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Name: _______KEY________

Date: _________ Blk: _____


Heart and Circulatory System Review Worksheet
Part A: Define the following terms in your own word. Be clear and concise!
arterioles
small branches of arteries
arterial duct
connects pulmonary artery to aorta in fetal system to shuttle blood from pulmonary circuit
atria
top chambers of heart, collect blood from body or lungs, pump to ventricles
atrioventricular node
AV node: causes ventricles to contract after receiving signal from SA node
capillaries
microscopic blood vessels with walls one cell wall thick, across which gas exchange occurs
cholesterol
lipid necessary for normal cell function but can build up in arteries causing atherosclerosis
diastole
relaxation of heart muscle
diastolic blood pressure pressure of blood in an artery when ventricles of heart in diastole
heart attack
myocardial infarction: blood supply to part of heart muscle cut off (usually due to clogged coronary
artery)
hypertension
high blood pressure. Prevalent disease in industrialized nations, associated with atherosclerosis
hypotension
low blood pressure
lacteal
inside villi, this is where fats enter the lymphatic system
lymph
tissue fluid that has entered the lymphatic system
lymph nodes
specialized regions along lymph veins where lymph filtered, white blood cells made
lymphocytes
type of white blood cell produced in lymphatic system that makes antibodies
oval opening
in fetus, this opening connects the atria and diverts blood from pulmonary circuit.
pacemaker node
SA node
placenta
membranes and blood vessels across which mother and fetus exchange nutrients
pulmonary circulation
circulation of blood through lungs
septum
divides the two halves of the heart
sinoatrial node
pacemaker node, special nodal tissue that initiates contraction of atria every 0.85 seconds
stroke
part of brain dies due to oxygen starvation because of clogged artery
systemic circulation
circulation of blood from left ventricle through tissues of body and back to right atrium
systole
contraction of heart muscle
systolic blood pressure pressure of blood in an artery when ventricles contract
thoracic duct
major trunk of lymphatic system, drains lower portions of body
umbilical arteries
carry blood from fetal heart to tissues and placenta
venous duct
connects umbilical vein to vena cava
ventricles
larger lower 2 chambers of heart that pump blood to lungs and rest of body
venules
small branches of veins that connect to capillary beds
formed elements
solid part of blood consisting of eurythrocytes, thrombocytes, leukocytes
clotting
the process of sealing up injuries to CV system, requires plasma proteins and platelets
platelets
thrombocytes, formed elements that function in blood clotting
fibrinogen
inactive form of fibrin, a plasma protein needed for clotting
thrombin
enzyme that activates fibrinogen to fibrin in blood clotting
fibrin
protein fragments that join end to end to form framework of blood clots
antigens
anything (esp. proteins) that can be recognized by antibodies
antibodies
immunoglobulins derived from lymphocytes that specifically bind to invading pathogens
phagocytosis
cell eating: endocytosis of large particles. Many leukocytes (e.g. neutrophils, monocytes) are
phagocytes
macrophages
leukocytes formed from monocytes that act as scavangers for bacteria and debris
agglutination
clumping of red blood cells due to antibodies binding antigens on the red blood cells
Rh factor
red blood cell antigen responsible for fetal erythroblastosis
fetal erythroblastosis
condition in which antibodies from a Rh- mother attack the RBC of a Rh+ fetus

blood

liquid connective tissue consisting of plasma and formed elements that transports wastes, nutrients,
gases

Part B - Short Answers


1.
The major systemic artery in the body is the aorta.
2.

The systemic system begins with the left ventricle of the heart and ends with the right atrium of the heart.

3.

Contraction of the heart is called systole; just following contraction, blood pressure is at it highest.

4.

The SA node is often called the pacemaker.

5.

The first wave in an electrocardiogram occurs during the contraction of the atria; the second occurs
during the contraction of the ventricles.

6.

A vein is a blood vessel that takes blood to the heart.

7.

Movement of blood in the veins is aided by skeletal muscle contraction.

8.

Capillaries are tiny vessels with very thin walls, facilitating the exchange of molecules.

9.

The lymph vessels begin in the tissues and eventually join the subclavian veins.

10.

Two dietary components that may contribute to the medical condition hypertension are salt and cholesterol.

11.

A stroke occurs when brain cells are denied oxygen.

12.

Label the parts of the circulatory system in this diagram below:


9
1.
1
2.
10
3.
2
4.
11
5.
3
6.
12
7.
4
13
5

14
15

13.

