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Chapter 7: Electricity

CHAPTER 7: ELECTRICITY
7.1 CHARGE AND ELECTRIC CURRENT
Van de Graaf
1. What is a Van de Graaff generator? Fill in each of the boxes the name of the part shown.
A device that .. and .. at high voltage on its dome

dome

+
+

-1-

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Physics Module Form 5


Chapter 7: Electricity

2. How are electrical charges produced by a Van de Graaff generator? And what type of
charges is usually produced on the dome of the generator?
When the motor of the Van de Graaff generator is switched on, it drives the
..
This causes the rubber belt to against the . and hence becomes ..

The charge is then carried by the moving belt up to the

where it is collected.
A large amount of . is built up on the dome
. charges are usually produced on the dome of the generator.

3. What will happen if the charged dome of

+
+

the Van de Graaff is connected to the earth


via a micrometer? Explain.
There is a .. of the
pointer of the microammeter.
This indicates an electric current
.

-2-

+ + +

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Chapter 7: Electricity

4. Predict what will happen if a discharging


metal sphere to the charged dome.

+
+

When the discharging metal sphere is


brought near the charged dome,
occurs.
An electric current

5.

Predict what will happen if hair of a


student is brought near to the charged
dome. Give reasons for your answer.
The metal dome . the hair
and the hair stand ..
This is because of each strand of hair
receives .. charges and
.. each other.

6. The flow of electrical charges produces .

-3-

+ + + + +

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Chapter 7: Electricity

Electric Current
1. Electric current consists of a flow of ......
2. The more charges that flow through a cross
section within a given time, the
is the current.
3. Electric current is defined as the
rate of flow of .
Each second, 15 coulombs of charge cross the
plane. The current is I = 15 amperes. One
ampere is one coulomb per second.

4. In symbols, it is given as:


where I = .

I=

Q = .

t =
.....................
(i)

The SI unit of charge is (Ampere / Coulomb / Volt)

(ii)

The SI unit of time is (minute / second / hour)

(iii)The SI unit of current is (Ampere / Coulomb / Volt) is equivalent to


(Cs // C-1s // Cs-1)
(iv) By rearranging the above formula, Q = ( It /

I
t
/
)
t
I

4. If one coulomb of charge flows past in one second, then the current is .
ampere.
5. 15 amperes means in second, .. coulomb of charge through a
cross section of a conductor.
6. In a metal wire, the charges are carried by.

-4-

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Chapter 7: Electricity

7. Each electron carries a charge of ..


8. 1 C of charge is..

Electric Field
a) An electric field is a . in which an experiences a..
b) An electric field can be represented by a number of lines indicate both the.
and .. of the field
c) The principles involved in drawing electric field lines are :
(i)

electric field lines always extend from a - charged object to a


..-charged object

(ii) electric field lines never .. each other,


(ii)

electric field lines are .. in a .. electric field.

Demo: To study the electric field and the effects of an electric field.
Apparatus & materials
Extra high tension (E.H.T) power supply (0 5 kV), petri dish, electrodes with different
shapes (pointed electrode and plane electrode), two metal plates, talcum powder, cooking oil,
polystyrene ball coated with conducting paint, thread and candle.
Method
DEMO

-5-

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Chapter 7: Electricity

A)

1. Set up the apparatus as shown in the above figure


2. Switch on the E.H.T. power supply and adjust the voltage to 4 kV
3. Observed the pattern formed by the talcum powder for different types of electrodes.
4. Draw the pattern of the electric field lines.

Draw the pattern of the electric field lines.


ELECTRIC FIELD AROUND A POSITIVE CHARGE

ELECTRIC FIELD AROUND A NEGATIVE CHARGE

ELECTRIC FIELD AROUND A POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE CHARGE

-6-

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Chapter 7: Electricity

ELECTRIC FIELD AROUND TWO NEGATIVE CHARGES

ELECTRIC FIELD AROUND TWO POSITIVE CHARGES

ELECTRIC FIELD AROUND A NEGATIVE CHARGE AND A


POSITIVELY CHARGED PLATE

ELECTRIC FIELD AROUND A POSITIVE CHARGE AND A


NEGATIVELY CHARGED PLATE

-7-

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Chapter 7: Electricity

ELECTRIC FIELD BETWEEN TWO CHARGED


PARALLEL PLATES

EFFECT OF AN ELECTRIC FIELD ON A POLYSTYRENE BALL

-8-

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Chapter 7: Electricity

Observation:
The polystyrene ball oscillated between the
two plates, touching one plate after
another.
Explanation:
When the polystyrene ball touches the
negatively charged plate, the ball
receives negative charges from the plate
and experiences a repulsive force.

1. Place the polystyrene ball between the


two metal plates.

The ball will then move to the positively


charged plate.

2. Switch on the E.H.T and displace the


polystyrene ball slightly so that it

When the ball touches the plate, the

touches one of the metal plates

ball loses some of its negative charges


to the plate and becomes positively
charged.
It then experiences a repulsive force. This
process continues.

EFFECT OF AN ELECTRIC FIELD ON A CANDLE FLAME

-9-

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C)

Physics Module Form 5


Chapter 7: Electricity

Observation:
The candle flame splits into two portions in
opposite direction. The portion that is
attracted to the negative plate is very much
larger than the portion of the flame that is
attracted to the positive plate.
Explanation:
1) Switch of the E.H.T and replace the

The heat of the flame ionizes the air

polystyrene ball with a lighted candle.

molecules to become positive and

2) Sketch the flame observed when the


E.H.T. is switched on.

negative charges.
The positive charges are attracted to the
negative plate while the negative
charges are attracted to the positive
plate.
The flame is dispersed in two opposite
directions but more to the negative
plate.
The positive charges are heavier than
the negative charges. This causes the
uneven dispersion of the flame.

Conclusion
1.

Electric field is a

..
2.

