2 views

Uploaded by Lim SF

Form 3 Chapter 7

- 03 Icee Fem for Electromagnetics
- EE Model Paper 3
- Amperis VMT
- Electricity
- Applied Physics Lab1-3 TL'16
- 09170sl
- Pacific-Power--Agricultural-Pumping-Service
- 45096146 Physics GCE Teacher Sample
- Physics GCSE Electric Circuits
- Lecture Jan7 & Jan12
- Electrical
- EF132 BEE Lecture 2 & 3
- 12th Physics Current Electricity
- whole text el current and potential dif bbc
- Learn Sparkfun Com Tutorials What is a Circuit All (1)
- 07357902
- Exam2 Sols
- Hcl Conet Aptitude Questions_www.profmariamichael.com
- Experiment 1 Preworkasdasdasdasdasd
- Et101 - Electrical Technology

You are on page 1of 61

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

CHAPTER 7: ELECTRICITY

7.1 CHARGE AND ELECTRIC CURRENT

Van de Graaf

1. What is a Van de Graaff generator? Fill in each of the boxes the name of the part shown.

A device that .. and .. at high voltage on its dome

dome

+

+

-1-

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

2. How are electrical charges produced by a Van de Graaff generator? And what type of

charges is usually produced on the dome of the generator?

When the motor of the Van de Graaff generator is switched on, it drives the

..

This causes the rubber belt to against the . and hence becomes ..

where it is collected.

A large amount of . is built up on the dome

. charges are usually produced on the dome of the generator.

+

+

via a micrometer? Explain.

There is a .. of the

pointer of the microammeter.

This indicates an electric current

.

-2-

+ + +

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

metal sphere to the charged dome.

+

+

brought near the charged dome,

occurs.

An electric current

5.

student is brought near to the charged

dome. Give reasons for your answer.

The metal dome . the hair

and the hair stand ..

This is because of each strand of hair

receives .. charges and

.. each other.

-3-

+ + + + +

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

Electric Current

1. Electric current consists of a flow of ......

2. The more charges that flow through a cross

section within a given time, the

is the current.

3. Electric current is defined as the

rate of flow of .

Each second, 15 coulombs of charge cross the

plane. The current is I = 15 amperes. One

ampere is one coulomb per second.

where I = .

I=

Q = .

t =

.....................

(i)

(ii)

(Cs // C-1s // Cs-1)

(iv) By rearranging the above formula, Q = ( It /

I

t

/

)

t

I

4. If one coulomb of charge flows past in one second, then the current is .

ampere.

5. 15 amperes means in second, .. coulomb of charge through a

cross section of a conductor.

6. In a metal wire, the charges are carried by.

-4-

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

8. 1 C of charge is..

Electric Field

a) An electric field is a . in which an experiences a..

b) An electric field can be represented by a number of lines indicate both the.

and .. of the field

c) The principles involved in drawing electric field lines are :

(i)

..-charged object

(ii)

Demo: To study the electric field and the effects of an electric field.

Apparatus & materials

Extra high tension (E.H.T) power supply (0 5 kV), petri dish, electrodes with different

shapes (pointed electrode and plane electrode), two metal plates, talcum powder, cooking oil,

polystyrene ball coated with conducting paint, thread and candle.

Method

DEMO

-5-

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

A)

2. Switch on the E.H.T. power supply and adjust the voltage to 4 kV

3. Observed the pattern formed by the talcum powder for different types of electrodes.

4. Draw the pattern of the electric field lines.

ELECTRIC FIELD AROUND A POSITIVE CHARGE

-6-

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

POSITIVELY CHARGED PLATE

NEGATIVELY CHARGED PLATE

-7-

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

PARALLEL PLATES

-8-

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

Observation:

The polystyrene ball oscillated between the

two plates, touching one plate after

another.

Explanation:

When the polystyrene ball touches the

negatively charged plate, the ball

receives negative charges from the plate

and experiences a repulsive force.

two metal plates.

charged plate.

polystyrene ball slightly so that it

to the plate and becomes positively

charged.

It then experiences a repulsive force. This

process continues.

-9-

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

C)

Chapter 7: Electricity

Observation:

The candle flame splits into two portions in

opposite direction. The portion that is

attracted to the negative plate is very much

larger than the portion of the flame that is

attracted to the positive plate.

Explanation:

1) Switch of the E.H.T and replace the

E.H.T. is switched on.

negative charges.

The positive charges are attracted to the

negative plate while the negative

charges are attracted to the positive

plate.

The flame is dispersed in two opposite

directions but more to the negative

plate.

The positive charges are heavier than

the negative charges. This causes the

uneven dispersion of the flame.

Conclusion

1.

Electric field is a

..

2.

other.

3. Electric field lines are in an electric field. The direction of the

field lines is from .. to

- 10 -

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

Exercise 7.1

1. 5 C of charge flows through a wire in 10 s. What is the current in the wire?