16
8

superior vena cava


aorta
SA node
right atrium
AV node
inferior vena cava
tricuspic valve/right atrioventicular valve

8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

right ventricle
pulmonary artery
left pulomonary vein
left atrium
bicuspid valve/left atrioventricular valve

13.
14.
15.
16.

aortic semilunar valve


left ventricle
septum
pulomary semilunar valve

Match the structures in the key to the statements below: ARTERY/VEIN/CAPILLARY


i.
has the thickest walls: artery
ii.
has valves: vein
iii.
has the greatest total cross-sectional area: capillary

iv.
v.
vi.

takes blood away from the heart: artery


takes blood to the heart: vein
exchanges carbon dioxide and oxygen with tissues: capillary

14.

The heart beats about 70 times a minute. What actually happens is that the sinoatrial node initiates the
contraction of the atria(chambers). The nervous stimulus is picked up by the atrioventicular node, and this
initiates the contraction of the ventricles(chambers). When the chambers are not actually contracting, they
are relaxing. Contraction is termed systole, and resting is termed diastole.

15.

When the atria contracts, this forces the blood through the atrioventricular valves into the ventricles. The
closing of these valves is the lub sound. Next the ventricles contract and force the blood into the
arteries. Now the semilunar valves close, and this is the DUPP sound. A heart murmur is caused by leaky
valves.

16.

The path of blood through the heart. Starting with vena cava, list the structures in order through which
blood flows. Use the parts in the column on the left.
Structures
Correct Order
Structures
Correct Order
1. aorta
1. vena cava
8. pulmonary veins
8. pulmonary veins
2. bicuspid valve
2. right atrium
9. right atrium
9. left atrium
3. left atrium
3. tricuspid valve
10. right ventricle
10. bicuspid valve
4. left ventricle
4. right ventricle
11. semilunar valve
11. left ventricle
5. lungs
5. pulmonary semilunar
12. tricuspid valve
12. semiilunar valve
valve
6. pulmonary artery
6. pulmonary artery
13. vena cava
13. aorta
7. pulmonary
7. lung
semilunar valve

17.

Of what significance is each of the following in an


electrocardiogram like the one on the right?
i.
P wave: atria systole
ii.
iii.

18.

QRS wave: ventricular systole


T wave: ventricular recover

Trace the path of blood from:


i.
the left ventricle to the legs:
left ventricle, aorta, iliac arteries, legs
ii.

the legs to the right atrium:


iliac veins, vena cava, right atrium

iii.

the aorta to the liver:


aorta, mesenteric artery, intestine, hepatic portal vein, liver

iv.

the liver to the vena cava:


liver, hepatic vein, vena cava

Q
S

19.

Label the indicated parts of the fetal heart at right:

Arterial Duct

Oval Opening

20.

List the four structural differences between the fetal circulatory system and the adult, as well as the
function of each difference.
Name
Function
Oval opening
Bypass fetal lung by blood going from the right atrium to the left atrium.
Arterial duct
Bypass fetal lung by blood going from the pulmonary artery to the aorota.
Umbilical artery/vein
Delivers oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus
Venous due
Bypass fetal liver and connects the umbilical vein with the inferior vena cava

21.

There are only two types of lymph vessels, the lymph capillaries and the lymph veins.

22.

Mix and match the correct term for each description on the left.
O
1. largest artery
F
2. returns tissue fluid to the circulatory system
3. prevent blood from flowing in the wrong direction
A
E
4. vessel transporting blood through kidneys
G
5. vessel transporting blood through legs
K
6. localized swelling due to excess tissue fluid
M
7. supply blood to the heart
C
8. the highest arterial pressure
L
9. the lowest arterial pressure
H
10. condition of high blood pressure
N
11. "hardening of the arteries"
B
12. a stationary clot along an arterial wall
K
13. a dislodged, moving thrombus
D
14. when a portion of the brain dies due to a lack of oxygen
P
15. chest pain (including pain in the left arm)
I
16. occurs when circulation to part of the heart is blocked

A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P

valves
thrombus
systolic blood pressure
stroke
renal
lymphatic system
iliac
hypertension
heart attack
embolism
edema
diastolic blood pressure
coronary arteries
atherosclerosis
aorta
angina pectoris

23.

If you press a finger down on a prominent vein, say, on the back of your hand and then slide the finger
distally to a new pressure point closer to the fingers, would you expect the section of vein you just moved
along to refill with blood? Suppose you had moved the finger proximally toward the upper arm?
In the first case, blood would have to flow backward in the vein to refill the section you emptied; however, the valves in the
vein prevent backflow, and the vein should remain empty or refill only slowly. In the second case, the emptied section of vein
would be quickly refilled by blood traveling toward the heart.