Like charges . each other but opposite charges each

other.
3. Electric field lines are in an electric field. The direction of the
field lines is from .. to

- 10 -

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Chapter 7: Electricity

Exercise 7.1
1. 5 C of charge flows through a wire in 10 s. What is the current in the wire?

2.

A charge of 300 C flow through a bulb in every 2 minutes. What is the electric
current in the bulb?

3.

The current in a lamp is 0.2 A. Calculate the amount of electric charge that passes
through the lamp in 1 hour.

4.

If a current of 0.8 A flows in a wire, how many electrons pass through the wire in one
minute? (Given: The charge on an electron is 1.6 x 10-19 C)

An electric current of 200 mA flows through a resistor for 3 seconds, what is the
(a) electric charge
(b) the number of electrons which flow through the resistor?

- 11 -

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Chapter 7: Electricity

Ideas of Potential Difference


(a)

(b)

Y
P

Pressure at point P is

Gravitational potential energy at X is

than the pressure at point Q

than the gravitational potential energy at Y.

Water will flow from to

The apple will fall from to when the

when the valve is opened.

apple is released.

This due to the .. in the

This due to the .. in the

pressure of water

gravitational potential energy.

(c) Similarly,

Point A is connected to. terminal


Point B is connected to . terminal
Electric potential at A is

. than the electric


Bulb

potential at B.

Electric current flows from A to B, passing the bulb in the


circuit and .. the bulb.

This is due to the electric . between the two


terminals.

As the charges flow from A to B, work is done when electrical


energy is transformed to .and energy.

The potential difference, V between two points in a circuit is


defined as ...

The potential difference,V between the two points will be


given by:

W
Work
V = Quantityofch arg e =
Q

where W is .
Q is .

- 12 -

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Chapter 7: Electricity

Device and symbol


ammeter

Cells

voltmeter

Switch

connecting wire

Constantan wire //
eureka wire
bulb

resistance
rheostat

Measuring Current and Potential Difference/Voltage

- 13 -

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1. Name the device used to measure


electrical current.

2. (a) What is the SI unit for current?

Physics Module Form 5


Chapter 7: Electricity

Turn to next page


1. Name the device used to measure
potential difference.

2. (a) What is the SI unit for potential


difference?

(b) What is the symbol for the unit of


current?

(b) What is the symbol for the unit of


potential difference?

3. How is an ammeter connected in an


electrical circuit?

3. How is an voltmeter connected in an


electrical circuit?

4. The positive terminal of an ammeter is


connected to which terminal of the dry
cell?

4. The positive terminal of a voltmeter is


connected to which terminal of the dry
cell?

5. What will happen if the positive terminal


of the ammeter is connected to the
negative terminal of the dry cell?

- 14 -

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Chapter 7: Electricity

Experiment: To investigate the relationship between current and potential difference


for an ohmic conductor.

(a)

(b)

Figure (a) and figure (b) show two electrical circuits. Why do the ammeters show different
readings? Why do the bulbs light up with different intensity?
Referring to the figure (a) and (b) complete the following table:

(a) Inference

The current flowing through the bulb is influenced by the potential difference across it.

(b) Hypothesis
To determine the relationship between current and potential difference for a

(c) Aim

constantan wire.

(d) Variables

(i)

manipulated variable

(ii)

responding variable

(iii)

fixed variable

Apparatus /
materials

Method

- 15 -

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Chapter 7: Electricity
1.

Set up the apparatus as shown in the figure.

2.

Turn on the switch and adjust the rheostat so that the ammeter reads the
current, I= 0.2 A.

Tabulation of

3.

Read and record the potential difference, V across the wire.

4.

Repeat steps 2 and 3 for I = 0.3 A, 0.4 A, 0.5 A, 0.6 A and 0.7 A.

data

Current,I/A
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7

Analysis of data

Discussion

Volt, V/V
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5

Draw a graph of V against I .


1.

From the graph plotted.


(a) What is the shape of the V-I graph?
The graph of V against I is a straight line that passes through origin
(b) What is the relationship between V and I?
This shows that the potential difference, V is directly proportional to the
current, I.
(c) Does the gradient change as the current increases?
The gradient the ratio of

2.

V
I

is a constant as current increases.

The resistance, R, of the constantan wire used in the experiment is equal to the
gradient of the V-I graph. Determine the value of R.

3.

What is the function of the rheostat in the circuit?


It is to control the current flow in the circuit

Conclusion

The potential difference, V across a conductor increases when the current, I passing
through it increases as long as the conductor is kept at constant temperature.

- 16 -

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Physics Module Form 5


Chapter 7: Electricity

Ohms Law
(a)

- 17 -

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Physics Module Form 5


Chapter 7: Electricity

Ohms law states


that the electric current, I flowing through a conductor is directly proportional to
the potential difference across the ends of the conductor,
if temperature and other physical conditions remain constant
(b) By Ohms law:

I
= constant I

or

V
= constant
I

(c) The constant is known as . of the conductor.


(d) The resistance, R is a term that describes ..
..
It is also defined as the ratio.
..
That is
R=

V
I

and

V=

(e) The unit of resistance is


(f) An .. is one which obeys Ohms law, while a conductor which
does not obey Ohms law is known as a .conductor

Factors Affecting Resistance

- 18 -

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Physics Module Form 5


Chapter 7: Electricity

1. The resistance of a conductor is a measure of the ability of the conductor to (resist /


allow) the flow of an electric current through it.
2. From the formula V = IR, the current I is (directly / inversely) proportional to the
resistance, R.
3. When the value of the resistance, R is large, the current, I flowing in the conductor is
(small / large)
4. What are the factors affecting the resistance of a conductor?
a) .
b) .
c) .
d) .
5. Write down the relevant hypothesis for the factors affecting the resistance in the table
below.
conductorThe temperaturematerial
of the of the
area
The
of type
the conductor,
of the
The cross-sectional
conductor, l Length of the

Factors

Diagram

Hypothesis
The the conductor,
the .. its resistance
Resistance is .
proportional to the length of a
conductor
The ... the cross sectional area, the .
the its resistance
Resistance is .....
proportional to the cross-sectional
area of a conductor
Different conductors with the
same physical conditions have
. resistance

The
.
The
temperature of a conductor, the
... the resistance

6. From, the following can be stated:

- 19 -

Graph

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Physics Module Form 5


Chapter 7: Electricity

Resistance of a conductor,
Resistance of a conductor,

R
R

length

1
cross-sectional area

Hence, resistance of a conductor, R

length
cross-sectional area

Or

or

R= l

Exercise 7.2

- 20 -

where =

resistivity of the
substance

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1.

