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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijhmt

Technical Note

Arkadi Berezovski

Institute of Cybernetics at Tallinn University of Technology, Akadeemia tee 21, 12618 Tallinn, Estonia

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:

Received 10 May 2016

Received in revised form 25 July 2016

Accepted 25 July 2016

Keywords:

Heat conduction

Single and dual internal variables

Microstructured solids

a b s t r a c t

The description of heat conduction in microstructured solids is presented in the framework of the dual

internal variable approach. One of the internal variables is identified with microtemperature, i.e. the fluctuation of macroscopic temperature due to the inhomogeneity of the body. It is shown that the

microstructure influence may result in a hyperbolic heat propagation for the microtemperature. The

macroscale heat conduction is described by a parabolic equation which is coupled with the hyperbolic

equation for the microtemperature.

2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

solids without internal heat sources is governed by the energy

conservation equation [11]

Et Q x 0;

denote time and space derivatives.

Considering a rigid body we suppose that the internal energy

depends only on absolute temperature h, i.e., E Eh. As every

physical process, heat conduction satisfies the second law of

thermodynamics. The second law is expressed in the form of the

ClausiusDuhem inequality [11]

St h1 Q x P 0;

The Helmholtz free energy density Wh E hS connects the

internal energy and entropy and the following relation is fulfilled:

S

@W

:

@h

canonical form [23] in terms of the entropy and the free energy

th

Sht Q x h ;

th

h W t Sht :

hSt Q x 0;

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2016.07.085

0017-9310/ 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

hSt hh1 Q x P 0;

h1 Q hx 6 0:

second law will be fulfilled automatically under the choice

Q k2 hx :

This is nothing else but the Fourier law of heat conduction [27].

It should be noted that Eq. (7) contains the product of the thermodynamic flux Q and the thermodynamic force hx . However, the

Fourier law is not the unique choice for the relation between the

heat flux and the temperature gradient. Well known other possibilities can be classified as follows [37]:

Q k2 hx

Fourier 1822

Q t k2 hx aQ xx

sQ t Q k2 hx

Cattaneo 1948;Vernotte 1958

sGK Q t Q k2 hx aQ xx Guyer and Krumhansl 1966

sQ t Q k2 hx bshxt Jeffreys typeJoseph and Preciosi 1989

where s and sGK are relaxation times (specific for each model), a and

b are appropriate coefficients. These models are examined in detail

in reviews by Cimmelli [10], Joseph and Preziosi [18], Tamma and

Zhou [33] and in books by Straughan [32], Wang et al. [38]. The considered relations between the heat flux and the temperature gradient can be unified and extended as follows [37]:

517

A. Berezovski / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 103 (2016) 516520

time s varies according to a model.

It should be noted that all the heat transfer models mentioned

above are elaborated for homogeneous bodies. The same is true for

the more recently developed dual-phase-lagging model [35,39]

sQ t Q k2 hx sh hxt ;

and for the thermomass model [8,39]

Q

h

qC v h

Q x sTM

qC v h h

int

Sht Q x h ;

int

: W t ;

11

source [23].

The energy conservation equation is accompanied by the

second law of thermodynamics, represented in the form of the

ClausiusDuhem inequality

St h1 Q Kx P 0;

hx ;

where sh and sTM are specific relaxation times for dual-phase lagging and thermomass models, q is the density of a material, and

C v is the heat capacity at constant volume.

In spite of the controversy of recent experimental results concerning the non-Fourier heat conduction [6,7,16,30,31,34], only

heat conduction models for homogeneous materials are used for

planing and interpretation of experiments. This means that the

heat transport mechanisms in materials with nonhomogeneous

inner structures is clearly not understood to date, as pointed out

by Tamma and Zhou [33]. At the same time, it has been demonstrated how the influence of a microstructure can be taken into

account in generalized continua by means of the internal variables

[3,5,23]. Moreover, this technique reveals its descriptive capability

also in the thermoelastic case as shown recently in [1,2,4,5].

It is worst, therefore, to apply the internal variables method to

the examination of the microstructure impact in heat conduction

problems. Inner inhomogeneities in solids induce temperature

fluctuations due to the variation in material properties. Though

such fluctuations are, as a rule, small in magnitude, their gradients

may be not necessarily small.

The aim of the paper is to describe how internal variables can be

used for the accounting of the microstructural influence on heat

conduction in solids. We start with the well established single

internal variable theory to explain main features of the internal

variables formalism. Then this technique is extended by the introduction of an additional dual internal variable. The similarity and

the difference between these two approaches are demonstrated

explicitly. For the simplicity, all the considerations are presented

in the one-dimensional setting.

12

K is appended to the classical entropy flux [23]. Multiplying the

ClausiusDuhem inequality (12) by h

hSt hh1 Q Kx P 0;

13

W t Sht hKx h1 Q Khx P 0:

14

int

hKx :

int

tutive assumption (9)

int

W t

15

@W

@W

@W

ht

u Sht tut guxt :

u

@h

@ u t @ ux xt

16

as

17

same term gx ut

18

which leads to

19

characterized be a certain additional field u [29]. Therefore this

variable and its gradient are included into the set of state variables:

As one can see, the first two terms in Eq. (19) represent products

of thermodynamical forces and fluxes, but the third one is related to

the divergence of a certain combination depending on the internal

variable and the extra entropy flux. It is clear that the elimination of

this divergence term leads to the pure thermodynamical flux-force

relation. This idea has been formulated explicitly by Maugin [21].