24.

Explain how the blood that right now is arriving at your fingertips will get back to your heart. What will
drive its movement?
It will move from capillary beds to small venules, then to larger venules and then through radial veins,

25.

The smallest of the white cells is the lymphocyte, which has a mononucleus and makes antibodies.

26.

Oxygen is transported about the body in combination with hemoglobin.

27.

At the arterial side of a capillary, blood pressure aids the passage of water out of the blood. At the venous
side, osmotic pressure brings about the passage of water into the blood.

28.

Small organic molecules such as glucose are transported in the plasma portion of blood.

29.

Blood clotting is dependent on both a formed element, platelets, and two proteins in the blood, fibrinogen
and thrombin.

30.

White cells are divided into the agranulocytes and the granulocytes; the latter have granules in the cytoplasm.

31.

Antibodies are protein molecules, which combine with antigens.

32.

Neutrophils function by phagocytizing bacteria.

33.

Blood type AB has A and B antigens on the red cells and no antibodies in the plasma.

34.

An Rh-negative woman may form anitbodies that destroy her Rh-postivite baby's red cells.

35.

Fill in the following table:


PlasmaConstituent
Water
Plasma Proteins
a. Albumin
b. Fibrinogen
c. Globulins
Gases
a. Oxygen
b. CO2
Nutrients: Fats, glucose, amino
acids, etc.
Salts
Wastes
Hormones, vitamins etc.

Function
Maintains blood volume and
transports molecules
All maintain blood osmotic pressure
& pH
transport
clotting
Fight infection

Source
Absorbed from large intestine

liver
liver
lymphocytes

cellulart respiration
End product of metabolism
food for cells

lungs
tissues
Absorbed from intestinal villi

Maintain blood osmotic


pressure/pH, aid metabolism
end products of metabolism
aid metabolism

Absorbed from intestinal villi


tissues
varied

36.

Life cycle of red blood cells: The red cells, scientifically called erythrocytes, are made in the red bone marrow.
Upon maturation, they are small, biconcave disks that lack a nucleus, but they are filled with the complex
protein called hemoglobin, which transports oxygen about the body. After about 120 days, the red cells are
destroyed in liver or spleen.

37.

Life cycle of white cells: Most white cells, scientifically called leukocytes, are made in the bone marrow, but
lymphocytes are also made in the lymph nodes. White cells are divided into two types, the agranulocytes and
the granulocytes. Leukocytes with many-lobed nuclei are called polymorphonuclear.

38.

Fill in the following table with the contrasting word or phrase:


Neutrophil
polymorphonuclear
mononuclear

Lymphocyte

granular
phagocytic
made in red bone marrow

agranular
makes anitbodies
made in lymphoid tissue

39.

The two ways that white cells fight infection are:


a.
phagocytizing invaders
b.
making antibodies against foreign antigens

40.

The capillaries are the most important part of the circulatory system because exhcnage occurs at the capillaries

41.

Blood clotting: These are the reactions that occur when blood clots. Put a check beside those
substances that are always present in the blood. Put an X beside those substances that arise after blood
begins the process of clotting. Put a star beside those substances that act as enzymes. Underline the
words that indicate the actual clot.
platelets
thromboblastin

X,
prothrombin
thrombin

X,
fibrinogen
X
fibrin threads


42.

Blood typing is based on antigen-antibody reaction, which takes place when an antigen is brought into
contact with an antibody of the same type letter. The antigen-antibody reaction causes clumping or
agglutination of the red cells. In the plasma, the antibodies present will not be of the same type letter as
the antigen. Why not?
because agglutination would occur

43.

Fill in the following table:


Blood Type of
Antigen
A
B
AB
O

Antibody

Can Receive From

Can Donate To

b
a
a,b

A,O
B,O
A,B,AB,O
O

A,AB
B,AB
AB
A,B,AB,O

44.

Which combination can lead to fetal erythroblastosis? Rh negative mother and Rh postivie father.

45.

Filling the missing steps in the following diagram of blood clotting.

Injured tissues and platelets


release Prothombin Activator
(an enzyme) (vitamin K required
for the production of Prothombin)
Prothrombin Activator
catalyzes the conversion of
Prothrombin to Thrombin.
(Ca++ is necessary for this step)

Prothrombin
Activator

+ Ca++

Thrombin

Prothrombin
Thrombin is an enzyme
that acts like a pair of
scissors, cutting short
amino acid ends off
Fibrinogen molecules

Fibrinogen

Fibrin Fragments join together


end to end to form long fibers.
Fibrin fibers form the
framework of the clot.

Fibrin Fragment