Physics Module Form 5


Chapter 7: Electricity

Tick () the correct answers


True

False

(a) Unit of potential difference is J C-1


(b) J C-1 volt, V
The potential difference between two points is 1 volt if 1 joule
(c) of work is required to move a charge of 1 coulomb from one

(d)

point to another.
2 volt is two joules of work done to move 2 coulomb of charge
from one to another in an electric field.

(e) Potential difference Voltage

2.

I
t
/
)
t
I

i) Electric charge,

Q = ( It /

ii) Work done,

W = (QV /

V Q
/
)
Q V

iii) Base on your answer in 2(i) and (ii) derive the work done, W in terms of I, V and t.
W

QV

ItV

3. If a charge of 5.0 C flows through a wire and the amount of electrical energy converted
into heat is 2.5 J. Calculate the potential differences across the ends of the wire.
W

QV

2.5

5.0 (V)

0.5 V

4. A light bulb is switched on for a period of time. In that period of time, 5 C of charges
passed through it and 25 J of electrical energy is converted to light and heat energy. What
is the potential difference across the bulb?
W

QV

20

6 (V)

V
=
3.33 V
5. The potential difference of 10 V is used to operate an electric motor. How much work is
done in moving 3 C of electric charge through the motor?
W

QV
- 21 -

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Physics Module Form 5


Chapter 7: Electricity

3 (10)

30 J

6. When the potential difference across a bulb is


20 V, the current flow is 3 A. How much work
done to transform electrical energy to light and
heat energy in 50 s?
W

VIt

20 (3) (50)

3000 J

Bulb

3A
A
20

7. What is the potential difference across a light bulb


of resistance 5 when the current that passes
through it is 0.5 A?
V

IR

0.5 (5)

2.5 V

8. A potential difference of 3.0 V applied across a resistor of resistance R drives a current of


2.0 A through it. Calculate R.
V

IR

3.0

2.0 (R)
1.5

R =

9. What is the value of the resistor in the figure, if


the dry cells supply 2.0 V and the ammeter
reading is 0.5 A?
V

IR

2.0

0.5 (R)

R =

10. If the bulb in the figure has a resistance of 6 ,


what is the reading shown on the ammeter, if the
dry cells supply 3 V?

- 22 -

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Chapter 7: Electricity

IR

3.0

6 (R)
0.5

R =

11. If a current of 0.5 A flows through the resistor of


3 in the figure, calculate the voltage supplied
by the dry cells?
V
R =

IR

0.5 (3)
1.5

12. The graph shows the result of an experiment to


determine the resistance of a wire. The resistance
of the wire is
From V-I graph, resistance

V/V
1.2

= gradient
=
= 2.4
0

13. An experiment was conducted to measure the


current, I flowing through a constantan wire when
the potential difference V across it was varied.
The graph shows the results of the experiment.
What is the resistance of the resistor?
From V-I graph, resistance

= gradient
=
= 2.0 x 10-3

14.Referring to the diagram on the right, calculate

- 23 -

I/A

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Physics Module Form 5


Chapter 7: Electricity

(a) The current flowing through the resistor.


V

IR

12

I (5)

2.4 A

(b) The amount of electric charge that passes


through the resistor in 30 s
Q

It

2.4 (30)

72 C

(c) The amount of work done to transform the


electric energy to the heat energy in 30 s.
W

QV

72 (12)

or

= 12(2.4)(30)

864 C

= 864 C

15. Figure shows a torchlight that uses two 1.5 V dry


cells. The two dry cells are able to provide a
current of 0.3 A when the bulb is at its normal
brightness. What is the resistance of the filament?
V

IR

3.0

0.3(R)

= VIt

10

16. The diagram shows four metal rods of P, Q, R


and S made of the same substance.
a) Which of the rod has the most
resistance?
P
b) Which of the rod has the least
resistance?
S

- 24 -

+ 1.5 V -

+ 1.5 V -

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Physics Module Form 5


Chapter 7: Electricity

17. The graph shows the relationship between the


V/V

potential difference, V and current, I flowing

through two conductors, X and Y.


8

a) Calculate the resistance of conductor X.


From V-I graph, resistance

= gradient
=

2
0

= 4

I/A

b) Calculate the resistance of conductor Y.


From V-I graph, resistance

= gradient
=
= 1

c) If the cross sectional area of X is 5.0 x 10-6


m2, and the length of X is 1.2 m, calculate its
resistivity.

18. The graph shows a graph of I against V for three


I/A

conductors, P, Q and R.
i)

Compare the resistance of conductor P, Q and R.

ii)

Explain your answer in (a)


From V-I graph, resistance
= gradient
The greater the gradient, the greater the resistance
Gradient of P > Gradient of Q > Gradient of R

- 25 -

V/V

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Physics Module Form 5


Chapter 7: Electricity

19. Figure shows a wire P of length, l with a crosssectional area, A and a resistance, R. Another
wire, Q is a conductor of the same material with
a length of 3l and twice the cross-sectional area
of P. What is resistance of Q in terms of R?
Conductor P R

Conductor Q R

(notes: P and R have the same resistivity, )


=
=

R
20. PQ, is a piece of uniform wire of length 1 m
with a resistance of 10. Q is connected to an
ammeter, a 2 resistor and a 3 V battery. What
is the reading on the ammeter when the jockey
is at X?
Resistance in the wire
R is directly proportional to l
= 10

100 cm

Hence, 20 cm =
R

(10)

= 2

Total resistance
2 + 2 = 4
Current, I

=
=

= 0.75 A

- 26 -

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Physics Module Form 5


Chapter 7: Electricity

21. Figure shows the circuit used to investigate the relationship between potential
difference, V and current, I for a piece of constantan wire. The graph of V against I
from the experiment is as shown in the figure below.