Utilizing this idea, we define the extra entropy flux as follows:

W Wh; u; ux :

K h1 gut :

variable explication

state space. To be able to use the thermodynamic formalism, we

accept the concept of local equilibrium state [24]. This assumes

that there always exists a local accompanying equilibrium state,

onto which the local non-equilibrium state can be projected

[19,26]. Although this mapping or projection may not be unique

and one-to-one, the concepts of thermostatics are assumed to be

applicable to the local accompanying equilibrium state, and then

to the corresponding local constrained non-equilibrium state.

Then partial derivatives of the free energy W with respect to the

state variables define the entropy, S, the u-affinity, t, and the force

conjugated to the gradient of the internal variable, g, in the standard way [20,22]

S :

@W

;

@h

t :

@W

;

@u

g :

@W

:

@ ux

10

20

ht gx ut Q gut hx P 0:

21

This is the basis for the derivation of the evolution equation for

the internal variable.

2.1. Evolution equation for the single internal variable

Following de Groot and Mazur [15], we represent thermodynamic fluxes ut and Q gut as linear functions of conjugated

thermodynamic forces which delivers the solution of dissipation

inequality (21)

ut

Q gut

ht gx

;

hx

where M

M 11

M 21

M 12

;

M 22

22

518

A. Berezovski / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 103 (2016) 516520

for simplicity. The non-negativity of the entropy production (21)

results in the positive semidefiniteness of the symmetric part of

the matrix M, which requires

M 11 P 0;

M 22 P 0;

M12 M 21 2

M11 M 22

P 0:

2

23

ut M11 ht gx M12 hx ;

24

depends on temperature and its gradient. The same is valid for the

generalized heat flux

Q gut M21 ht gx M 22 hx :

25

int

Sht Q x h ;

26

int

int

in the form

27

rewritten as

th

intr

28

Accounting for Eq. (25), we can eliminate the heat flux from the

energy conservation equation which results in

29

This is the most general form of the energy conservation equation in the case of linear relation between thermodynamic forces

and fluxes within the single internal variable approach.

microtemperature, i.e. W Wh; ux , we obtain simplified governing equations

35

36

internal variable u can be interpreted as the thermal displacement

gradient in the spirit by Green and Naghdi [14].

The introduction of an internal variable for the description of

heat conduction in solids with microstructure allows us to identify

this internal variable with the microtemperature, i.e. with fluctuations of the macroscopic temperature due to the inhomogeneity of

the body. However, this description does not change the mathematical structure of heat conduction equations: they remain parabolic both for macroscopic and microscopic temperatures.

The possible extensions of the Fourier law mentioned in Introduction lead, as a rule, to a hyperbolic heat conduction equation.

We examine, therefore, a more general approach with two dual

internal variables [36].

3. Heat conduction in microstructured solids with dual internal

variables

Now we extend the internal variable technique described in

previous Section onto the case of two internal variables. Let us suppose that the free energy density depends on the internal variables

u; w and their gradients

W Wh; u; ux ; w; wx :

S

To be more specific, we will use a quadratic free energy density

W

qcp

1

1

h h0 2 Bu2 C u2x ;

2

2

2h0

S

@W qcp

h h0 ;

@h

h0

g :

t :

31

int

Sht Q x h ;

@W

;

@ ux

n :

@W

;

@w

f :

@W

:

@wx

int

: W t ;

39

32

33

34

Evolution equation for the internal variable (32) and heat conduction Eq. (34) are coupled parabolic equations. Together they

describe the transient temperature distribution in a body with

microstructure. It is natural to consider the internal variable u as

a microtemperature, i.e. the fluctuation of temperature relative to

the mean macroscopic value. While the microtemperature can be

small in magnitude, its gradient may be not necessarily small.

40

considered case as follows

int

we obtain then the heat conduction equation

M 21 h0 C uxx Bux :

g :

@W

;

@u

St h1 Q Kx P 0;

t :

@W

Bu;

@u

@W

C ux ;

@ ux

@W

;

@h

38

30

C are material parameters. It follows from equations of state that

37

41

divergence term in the ClausiusDuhem inequality

42

ht gx ut hn fx wt Q gut fnt hx P 0:

43

by the thermodynamic flux-force relations

0

ut

ht gx

B

C

B

C

B

C

@ wt

A L@ hn fx A; where L @ L21 L22 L23 A:

Q gut fnt

hx

L31 L32 L33

44

Nonnegativity of the entropy production (43) results in the positive semidefiniteness of the symmetric part of the conductivity

matrix L, which requires

519

A. Berezovski / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 103 (2016) 516520

L11 P 0;

L22 L33

L22 P 0;

