initial

ones, going back to step 2 and repeating the subsequent steps

until convergence.

Parameter Study Simulations

Simulations were carried out for a drying air temperature of

60 C, relative humidity of 7.5%, and air velocity of 0.1 ms1 .

These conditions are considered to be the reference case.

Knowledge of drying rates at various drying air conditions is

essential to obtain higher milling yields.17 To investigate the

effect of different conditions of the drying air on the drying

rate of the rice kernel, the simulations were repeated for two

different air temperatures (30, 45 C) and two different air

velocities (0.05, 0.5 ms1 , as shown in Table 2. The initial

temperature and initial moisture content of the rice kernel in all

cases were set at 27 C and 27% db, respectively. Additionally,

the kernel was rotated horizontally over 90 to be perpendicular

to the air direction to investigate the effect of kernel orientation

on the drying rate under reference case drying conditions only.

Determination of Heat and Mass Transfer Coefcients

Due to the impossibility of separating the convective

transfer coefcient from the complicated boundary at the

rice kernel in the coupled CFD and diffusion model, CFD

simulations were carried out to analyze the external ow and

temperature elds at steady-state. The solution domain for

the CFD simulations was the channel with an inactive rice

kernel. Interior boundaries were placed around the rice kernel

to exclude it from the CFD simulation. Simulations were

carried out for three different inlet velocities (0.05, 0.1, and

0.5 ms1 . The objective of performing these CFD simulations

was to calculate the heat transfer coefcient around the rice

kernel placed inside the channel. In the simulation, an inlet

temperature of 60 C and a wall temperature of 27 C were

assumed for the kernel surface.

From the temperature elds obtained, the local convective

heat transfer coefcient was determined using the heat balance

including conductive and convective heat transfer:

T

= hT Ts

(14)

n

After the convective heat transfer coefcient (h was

determined, the convective mass transfer coefcient (hm

k

program.

315

concentration boundary layers according to Chilton and

Colburn18 :

2

Dw Le 3

hm = h

(15)

k

Le =

(16)

Dw

MODEL VALIDATION

Experimental data on thin-layer drying of rice conducted

by Yang et al.10 and Wu et al.13 were used to validate the

present simulation. The conditions used in the experiment were

as shown in Table 3.

The predicted average moisture content of the kernel and

the experimental data of Yang et al.10 and Wu et al.13

are shown in Figs. 4 and 5. Preliminary simulation results

showed a difference in average moisture contents (<1% wb),

especially at the later drying stage, between the predicted and

measured data. Such a discrepancy was believed to result from

the fact that the model parameters, such as the mass diffusion

coefcient D, which is the major parameter related to mass

transfer rate, were not measured for the Cypress cultivar used

in the experimental studies.1013 Instead, it was obtained from

literature (Table 1), which was for a different rice variety

Lemont. Therefore, correction was made to D in this study

TABLE 3

Drying condition used for thin-layer drying tests

T C) RH (%) u (ms1 M0 (wb) T0 ( C) Reference

60

60

17

17

0.11

0.11

21.4

22.1

27

29

10

13

rough rice kernel at 60 C drying air temperature, 17% relative humidity, and

21.4% (wb) initial moisture content.

at 60 C drying air temperature, 17% relative humidity, and 22.1% (wb) initial

moisture content.

obtained by Wu et al.13 In Figs. 4 and 5, D of Lemont and D

of Cypress represent the simulated results without and with

the correction of D, respectively. From the two gures, it can

be seen that the simulated moisture content agreed well with

the experimental data after the correction of D.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Results of the Reference Case

The results of the reference case simulation (air temperature

60 C, relative humidity 7.5%, and air velocity 0.1 ms1

are presented in this section. The velocity contours and the

temperature prole of time (60 s) in the XY plane for the

reference case are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. It is seen from

Fig. 6 that the velocity was comparatively lower behind the

kernel compared to other locations around the kernel. This

makes the heat and mass transfer coefcients leeward at the

(u = 0.1 ms1 .

316

ELGAMAL ET AL.

FIG. 7. Temperature distribution around and inside the rice kernel in the XY

plane at (Z = 0 mm) after 60 s of drying (reference case).

rice kernel in the region closer to that boundary, which can be

seen in Fig. 7.

The moisture gradients have been identied as the major

source of ssuring of a rice grain. Sarker et al.19 and Yang

et al.10 found that moisture content gradients inside the rice

kernel have great effects on rice grain quality. The moisture

content gradient was determined as the moisture content

difference between the outer bran node and the center node of

the grain kernel divided by the distance between them. In order

to examine the moisture and thermal gradients in detail, it is

important to know the temperature and moisture distributions

in the kernel. One advantage of CFD is that temperature and

moisture elds over the whole computational domain at each

time step are available. The moisture distributions within the

rice kernel after different drying time step are illustrated in

Fig. 8. It shows that the moisture content at the kernel center

was still at a level of about 23% (db) after 60 min of drying.

