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Example fender design in accordance with PIANC

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1

Acceleration due to gravity;

Density of seawater;

1.2

1.2.1

Standard Definitions

g = 9.81 m/s2

= 1.025 t/m3

;Assumed

Natural Conditions

Tide Level

Current tide levels and the relationship between SITE DATUM and CHART DATUM are shown below:

Highest Astronomical Tide;

Mean Highest High Water;

Mean Lowest High Water;

Mean Sea Level;

Mean Highest Low Water;

Mean Lowest Low Water;

Lowest Astronomical Tide;

Site Datum/Chart Datum;

HAT = +1.86 m; CD

MHHW = +1.47 m; CD

MLHW = +1.04 m; CD

MSL = +0.89 m; CD

MHLW = +0.56 m; CD

MLLW = +0.45 m; CD

LAT = +0.13 m; CD

CD = +0.00 m; CD

A maximum surge height of 0.5m above MHHW is taken in addition to a future sea level rise of 0.25m over

the design life of the shipyard therefore the high water level used to design the Travel Lift Pier is taken as:

Design High Water Level;

DHWL = +2.22 m; CD

source not found

BED = -13.5 m; CD

Cope level;

COPE = +3.8 m; CD

;Report RLSRY1-0-17-201-206

1.3

Overall thickness of deck;

Thickness of crossbeam;

1.4

Structure Geometry

Tdeck = 0.8 m

Tbeam = 0.8 m

;Assumed

;Assumed

Vhoist:1100 = 1100 t

;Cimolai drawing

Displacement, docking condition;

MD:large = Vhoist:1100 g = 10791 kN

;Inferred

Deadweight;

DWTlarge = 1000 t

;Tb.C-1, App.C, PIANC WG 33

Overall length;

Llarge = 75 m

;Client issued

Length between perpendiculars;

LBP:large = Llarge = 75 m

;Assumed

Breadth;

Blarge = 15 m

;Client issued

Draft, full;

Dmax:large = 4.9 m

;Client issued

Draft, docking condition;

D:large = 2.5m

;Assumed

Displacement, full;

Mmax:large = 2480 t

;Tb.C-1, App.C, PIANC WG 33

Maximum berthing angle;

=15 deg

;Cl. 4.7.6.4.1, BS6349-4:1994

Berthing point;

point

;Assumed

Longitudinal windage area above water line, light; AL:large = 465 m2 ;Tb.C-1, App.C, PIANC WG 33

Transverse windage area above water line, light; AT:large = 150 m2 ;Tb.C-1, App.C, PIANC WG 33

Bow radius;

Rb:large = 27 m

;Assumed

Maximum hull flare at fender line;

= <10

;Assumed

Approach berthing velocity;

vlarge = 0.52m/s

;Cl.4.6, BS6349-4:1994

;Fig1, curve c, BS6349-4:1994

Figure 1 details the abnormal berthing safety factors recommended in The Guidelines for the Design of

Fender Systems: 2002 (PIANC):

Based on the above, the following is assumed:

Abnormal berthing factor of safety;

Cablarge = 1.75

;Tb.4.2.5, PIANC WG 33

Recommendations on allowable hull pressures taken from the same source are given in Figure 2:

Therefore based on the above, the following is assumed:

Maximum allowable hull pressure;

Phull:large = 200 kN/m2

1.5

Vhoist:300 = 300 t

;Cimolai drawing

Displacement, docking condition;

MD:small = Vhoist:300 g = 2943 kN ;Inferred

Overall length;

Lsmall = 35 m

;Client issued

Length between perpendiculars;

LBP:small = Lsmall = 35 m

;Assumed

Breadth;

Bsmall = 8.5 m

;Client issued

Draft, full;

Dmax:small = 1.9 m

;Assumed

Draft, docking condition;

Dsmall = 1.9m

;Assumed

Maximum berthing angle;

= 15 deg

;Cl. 4.7.6.4.1, BS6349-4:1994

Berthing point;

point

;Assumed

Longitudinal wind area above water line, light; AL:small = 168 m2

;RH Data, Appendix B

Transverse wind area above water line, light; AT:small = 53 m2

;RH Data, Appendix B

Bow radius;

Rb:small = 11 m

;Assumed

Maximum hull flare at fender line;

= <10

;Assumed

Navigation condition onto berth;

Easy berthing, exposed

;Cl.4.6, BS6349-4:1994

Curve C in Figure 1 of BS 6349-4:1994 demonstrates that berthing velocities increase for vessels with

lower displacements. Although the graph is not intended for vessel displacements of less than 1000t, since

no other guidance is available, the exponential graph has been extended and the velocity estimated for a

300t vessel displacement.

Approach berthing velocity;

Figure 1 details the abnormal berthing safety factors recommended in The Guidelines for the Design of

Fender Systems: 2002 (PIANC). As vessels utilising the 300T Travel Lift are much smaller, a larger

abnormal berthing factor will be adopted as berthing velocities are likely to be higher.