(a)

What quantities are kept constant in this experiment?


Length // cross-sectional area // type of material // temperature of the wire

(b)

State the changes in the gradient of the graph, if


i) the constantan wire is heated
R , gradient // the resistance increases, hence the gradient increases
ii) a constantan wire of a smaller cross-sectional area is used
R , gradient // the resistance increases, hence the gradient increases
iii)a shorter constantan wire is used
R , gradient // the resistance decreases, hence the gradient decreases

- 27 -

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Chapter 7: Electricity

7.3 SERIES AND PARALLEL CIRCUITS


Current Flow and Potential Difference in Series and Parallel Circuit
SERIES CIRCUIT

the current flows through each bulb/resistor is

PARALLEL CIRCUIT

the same.

bulb/resistor

I = I 1 = I2 = I3

the potential difference is the same across each


V = V1 = V2 = V3

the potential difference across each bulb /

the current passing through each bulb / resistor is

resistor depends directly on its .

inversely proportional to the resistance of the

The potential difference supplied by the dry cells

resistor. The current in the circuit equals to the

is shared by all the bulbs / resistors.

sum of the currents passing through the bulbs /


resistors in its parallel branches.

V = V1 + V2 + V3

where V is the potential


difference across the

I = I1 + I2 + I3

where I is the total current

battery

If Ohms law is applied separately to each bulb /

from the battery

If Ohms law is applied separately to each bulb /

resistor, we get :

resistor, we get :

V = V1 + V2 + V3
IR = IR1 + IR2 + IR3

I = I 1 + I2 + I3
V
V
V
V
R = R1 + R2 + R3

If each term in the equation is divided by I, we

If each term in the equation is divided by V, we

get the effective resistance

get the effective resistance


1
R

R = R1 + R2 + + R3

- 28 -

= R + R + R
3
1
2

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Chapter 7: Electricity

Identify series circuit or parallel circuit

(a)

(b)

(c)

Ammeter reading Current

Voltmeter reading Potential difference Voltage

- 29 -

(d)

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Physics Module Form 5


Chapter 7: Electricity

Effective resistance, R

(a)
(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

(h)

(g)

(i)

(j)

- 30 -

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Physics Module Form 5


Chapter 7: Electricity

Solve problems using V = IR

Exercise 7.3
1.

The two bulbs in the figure have a resistance of 2 and 3


respectively. If the voltage of the dry cell is 2.5 V, calculate
(a) the effective resistance, R of the circuit
Effective R = 2 + 3 = 5
(b) the main current, I in the circuit

(c) the potential difference across each bulb.


2: V = IR = (0.5)(2) = 1V
3: V = IR = (0.5)(3) = 1.5 V

V = IR
2.5 =I(5)
= 0.5 A
2.

There are two resistors in the circuit shown. Resistor R1 has a


resistance of 1. If a 3V voltage causes a current of 0.5A to flow
through the circuit, calculate the resistance of R2.
V = IR
3=0.5(1+R2)
R2 = 5

- 31 -

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3.

Physics Module Form 5


Chapter 7: Electricity
The electrical current flowing through each branch, I1 and I2, is 5
A. Both bulbs have the same resistance, which is 2. Calculate
the voltage supplied.
Parallelcircuit;V =V1=V2 = IR1 or
= IR2
= 5(2)
= 10 V

4.
The voltage supplied to the parallel is 3 V. R1 and R2 have
a resistance of 5 and 20. Calculate

(a) the potential difference across each resistor


3 V (parallel circuit)
(b) the effective resistance, R of the circuit
1/R = 1/5 + 1/20 =1/4
R=4
(c) the main current, I in the circuit

(d) the current passing through each resistor


5:

V = IR
3 =I(4)
= 0.75 A
5.

20 :

In the circuit shown, what is the reading on the ammeter


when switch, S
(a) is open?
Effective R = 6
V = IR
12 =I(6)
I=2A

6.

V = IR
3 =I(5)
I = 0.6 A

(b) is closed?
Effective R = 4
V = IR
12 =I(4)
I=3A

Determine the voltmeter reading.

Determine the ammeter reading.

(a)

(a)

(b)

- 32 -

V = IR
3 =I(20)
I = 0.15 A

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Chapter 7: Electricity

7.

Calculate

(d) (i) The potential difference across 8

(a) The effective resistance, R

resistor.

R = 12

V = IR

(b) The main current, I

= 2(8) = 16 V

I=2A

(ii) The potential difference across 2.5

(c) The current passing through 8 and 2.5

resistor.

resistors.

V = IR

I=2A

= 2(2.5) = 5 V
(e) The current passing through 6 resistor.
V = V8 + V2.5 +Vparallel
24 = 16 + 5 + Vparallel
Vparallel = 3V
V = IR
3 = I(6)
I = 0.5 A

- 33 -

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Physics Module Form 5


Chapter 7: Electricity

8.

The electrical components in our household appliances are connected in a combination of series and
parallel circuits. The above figure shows a hair dryer which has components connected in series and
parallel. Describe how the circuit works.