However, the moisture content at the kernel surface quickly

approached the equilibrium moisture content of 4.7% (db) in

this drying condition, which agrees with the ndings reported

by Yang et al.10

Moreover, during rough rice drying, husk loses its moisture

very rapidly in the initial stages of drying and the brown rice

(consisting of endosperm and the bran) loses its moisture at a

much lower but nearly steady rate. These observations clearly

support the earlier ndings that continuing heated air drying

after 20 min is not very effective because the husk is already

dried by this time and moisture loss occurs mainly from the

inner brown rice kernel, which is very slow to lose moisture.

Figure 9 illustrates the moisture gradients along the two

short axes (i.e., Y and Z axes) under the drying conditions of

the reference case. It can be seen that the gradients reached a

maximum value of 11.7% (db) mm1 at approximately 45 min

along the Z-axis in the thickness direction, and peaked at

FIG. 8. Moisture content distributions (% db) inside the rice kernel in the

XY plane for the reference case.

width direction. It was found that the maximum moisture

gradients in the thickness direction were nearly 1.5 times

those in the direction of width for the rice under the drying

conditions of the reference case. These results corresponded

well with the results of Wu et al.,13 who found that the

maximum moisture gradients in the thickness direction were

nearly double those in the width direction for the rice variety

used in this study. Because the moisture gradient remained at

a high value throughout the rest of the drying process after it

peaked, as can be seen in Fig. 9, tempering should be used

in order to reduce a possible contribution of moisture gradient

to hygroscopically induced ssuring.10 The tempering stage

FIG. 9.

317

FIG. 11. Average moisture content of the kernel at different drying air

temperatures.

plane for the reference case.

of the grain. This eliminates to a large extent the moisture

gradient inside the grain imposed during the previous drying

stage, which in turn inuences the drying rate in the next

drying stage and, consequently, the quality of the nal product

is improved.20

The temperature distribution within the rice kernel at

different time steps (reference case) is shown in Fig. 10. It

shows that in the initial stage of drying, the temperature of

the front tip of the kernel was higher than the back tip at the

same time. This indicates that the heat transfer coefcients

vary along the kernel surface, as will be discussed later in this

study. For instance, after 10 s of drying the temperature of the

front tip increased to 48 C, and the temperature of the back tip

increased to 39 C. Meanwhile, the center temperature was still

at the initial temperature (27 C) after 10 s of drying. As the

drying process continued, the temperature distribution leveled

off rapidly. Therefore, the drying process needs to be managed

carefully in order to minimize the damage that may arise from

the thermal stress within the kernel.

Effect of Different Drying Conditions on the Drying Rate

The simulation was repeated for different drying air

conditions (Table 3). The drying curves obtained from the

reference case simulation and the different drying temperatures

(cases 2 and 3) are shown in Fig. 11. As expected, the drying

rates of the rice kernel were higher at higher temperatures.

For example, the initial drying rates (in the rst 20 min) of

the rice kernel at 30, 45, and 60 C were 7, 12, and 19% per

hour, respectively. This increase in the drying rates of the rice

increase in moisture diffusivity, which makes moisture move

faster at higher temperatures. Figure 11 also demonstrates that

the different orientations of the kernel to the air ow direction

did not show any effect on the average moisture content of the

kernel under the same drying conditions (reference case).

On the contrary, the variation in the inlet air velocity

(reference case, cases 4 and 5) showed a minor effect on the

drying rate of the rice kernel as shown in Fig. 12. The drying

curves reveal that up to 90 min of drying, the average moisture

contents of the rice kernels dried by air at the three velocities

varied very little (<0.22%). No differences were observed in

the average moisture content of the rice kernel at air velocities

of 0.05 and 0.1 ms1 . However, the air velocity of 0.5 ms1

had a slightly higher moisture removal up to 90 min of drying.

Figure 13 summarizes the effect of the inlet air velocity

on the change in the kernel temperature. It can be observed

that the heat transfer rate of the rice kernel increased with

the increase in inlet air velocity. Figure 13 also demonstrates

that a minor difference in the average kernel temperature was

FIG. 12. Average moisture content of the kernel at different drying air

velocities.

318

ELGAMAL ET AL.

FIG. 13. Average temperatures of the kernel at different drying air velocities

and different orientations.

FIG. 15. Heat transfer coefcient along the upper edge of the kernel surface

at different inlet velocities.

ow direction. The kernel temperature increased minimally

faster in the perpendicular orientation than in the parallel

orientation (reference case) with the air direction due to the

altered ow pattern of the drying air over the kernel surface.

coefcient was sufciently higher at the boundary facing the

inlet (Fig. 14) because of the immediate contact with the hot

air. On the contrary, the heat transfer coefcients were quite

low at the boundary facing the outlet because of less exposure

to the hot air. Similar results were reported in the literature for

drying of moist objects shaped as rectangular cuboids.16

Figure 15 shows how the heat transfer coefcient increased

along the kernel surface with increasing inlet air velocity. The

heat transfer coefcients are plotted along the length direction

(X-axis) at different inlet air velocities. At the front tip facing

the inlet, the heat transfer coefcient increased from 90 to 200

Wm2 K1 when the air ow velocity increased from 0.05 to

0.5 ms1 .