Abnormal berthing factor of safety;

Cabsmall = 2.00

;Tb.4.2.5, PIANC WG 33

Recommendations on allowable hull pressures taken from the same source are given in Figure 2. Since

allowable hull pressures will be higher for smaller vessels, the design of fender panels will only consider

vessels utilising the large Travel Lift as this will provide the most onerous design situation.

1.6

With reference to parameters given in Section 1.1 for the large design vessel:

Displacement, docking condition;

MD:large = 10791 kN

;Inferred

Overall length;

Llarge = 75 m

;Client issued

Breadth;

Blarge = 15 m

;Client issued

Draft, full;

Dmax:large = 4.9 m

;Client issued

Maximum berthing angle;

=15 deg

;Cl. 4.7.6.4.1, BS6349-4:1994

Berthing point;

point

;Assumed

Approach berthing velocity;

vlarge = 0.52 m/s

;Fig1, curve c, BS6349-4:1994

Distance from bow to point of impact;

Block Coefficient;

The ships radius of gyration;

x = Llarge / 4 = 18.8 m

;Assuming point mooring

Cb = MD:large/(Llarge Blarge Dmax:large g = 0.195

K = ((0.19 Cb) + 0.11) Llarge = 11.02 m

Angle between the velocity vector and the line joining the point of contact and the centre of mass;

;Refer to Figure 3

Eccentricity factor;

Ce = (K2 + (R2 (cos( )2))) / (K2 + R2) = 0.506

Virtual mass factor; Cm1 = 1 + (2 Dmax: large) / Blarge = 1.653

Virtual mass factor; Cm2 = 1 + (( Dmax:large)/(2 Cb Blarge)) = 3.636 ;Cl. 4.2.4, PIANC WG33

To be conservative, an average value is assumed:

Virtual mass factor; Cm = (Cm1 + Cm2) / 2 = 2.645

As fenders are likely to deflect by more than 0.15m and berthing vessels are relatively small, the softness

coefficient will be taken as:

Softness factor; Cs = 1.0

;Cl. 4.2.6, PIANC WG33

Berthing is against an open piled structure therefore the berthing configuration factor will be taken as:

Berth configuration factor; Cc = 1.0

;Cl. 4.2.7, PIANC WG33

Design energy, normal conditions;

Ed:large = 0.5 (MD:large / g) vlarge2 Ce Cm Cs Cc = 199.03 kNm

Ev:large = Ed:large Cablarge = 348 kNm

1.7

With reference to parameters given in Section 1.5 for the small design vessel:

Displacement, docking condition;

MD:small = 2943 kN

;Inferred

Overall length;

Lsmall = 35 m

;Client issued

Breadth;

Bsmall = 9 m

;Client issued

Draft, full;

Dmax:small = 1.9 m

;Client issued

Maximum berthing angle;

=15 deg

;Cl. 4.7.6.4.1, BS6349-4:1994

Berthing point;

point

;Assumed

Approach berthing velocity;

vsmall = 0.57 m/s

;Fig1, curve c, BS6349-4:1994

Distance from bow to point of impact;

Block Coefficient;

The ships radius of gyration;

x = Lsmall / 4 = 8.8 m

;Assuming point mooring

Cb = MD:small / (Lsmall Bsmall Dmax:small g = 0.518

K = ((0.19 Cb) + 0.11) Lsmall = 7.29 m

Angle between the velocity vector and the line joining the point of contact and the centre of mass;

= 90 - - asin(Bsmall / (2 R)) = 49.1 deg

;Refer to Figure 3

Eccentricity factor;

Ce = (K2 + (R2 (cos( )2))) / (K2 + R2) = 0.634

Virtual mass factor; Cm1 = 1 + (2 Dmax:small) / Bsmall = 1.447

Virtual mass factor; Cm2 = 1 + (( Dmax:small)/(2 Cb Bsmall)) = 1.678 ;Cl. 4.2.4, PIANC WG33

To be conservative, an average value is assumed:

Virtual mass factor; Cm = (Cm1 + Cm2) / 2 = 1.563

As fenders are likely to deflect by more than 0.15m and berthing vessels are relatively small, the softness

coefficient will be taken as:

Softness factor; Cs = 1.0

;Cl. 4.2.6, PIANC WG33

Berthing is against an open piled structure therefore the berthing configuration factor will be taken as:

Berth configuration factor; Cc = 1.0

;Cl. 4.2.7, PIANC WG33

Design energy, normal conditions;

Ed:small = 0.5 (MD:small / g) vsmall2 Ce Cm Cs Cc = 49.16 kNm

Ev:small = Ed:small Cabsmall = 98 kNm

The above confirms that the largest design vessel exerts the greatest berthing energy.