The hair dryer has three switches A, B and C


When switch A is switched on, the dryer will only blow air at ordinary room temperature
When switches A and B are both switched on, the dryer will blow hot air.
As a safety feature to prevent overheating, the heating element will not be switched on if the fan is
not switched on
The hair dryer has an energy saving feature. Switch C will switch on the dryer only when it is held
by the hand of user
The body of the hair dryer must be safe to hold and does not get hot easily

- 34 -

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Chapter 7: Electricity

7.4 ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE AND INTERNAL RESISTANCE


Electromotive force
Figure (a)

Figure (b)

Voltmeter reading,
potential difference, V < e.m.f.,
E

Voltmeter reading,
e.m.f.

E,r

R
Current flowing

No current flow

1. An electrical circuit is set up as shown in figure (a). A high resistance voltmeter is


connected across a dry cell which labeled 1.5 V.
a) Figure (a) is (an open circuit / a closed circuit)
b) There is (current flowing / no current flowing) in the circuit. The bulb (does not light up /
lights up)
c) The voltmeter reading shows the (amount of current flow across the dry cell / potential
difference across the dry cell)
d) The voltmeter reading is (0 V / 1.5 V / Less than 1.5 V)
e) The potential difference across the cell in open circuit is (0 V / 1.5 V / Less than 1.5 V).
Hence, the electromotive force, e.m.f., E is (0 V / 1.5 V / Less than 1.5 V)
f) It means, (0 J / less than 1.5 J / 1.5 J / 3.0 J) of electrical energy is required to move 1 C
charge across the cell or around a complete circuit.
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Chapter 7: Electricity

2. The switch is then closed as shown in figure (b).


a) Figure (b) is (an open circuit / a closed circuit)
b) There is (current flowing / no current flowing) in the circuit. The bulb (does not light up /
lights up)
c) The voltmeter reading is the (potential difference across the dry cell / potential difference
across the bulb / electromotive force).
d) The reading of the voltmeter when the switch is closed is (lower than/ the same as /
higher than) when the switch is open.
e) If the voltmeter reading in figure (b) is 1.3 V, it means, the electrical energy dissipated by
1C of charge after passing through the bulb is (0.2 J / 1.3 J / 1.5 J)
f) The potential difference drops by (0.2 V/ 1.3 V / 1.5 V). It means, the potential difference
lost across the internal resistance, r of the dry cell is (0.2 V/ 1.3 V / 1.5 V).
g) State the relationship between e.m.f , E , potential difference across the bulb, VR and drop
in potential difference due to internal resistance, Vr.
Electromotive force, e.m.f., E = Potential Difference + Drop in Potential Difference
across resistor, R
= VR + Vr

due to internal resistance,r

where VR = IR and Vr = Ir

= IR + Ir

= I (R + r)

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Chapter 7: Electricity

3.

i. Why is the potential difference across the resistor not the same as the e.m.f. of the battery?
The potential drops as much as 0.4

V across the internal resistance

ii. Determine the value of the internal resistance.


Since E

Ir

1.5

1.1

0.8

0.5 r

Therefore, the value of the internal resistance is 0.8

iii. Determine the value of the external resistor.


Since V

IR

1.1

0.5 R

2.2

Therefore, the value of the external resistance is 2.2

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Activity :

Physics Module Form 5


Chapter 7: Electricity

To determine the values of the electromotive force (e.m.f.) and


the internal resistance, r of the cell
Voltmeter
V
Internal resistance

Dry cell

Ammeter

Switch

Rheostat

To determine the values of the electromotive force (e.m.f.) and

Aim

the internal resistance, r of the cell

Apparatus /

Dry cells holder, ammeter (0 1 A), voltmeter(0 5 V), rheostat (0 15 ), connecting

materials

wires, switch, and 2 pieces of 1.5 V dry cell.

Method

:
a)

Set up the circuit as shown in the figure.

b) Turn on the switch, and adjust the rheostat to give a small reading of the
ammeter, I, 0.2 A.
c)

Read and record the readings of ammeter and voltmeter respectively

d) Adjust the rheostat to produce four more sets of readings, I = 0.3 A, 0.4 A, 0.5
A and 0.6 A.
Tabulation of
data

:
Current,I/A
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7

- 38 -

Volt, V/V
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.2
2.0
1.9

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Analysis of data

Physics Module Form 5


Chapter 7: Electricity
:

Based on the
above data,
draw a graph of
V against I

Discussion

1. From the graph plotted, state the relationship between the potential difference, V
across the cell and the current flow, I?
The potential difference, V across the cell decreases as the current flow increases.
2. A cell has an internal resistance, r. This is the resistance against the movement of
the charge due to the electrolyte in the cell. With the help of the figure, explain the
result obtained in this experiment.
When the current flowing through the circuit increases, the quantity of charge
flowing per unit time increased. Hence, more energy was lost in moving a larger
amount of charge across the electrolyte. Because of this, there was a bigger drop in
potential difference measured by the voltmeter.
3. By using the equation E = V + Ir
(a) write down V in terms of E, I and r.
V = -rI + E
(b) explain how can you determine the values of E and r from the graph plotted in
this experiment.
E = the vertical intercept of the V I graph
R = the gradient of the V I graph
(c) determine the values of E and r from the graph.
By extrapolating the graph until it cuts the vertical axis,
E = 2.9 V
r = - gradient
= 1.4

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Chapter 7: Electricity

Exercise 7.4
A voltmeter connected directly across a battery gives a reading of 1.5 V.

The voltmeter reading drops to 1.35 V when a bulb is connected to the


battery and the ammeter reading is 0.3 A. Find the internal resistance of
the battery.
E = 3.0 V, V = 1.35 V, I = 0.3 A
Substitute in :

E = V + Ir
1.5 = 1.35 + 0.3(r)
r = 0.5

2. A circuit contains a cell of e.m.f 3.0 V and internal resistance, r. If the external resistor has a value of 10.0
and the potential difference across it is 2.5 V, find the value of the current, I in the circuit and the internal
resistance, r.
E = 3.0 V, R = 10 , V = 2.5 V
Calculate current : V = IR
Calculate internal resistance : E = I(R + r)

r = 2.0
A simple circuit consisting of a 2 V dry cell with an internal resistance of 0.5. When the switch is
closed, the ammeter reading is 0.4 A.
Calculate
(a) the voltmeter reading in open circuit
The voltmeter reading = e.m.f. = 2 V
(b) the resistance, R

(c) the voltmeter reading in closed circuit

E = I(R + r)
2

V = IR

= 0.4(R + 0.5)

= 0.4 (4.5)

R = 4.5

= 1.8 V
Find the voltmeter reading and the resistance, R of the

resistor.
E = V + Ir
12 = V + 0.5 (1.2)
V = 11.4 V
V = IR
e.m.f.