After the heat transfer coefcient was determined, the

mass transfer coefcient was calculated from Eq. (15). The

mass transfer coefcient therefore takes the same trend

as the heat transfer coefcient presented above. Table 4

presents quantitatively the convective heat and mass transfer

coefcients for all three velocities considered. The values

of heat and mass transfer coefcients varied from 17 to

203 W/m2 K and from 0.016 to 0.196 m/s, respectively, for

different inlet velocities. Yang et al.,10 Chueaprasat and

Chitsomboon,3 and Wu et al.13 used 0.0434 ms1 for the

mass transfer coefcient and 36.5 Wm2 K1 as the heat

Three CFD simulations were carried out for inlet air

velocities of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 ms1 . From the temperature

elds obtained, the local convective heat transfer coefcient

was determined using Eq. (14). Because the trends of the

heat transfer coefcient contours are the same for all inlet

velocities, only one case is presented in Fig. 14. It shows the

distribution of the heat transfer coefcient at the kernel surface

for air inlet velocity of 0.1 ms1 . The heat transfer coefcient

varies along the X-direction. It should also be mentioned that

the values of the heat transfer coefcient are symmetric about

the Y and Z axes because of the orientation of the kernel to the

TABLE 4

Heat and mass transfer coefcients at different inlet air

velocities

h (Wm2 K1

u (ms1 Min

FIG. 14. Heat transfer coefcient distribution along the kernel surface at an

inlet velocity of 0.1 ms1 .

0.05

0.1

0.5

hm (ms1

Max

Average

18.66 113 77 26.19 0.0180 0.1095 0 02521

24.06 203 46 42.11 0.0230 0.1959 0 04053

authors are nearly twice the average values found in the study

presented here for the same drying conditions of the Cypress

rice. Because the boundary layer around the kernel is not

the limiting factor for drying in the presented geometry, this

did not really affect their results. However, in other setups

(for simulating deep bed dryers) the precise determination

of transfer coefcients (and their distributions) might highly

inuence the results.

CONCLUSIONS

A coupled CFD and diffusion model was developed

in this study where all transfer coefcients are computed

simultaneously with the external ow eld and the internal

diffusive eld of the rice kernel. The model was used

successfully to describe the coupled heat and mass transfer

inside a single rice kernel during drying. The theoretical

prediction of moisture kinetics of rice kernels was veried

using experimental data from literature.

It was observed that an increase in the air temperature gave

rise to an increase in the drying rate of the rice kernel. The

initial drying rate (over the rst 20 min) increased from 7 to

19% per hour with an increase in the drying air temperature

from 30 to 60 C.

The heat and mass transfer coefcients increased with

increasing air ow velocity. On the other hand, there was no

visible effect of the inlet air velocity in the range of 0.05

0.5 ms1 on the drying rates, due to the diffusion limitation

on the drying rate for the single rice kernel.

The heat and mass transfer coefcients varied along the

kernel surface. Their values were much higher at the boundary

facing the inlet and quite low at the boundary facing the outlet

of the drying air.

It is clear that the proposed heat and mass transfer

model considering variable heat and mass transfer coefcients

is capable of predicting reasonably accurate temperature

and moisture content distributions for a single rice kernel

at different temperatures and air velocities. Moreover, the

proposed model can take into account different energy

inuences such as infrared, microwave, or solar radiation

exposure and can be extended to allow modeling of a bulk

of rice kernels or other grains for further large-scale drying

process optimization.

NOMENCLATURE

A, B, c Constants

BDF

Backward differentiation formula

Specic heat (Jkg1 K1

Cp

D

Moisture diffusivity (m2 s1

h

Convective heat transfer coefcient (Wm2 K1

hm

Convective mass transfer coefcient (ms1

I

Identity matrix

k

Thermal conductivity (Wm1 K1

Le

M

m

MUMPS

n

p

RH

T

t

u

x y z

319

Lewis number

Moisture content, % (db)

Mass ux (kgm2 s1

MUltifrontal Massively Parallel Sparse direct

Solver

Normal vector

Air pressure (Pa)

Relative humidity (decimal)

Temperature (K)

Time (s)

Air velocity (ms1

Divergence operator

Cartesian coordinates

Greek Symbols

Thermal diffusivity (m2 s1

Latent heat of vaporization (Jkg1

Dynamic viscosity of air (Pas)

Density (kgm3

Subscripts

0

a

e

s

w

and Superscripts

Initial conditions

Inlet air conditions

Air

Equilibrium conditions

Kernel surface

Water vapor

Wet basis

FUNDING

The authors acknowledge the nancial support provided by

the Egyptian Ministry of Higher Education under the joint

supervision Ph.D. grant program.

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