Maximum design energy, normal conditions;

Ed:max = max (Ed:large, Ed:small) = 199.03 kNm

Maximum design energy, abnormal impact;

Ev:max = max (Ev:large, Ev:small) = 348.30 kNm

1.8

Fender Design

Manufacturing Tolerances

Assuming Supercone fenders then technical data from a typical fender manufacturer suggests the fenders

energy absorption and the resulting reaction can vary by 10%, refer to specification extracts in Appendix

F.

Temperature Factor

Data from the World Meteorlogical Organisation on typical Qatar air temperatures is reprodiced in Table 1.

Table 1 - Maximum & minimum Qatar air temperatures

MONTH

MEAN TEMPERATURE C

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

DAILY MINIMUM

12.8

13.7

16.7

20.6

25.0

27.7

29.1

28.9

26.5

23.4

19.5

15.0

Minimum annual temperature;

DAILY MAXIMUM

21.7

23.0

26.8

31.9

38.2

41.2

41.5

40.7

38.6

35.2

29.5

24.1

Tmax = 41.5 deg

Tmin = 12.8 deg

Interpolating between the temperature factors stated in the manufacturers literature contained in Appendix

F gives:

Maximum temperature factor at 41.5 deg Celsius;

TFTmax = 0.926 - ( ((0.926 0.882) / (50 40)) (Tmax 40) ) = 0.919

Minimum temperature factor at 12.8 deg Celsius;

TFTmin = 1 + ( ((1.056 1) / (23 10)) (23 Tmin) ) = 1.044

Velocity Factor

According to the manufacturers specification contained in Appendix F, for steady state deceleration the

compression time, t, for a Supercone fender is given by 2d / v where d is the fender deflection and v is the

vessels impact speed therefore by assuming a fender height:

Estimated fender height;

Compression time;

H = 1100 mm

t = (2 H) / vlarge = 4.231 s

Tabulated data from the manufacturers specification contained in Appendix F indicates that for a

compression time of just over 4 seconds, the following velocity factors can be assumed:

Energy velocity factor for the slowest berthing;

VFEVmin = 1.005 - ( ((1.005 1.000) / (5s 4s)) (t 4s) ) = 1.004

Reaction velocity factor for the slowest berthing;

VFRVmin = VFEVmin = 1.004

Angular Berthing Factor

The general arrangement drawing issued by the Client indicates that vessels utilising the smaller 300T boat

hoist are 35m long:

Minimum berthing vessel length;

For a continuous quay:

Lmin = 35 m

;Assumed

Assume fenders are installed at each pile cross head which are likley to have centres of 5m:

Fender spacing;

Fns = 5 m

;Assumed

Bow radius angle;

= asin(Fns / (2 Rb:large)) = 5 deg

No data is available on likely hull flares flare adjacent to the fender line. Technical data contained in

Appendix F suggests that berthing energies are less where hull flares are below 10 degrees therefore to be

conservative, a hull flare of 10 degrees will be assumed. With reference to Figure 4:

Flare angle;

Angle factor;

= 10 deg

AF = 1

;Assumed

;Fender specification

At the maximum temperature of 41.5 deg Celcius,

Minimum energy absorption required; Emax = Ev:max / (AF VFEVmin TFTmax 0.9) = 419.3 kNm

At the minimum temperature of 12.8 deg Celcius,

Minimum energy absorption required; Emin = Ev:max / (AF VFEVmin TFTmin 0.9) = 369.3 kNm

Fender Selection

The combined depth of a pile crossbeam and the overlying deck is 1.6m. This dimension is constrained by

the required cope level of +3.8m CD and the DHWL of +2.25m CD. The diameter of the fender would

preferably fit within the 1.6m deep zone however since horizontal berthing forces are most onerous in

terms of the pile design, concrete sponsons will be detailed to extend above cope level as required to allow

the largest diameter of fender with the softest rubber to be selected to keep the magnitude of fender

reactions to a minimum.

The SCN1100, type E0.9 Supercone fender will be used. Manufacturers literature in Appendix F suggests

the following:

Rated energy absorption;

Rated reaction;

Design Berthing Actions

Er = 450 kNm

Rr = 788 kN

Fenders will be mounted centrally on the outer face of each crossbeam therefore:

Lever arm from the seabed to fender; yberthing = -BED + COPE ((Tdeck + Tbeam)/2) = 16.50 m

Lever arm from the western berthing face to the fender; xberthing = 1.1 m

Fender panels will be supplied with a polyethylene facings therefore:

Fender coefficient of friction;

fender = 0.2

;Cl. 4.8.5 BS6349-4:2994

Vertical/ longitudinal actions at fender; Vberthing = Hberthing fender = 180.98 kN

We assume that the condition of the fendering system will be monitored and any damage (for instance to

the low friction facings) repaired before it can lead to further deterioration.

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