11.4 = 0.5 (R)


R = 22.8

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Chapter 7: Electricity

5
/V

A cell of e.m.f., E and internal resistor, r is connected to


a rheostat. The ammeter reading, I and the voltmeter
6

reading, V are recorded for different resistance, R of the


rheostat. The graph of V against I is as shown.

From the graph, determine


a)

the electromotive force, e.m.f., E


E = V + Ir

Rearrange

:V = E - Ir

Equivalent

: y = mx + c

/A

2
b) the internal resistor, r of the cell
r = - gradient
= - (6 - 2)
2
=2

Hence, from V I graph : E = c = intercept of V-axis


=6V

V/V

The graph V against I shown was obtained from an experiment.

1.5

a) Sketch a circuit diagram for the experiment

0.2
5

1/A

b) From the graph, determine


i) the internal resistance of the battery
r = -gradient

E = c = intercept of V-axis

= 0.26

ii) the e.m.f. of the battery


= 1.5 V
A graph of R against 1/I shown in figure was obtained

R/

from an experiment to determine the electromotive force,

1.3

e.m.f., E and internal resistance, r of a cell. From the


graph, determine
a)

the internal resistance of the cell

E = I(R + r)
0.5
- 0.2

1 (A-1) Rearrange
I
- r,

:R=

Hence, r = -gradient = -(-0.2) = 0.2


b) the e.m.f. of the cell
e.m.f. = gradient = 3 V

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Chapter 7: Electricity

7.5 ELECTRICAL ENERGY AND POWER


Electrical Energy
1.

Energy Conversion
battery
(chemical energy)

(a)

current

(b)

current

battery
(chemical energy)

current

current

Light and heat

Energy Conversion:
Electrical energy Light energy
+ Heat energy

Energy Conversion:
Electrical energy Kinetic
energy

2. When an electrical appliance is switched on, the flows and the .............................. energy
supplied by the source is ................................... to other forms of energy.

3. Therefore, we can define electrical energy as :

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Chapter 7: Electricity

Electrical Energy and Electrical Power


1. Potential difference, V across two points is the ............................ dissipated or
transferred by a coulomb of charge, Q that moves across the two points.
2. Therefore,
3. Hence, E = VQ

Potential difference, V = Electrical energy dissipated, E


Charge, Q

4. Power is defined as the rate of energy dissipated or transferred.


5. Hence, Power, P = Energy dissipated, E

time, t

Electrical Energy, E
From the definition of potential

Electrical Power, P
Power is the rate of transfer of electrical energy,

difference, V

Electrical energy converted, E

E = VQ

; where Q = It

Hence,

E = VI t

; where V = IR

Hence,

E = I2R

; where I = V
R

Hence,

SI unit : Joule

P = VQ
t

P = VI

2
P= I R
t

P = I2 R

2
E= V t
R

(J)

SI unit : Joule

per second // J s-1 // Watt(W)

Power Rating and Energy Consumption of Various Electrical Appliances

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Chapter 7: Electricity

1. The amount of electrical energy consumed in a given period of time can be calculated by
Energy consumed
E

Power rating x

Time

Pt

energy, E is in Joules

where

power, P is in watts
time, t is in seconds
2. The unit of measurement used for electrical energy consumption is the
...
1 kWh

1000 x 3600 J

3.6 x 106 J

1 unit

3. One kilowatt-hour is the electrical energy dissipated or transferred by a .. kW device in


... hour
4. Household electrical appliances that work on the heating effect of current are usually
marked with, and ..
5. The energy consumption of an electrical appliance depends on the and
the., , E = Pt
6. Power dissipated in a resistor, three ways to calculate:

R= 100, I=0.5 A, P=?


P = I2R
= (0.5)2 100
= 25 watts

R= 100, V=50 W, P=?


P = (V/R)2 R
= V2/R
= (50)2 /100
= 2500/100
= 25 watts

Cost of energy
- 44 -

V=50 V, I=0.5 A, P=?


P = I2(V/I)
= IV
= (0.50)50
= 25 watts

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Chapter 7: Electricity

Appliance

Quantity

Power / W

Power / kW

Time

Energy
Consumed
(kWh)

Bulb

60

8 hours

Refrigerator

400

24 hours

Kettle

1500

3 hours

Iron

1000

2 hours

Total energy consumed, E

= (0.48 + 9.6 + 4.5 + 2.0)


= 16.58 kWh

Cost

= 16.58 kWh x RM 0.28


= RM 4.64

Comparing Various Electrical Appliances in Terms of Efficient Use of Energy


1. A tungsten filament lamp changes ...............................to
useful ................ energy and unwanted ................energy
2. A fluorescent lamp or an energy saving lamp produces
less heat than a filament lamp for the same amount of
light produced.
3. a) Efficiency of a filament lamp :
Efficiency

Output power x 100


Input power

3 x 100
60

5%

b) Efficiency of a fluorescent lamp and an energy


saving lamp
Efficiency

Output power x 100


Input power

3 x 100
12

25 %

Exercise 7.5

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Chapter 7: Electricity

1. How much power dissipated in the bulb?


R = 10

(a)

5V

(b)

R = 10
R = 10
5V

2.

V= 15V

R1=2

R2=4

R3=4

Calculate
(a) the current, I in the circuit

(b) the energy released in R 1 in 10 s.