L32 L23 2

2

L33 P 0;

P 0;

21

L11 L22 L12 L

P 0;

2

det 12 L L P 0:

45

Components of the matrix L are considered as constants. Evolution equations for internal variables have the form

46

47

48

49

general heat conduction equation for microstructured solids in the

framework of the dual internal variables approach

n fx wt :

50

one

qcp

1

1

1

1

h h0 2 Bu2 C u2x Dw2 Fw2x :

2

2

2

2

2h0

51

S

@W qcp

h h0 ;

h0

@h

g :

t :

@W

Bu;

@u

@W

C ux ;

@ ux

@W

Dw;

n :

@w

52

58

variable w. First, we use Eq. (55) expressing Dw Fwxx in terms

of u

59

h

h

L13 ht

hx L12 hDwt Fwxxt L13 hxt :

h

60

expression in terms of the internal variable u

wt

b

b

L 21

L

L22

hBu C uxx

u 23 hx ;

L12

L12 t L12

61

where b

L 21 L21 L12 L11 L22 and b

L 23 L13 L22 L23 L12 are introduced

for convenience. Differentiation of the latter relation with respect

to space coordinate represents wxxt

wxxt

W

utt L11 ht Bu C uxx L11 hBu C uxx t L12 ht Dw Fwxx

bL 21

L12

b21

hxx Bu C uxx 2 LL12

hx Bu C uxx x

b21

b

LL12

hBu C uxx xx LL22

uxxt LL1223 hxxx :

12

62

internal variable u

L11 L22 L21 L12 BFhhxx BDh2 u

hht L11 hB L22 hDut 2L11 L22 L21 L12 FBhhx uxx

hL11 C L22 Fuxxt 2L11 L22 L21 L12 FChhx uxxx

L11 L22 L21 L12 FCh2 uxxxx L13hht hx

63

DL13 L22 L23 L12 hhx FL13 L22 L23 L12 hhxxx L13 hxt :

@W

f :

Fwx ;

@wx

53

54

55

56

energy depends only on the gradient of the internal variable ux

but not on the internal variable itself. Additionally, we assume that

the gradient of the second internal variable is negligible. This

results in the choice of the values of material parameters B 0

and F 0. Then the evolution equation for the internal variable

u is reduced to

hL11 C uxxt L13hht hx

DL13 L22 L23 L12 hhx L13 hxt :

64

Bu C uxx ut Dw Fwxx wt :

57

Up to now, the formal structure of evolution equations for internal variables and the expression for the generalized heat flux looks

very similar to the case of the single internal variable. However, the

introduction of the dual internal variable leads to non-trivial

results as we will demonstrate below.

3.2. Hyperbolicity of evolution equations for internal variables

To demonstrate the qualitative difference between the evolution of internal variables in this case and in the case of the single

internal variable, we will derive a single evolution equation for

the internal variable u. For this purpose we differentiate evolution

Eq. (55) with respect to time

material parameters C and D are also non-negative. This means

that Eq. (64) is a hyperbolic wave equation with dissipation. The

corresponding evolution equation for the second internal variable

can be derived similarly.

3.3. Parabolicity of heat conduction equation

Returning to the heat conduction equation for the temperature

at the macroscale,

Bu C uxx ut Dw Fwxx wt ;

65

results, we have for B 0 and F 0

520

A. Berezovski / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 103 (2016) 516520

32 L13

hSt L33 L12LL

hxx L31 hC uxx x LL32

ut L11 hC uxx x

12

12

C uxx ut

ut L11 hC uxx L13 hx

L21 L12 L11 L22

23 L12

hC uxx LL22

ut L13 L22LL

hx :

L12

12

12

1

hL12

66

It follows that the heat conduction equation for the macroscopic

temperature remains parabolic. Its complicated right hand side

depends on internal variables and the temperature gradient.

4. Summary and discussion

The Fourier law for heat conduction in solids is sufficient for

many practical applications [17,28]. Attempts for its generalization

remain restricted by the case of homogeneous bodies [9,32,37].

The influence of microstructure persists negligible in this case. At

the same time, generalized continuum theories take the effects of

microstructure into account [13,25]. However, these theories are,

as a rule, non-dissipative and do not include heat conduction

[12]. It was shown recently that thermal effects can be incorporated in the framework of generalized continua theories by means

of the dual internal variables approach [1,2,4,5]. Nevertheless, this

approach was never applied to the pure heat conduction.

As it is demonstrated in the paper, the dual internal variable

approach is able to predict a hyperbolic character of heat conduction at the microscale. One of the internal variables is identified

with microtemperature, i.e. the fluctuation of macroscopic temperature due to the inhomogeneity of the body. The macroscopic heat

conduction equation remains parabolic, but coupled with the

hyperbolic evolution equation for the microtemperature. The effect

of microstructure may be small or even neglected for sufficiently

high temperatures and slow or lengthy processes. For a fast heating

or low temperatures this influence may not be disregarded.

Acknowledgement

The work was supported by the EU through the European

Regional Development Fund and by the Estonian Research Council

grant PUT434.

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