(b) the electrical energy supplied by the battery in 10 s.

2. A lamp is marked 12 V, 24 W. How many joules of electrical energy does it consume


in an hour?

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Chapter 7: Electricity

3. A current of 5A flows through an electric heater when it is connected to the 24 V mains


supply. How much heat is released after 2 minutes?

4. An electric kettle is rated 240 V 2 kW. Calculate the resistance of its heating element and
the current at normal usage.

5. An electric kettle operates at 240 V and carries current of 1.5 A.


(a) How much charge will flow through the heating coil in 2 minutes.

(b) How much energy will be transferred to the water in the kettle in 2 minutes?

(c) What is the power dissipated in the kettle?

6. An electric kettle is labeled 3 kW, 240 V.

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Chapter 7: Electricity

(a) What is meant by the label 3 kW, 240 V?


The electric kettle dissipates electrical power 3 kW if it operates at 240 V
(b) What is the current flow through the kettle?

(c) Determine the suitable fuse to be used in the kettle.


12 A
(d) Determine the resistance of the heating elements in the kettle.

7. Table below shows the power rating and energy consumption of some electrical appliances
when connected to the 240 V mains supply.
Appliance

Quantity

Power rating / W

Time used per day

Kettle jug

2000

1 hour

Refrigerator

400

24 hours

Television

200

6 hours

Lamp

60

8 hours

Electricity cost: RM 0.218 per kWh


Calculate
(a) Energy consumed in 1 day
Energy consumed

= Quantity x Power rating (kW) x Time used

Kettle jug,

=1x2x1

= 2 kWh

Refrigerator

= 1 x 0.4 x 24 = 9.6 kWh

Television

= 1 x 0.2 x 6
= 1.2 kWh

Lamp

= 5 x 0.06 x 8
= 2.4 kWh

Total energy consumed

= 15.2 kWh

(b) How much would it cost to operate the appliances for 1 month?
Cost

= 16.58 kWh x 30 x RM 0.218

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Chapter 7: Electricity

= RM 108.43
8. A vacuum cleaner consumes 1 kW of power but only delivers 400 J of useful work per
second. What is the efficiency of the vacuum cleaner?

9. An electric motor is used to lift a load of mass 2 kg to a height 5 m in 2.5 s. If the supply
voltage is 12 V and the flow of current in the motor is 5.0 A, calculate
(a) Energy input to the motor

(b) Useful energy output of the motor

(c) Efficiency of the motor

Reinforcement Exercise Chapter 7


Part A: Objective Questions

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Chapter 7: Electricity

1. What is the unit of electric charge?


A.

Ampere, A

B.

kelvin,K

C.

Coulomb, C

D.

Volt, V

A.

2. Which of the following diagrams

B.

shows the correct electric field?


A.

C.
B.

C.

D.

4. A small heater operates at 12 V, 2A.


How much energy will it use when it is
run for 5 minutes?
A. 90 J
B. 120 J

3. Which of the following graphs shows

C. 1800 J

the correct relationship between the

D. 7200 J

potential difference, V and current, I


for an ohmic conductor?
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Chapter 7: Electricity

5. The electric current supplied by a


battery in a digital watch is 3.0 x 10-5
A. What is the quantity of charge that
flows in 2 hours?
A. 2.5 x 10-7 C
B. 1.5 x 10-5 C

7. Why is the filament made in the

C. 6.0 x 10-5 C

shape of a coil?

D. 3.6 x 10-3 C

A. To increase the length and produce

E. 2.2 x 10-1 C

a higher resistance.
B. To increase the current and produce

6. Which of the following circuits can be


used to determine the resistance of the
bulb?

more energy.
C. To decrease the resistance and
produce higher current

A.

D. To decrease the current and produce


a higher potential difference
8. Which of the following will not
affect the resistance of a conducting
wire.

B.

A. temperature
B. length
C. cross-sectional area
D. current flow through the wire

9. The potential difference between two


C.

points in a circuit is
A. the rate of flow of the charge from
one point to another
B. the rate of energy dissipation in
moving one coulomb of charge
from one point to another

D.

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Chapter 7: Electricity

C. the work done in moving one


coulomb of charge from one point
to another
D. the work done per unit current
flowing from one point to another
10.

An electric kettle connected to the


240 V main supply draws a current
of 10 A. What is the power of the
A. P and Q

kettle?

B. P and S

A. 200 W

C. Q and R

B. 2000 W

D. R and S

C. 2400 W

E.

D. 3600 W
E. 4800 W
11. An e.m.f. of a battery is defined as
A. the force supplied to 1 C of charge
B.

the power supplied to 1 C of

13. In the circuit above, what is the

charge

ammeter reading when the switch S

C. the energy supplied to 1 C of

is turned on?

charge

A. 1.0 A

D. the pressure exerted on 1 C of

B. 1.5 A

charge

C. 2.0 A
D. 9.0 A
E. 10.0 A

12. Which two resistor combinations have


the same resistance between X and Y?
14. A 2 kW heater takes 20 minutes to
heat a pail of water. How much

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Chapter 7: Electricity

energy is supplied by the heater to

motor is 80%, how long does it take

the water in this period of time?

to lift a load of 600 N through a

A. 1.2 x 106 J

vertical height of 4 m

B. 1.8 x 106 J

A. 20 s

C. 2.4 x 106 J

B. 40 s

D. 3.6 x 106 J

C. 60 s

E. 4.8 x 106 J

D. 80 s
E. 100 s

15. All bulbs in the circuits below are


identical. Which circuit has the

17. The kilowatt-hour (kWh) is a unit of

smallest effective resistance?

measurement of

A.

A. Power
B. Electrical energy
C. Electromotive force

B.

C.

18. The circuit above shows four


D.

identical bulbs to a cell 6 V. Which


bulb labeled A, B, C and D is the
brightest?

16. An electric motor lifts a load with a


potential difference 12 V and fixed
current 2.5 A. If the efficiency of the
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Chapter 7: Electricity

19. A 24 resistor is connected across

E. 8.0 W

the terminals of a 12 V battery.


Calculate the power dissipated in the
resistor.

20. Which of the following quantities can

A. 0.5 W

be measured in units of JC-1

B. 2.0 W

A. Resistance

C. 4.0 W

B. Potential difference

D. 6.0 W

C. Electric current

Part B: Structured Questions


1.

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Chapter 7: Electricity

The figure above shows a graph of electric current against potential difference for three
different conductors X, Y and Z.
(a) Among the three conductors, which conductor obeys Ohms law?
Conductor Y
(b) State Ohms law.
The potential difference across a conductor is directly proportional to the current that
flows through it, if the temperature and other physical quantities are kept constant.
(c) Resistance, R is given by the formula R = V/I. What is the resistance of X when the
current flowing through it is 0.4 A? Show clearly on the graph how is the answer
obtained.
From the graph I against V;
resistance, R

= reciprocal of gradient, 1/gradient


=

1
0.11

= 9.09
(d) Among X, Y and Z, which is a bulb? Explain your answer.
X, because as I increases, the gradient decreases. Hence, the resistance X increases
as I increases which is a characteristic of a bulb.
2.

The figure below shows an electric kettle connected to a 240 V power supply by a
flexible cable. The kettle is rated 240 V, 2500 W.

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Chapter 7: Electricity

The table below shows the maximum electric current that is able to flow through
wires of various diameters.

(a)

diameter of wire / mm

maximum current / A

0.80

1.00

10

1.20

13

1.40

15

What is the current flowing through the cable when the kettle is switched
on?
P = IV
I = P/V

(b)

= 2500 / 240 = 10.4 A

Referring to the table above,


i. What is the smallest diameter wire that can be safely used for this
kettle?
1.20 mm
ii. Explain why it is dangerous to use a wire thinner than the one selected
in b(i)
As resistance is inversely proportional to cross-sectional area,
a thinner wire will have a higher resistance thus the wire will
become very hot. This could probably cause a fire to break
out.

(c)

State one precautionary measure that should be taken to ensure safe usage of
the kettle.

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Physics Module Form 5


Chapter 7: Electricity

Do not operate kettle with wet hands.


(d)

Mention one fault that might happen in the cable that will cause the fuse in the
plug to melt.
Short circuit might occur if the insulating materials of the wires in the cable are
damaged.

Part C: Essay Questions


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1.

Physics Module Form 5


Chapter 7: Electricity

Figure 1 shows the reading of the voltmeter in a simple electric circuit


Figure 2 shows the reading of the same voltmeter

(a) What is meant by electromotive force (e.m.f.) of a battery?


(b) Referring to figure (a) and figure (b), compare the state of the switch, S, and
the readings of the voltmeter. State a reason for the observation on the
readings of the voltmeter.
(c) Draw a suitable simple electric circuit and a suitable graph, briefly explain
how the e.m.f. and the quantity in your reason in (b) can be obtained.
(d)

The figure above shows a dry cell operated torchlight with metal casing
(i)

What is the purpose of the spring in the torchlight?

(ii)

Why it is safe to use the torchlight although the casing is made of metal?

(iii)

What is the purpose of having a concave reflector in the torchlight?

Answer
1. (a)

The work done by a battery to move a unit charge around a complete circuit.

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(b)

Physics Module Form 5


Chapter 7: Electricity

- Switch in figure 1 is turned off


- Switch in figure 2 in turned on
- Reading of voltmeter in figure 1 is higher than in figure 2
- This is due to the presence of an internal resistance in the battery

(c)

e.m.f = intercept on the v-axis


internal resistance = -(gradient of the graph)
(d)
(i)
(ii)
(iii)

To improve the contact between the dry cells and the terminals of the
torchlight
Current flowing through the torchlight is very small, will not cause
electric shock
To converge the light rays to obtain increase the intensity of the light rays
projected by the torchlight.

2. A group of engineers were entrusted to choose a suitable cable to be used as the


transmitting cable for a long distance electrical transmission through National Grid
Network.
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Chapter 7: Electricity

Four different cables and their characteristic of the cables were given. The length and
diameter of all the cables are similar.
(a) Define the resistance of a conductor.
(b) The table below shows the characteristic of the four cables, A, B, C and D.
Resistivity /
m

Maximum load
before breaking/
N

Density /
kgm-3

Rate of
expansion

0.020

500

2800

Low

0.056

300

3200

Low

0.031

400

5600

Medium

0.085

200

3800

High

Base on the above table:


(i)

Explain the suitability of each characteristic of the table to be used for a long
distance electricity transmission

(ii)

Determine the most suitable wire and state the reason

(c) Suggest how three similar bulbs are arranged effectively in a domestic circuit.
Draw a diagram to explain your answer. Give two reasons for the arrangement.
(d) An electric kettle is rated 2.0 kW.
(i)

Calculate how long would it take to boil 1.5 kg of water from an initial
temperature of 280 C.
[specific heat capacity of water = 4200 J kg-1 0C-1]

(ii)

What is the assumption made in the calculations above?

Answer
2.(a) Resistance is the ratio of potential difference to current flowing in an ohmic conductor.
(b)

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Chapter 7: Electricity

Characteristics

Explanations

A low resistivity

Energy loss during transmission is reduced

Max load before

Mass or weight reduced. Can be supported by transmission

braking is high

tower

A low density

Cable will not slag when it heated during transmission

Cable A is chosen because it has low resistivity, high max load before breaking, low
density and low expansion rate.
(c) (i) If one bulb is burnt the others is still be lighted up
(ii) Each bulb can be switch on and off independently
(d) (i)

Pt = mc
(2000)(t)
t

(ii)

(1.5)(4200)(100-28)

226.8 s

No heat is lost to the surroundings and absorbed by the kettle

END OF MODULE

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