2.

A charge of 300 C flow through a bulb in every 2 minutes. What is the electric

current in the bulb?

3.

The current in a lamp is 0.2 A. Calculate the amount of electric charge that passes

through the lamp in 1 hour.

4.

If a current of 0.8 A flows in a wire, how many electrons pass through the wire in one

minute? (Given: The charge on an electron is 1.6 x 10-19 C)

An electric current of 200 mA flows through a resistor for 3 seconds, what is the

(a) electric charge

(b) the number of electrons which flow through the resistor?

- 11 -

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

(a)

(b)

Y

P

Pressure at point P is

apple is released.

pressure of water

(c) Similarly,

Point B is connected to . terminal

Electric potential at A is

Bulb

potential at B.

circuit and .. the bulb.

terminals.

energy is transformed to .and energy.

defined as ...

given by:

W

Work

V = Quantityofch arg e =

Q

where W is .

Q is .

- 12 -

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

ammeter

Cells

voltmeter

Switch

connecting wire

Constantan wire //

eureka wire

bulb

resistance

rheostat

- 13 -

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

electrical current.

Chapter 7: Electricity

1. Name the device used to measure

potential difference.

difference?

current?

potential difference?

electrical circuit?

electrical circuit?

connected to which terminal of the dry

cell?

connected to which terminal of the dry

cell?

of the ammeter is connected to the

negative terminal of the dry cell?

- 14 -

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

for an ohmic conductor.

(a)

(b)

Figure (a) and figure (b) show two electrical circuits. Why do the ammeters show different

readings? Why do the bulbs light up with different intensity?

Referring to the figure (a) and (b) complete the following table:

(a) Inference

The current flowing through the bulb is influenced by the potential difference across it.

(b) Hypothesis

To determine the relationship between current and potential difference for a

(c) Aim

constantan wire.

(d) Variables

(i)

manipulated variable

(ii)

responding variable

(iii)

fixed variable

Apparatus /

materials

Method

- 15 -

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

1.

2.

Turn on the switch and adjust the rheostat so that the ammeter reads the

current, I= 0.2 A.

Tabulation of

3.

4.

Repeat steps 2 and 3 for I = 0.3 A, 0.4 A, 0.5 A, 0.6 A and 0.7 A.

data

Current,I/A

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

Analysis of data

Discussion

Volt, V/V

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

1.

(a) What is the shape of the V-I graph?

The graph of V against I is a straight line that passes through origin

(b) What is the relationship between V and I?

This shows that the potential difference, V is directly proportional to the

current, I.

(c) Does the gradient change as the current increases?

The gradient the ratio of

2.

V

I

The resistance, R, of the constantan wire used in the experiment is equal to the

gradient of the V-I graph. Determine the value of R.

3.

It is to control the current flow in the circuit

Conclusion

The potential difference, V across a conductor increases when the current, I passing

through it increases as long as the conductor is kept at constant temperature.

- 16 -

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

Ohms Law

(a)

- 17 -

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

that the electric current, I flowing through a conductor is directly proportional to

the potential difference across the ends of the conductor,

if temperature and other physical conditions remain constant

(b) By Ohms law:

I

= constant I

or

V

= constant

I

(d) The resistance, R is a term that describes ..

..

It is also defined as the ratio.

..

That is

R=

V

I

and

V=

(f) An .. is one which obeys Ohms law, while a conductor which

does not obey Ohms law is known as a .conductor

- 18 -

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

allow) the flow of an electric current through it.

2. From the formula V = IR, the current I is (directly / inversely) proportional to the

resistance, R.

3. When the value of the resistance, R is large, the current, I flowing in the conductor is

(small / large)

4. What are the factors affecting the resistance of a conductor?

a) .

b) .

c) .

d) .

5. Write down the relevant hypothesis for the factors affecting the resistance in the table

below.

conductorThe temperaturematerial

of the of the

area

The

of type

the conductor,

of the

The cross-sectional

conductor, l Length of the

Factors

Diagram

Hypothesis

The the conductor,

the .. its resistance

Resistance is .

proportional to the length of a

conductor

The ... the cross sectional area, the .

the its resistance

Resistance is .....

proportional to the cross-sectional

area of a conductor

Different conductors with the

same physical conditions have

. resistance

The

.

The

temperature of a conductor, the

... the resistance

- 19 -

Graph

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

Resistance of a conductor,

Resistance of a conductor,

R

R

length

1

cross-sectional area

length

cross-sectional area

Or

or

R= l

Exercise 7.2

- 20 -

where =

resistivity of the

substance

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

1.

Chapter 7: Electricity

True

False

(b) J C-1 volt, V

The potential difference between two points is 1 volt if 1 joule

(c) of work is required to move a charge of 1 coulomb from one

(d)

point to another.

2 volt is two joules of work done to move 2 coulomb of charge

from one to another in an electric field.

2.

I

t

/

)

t

I

i) Electric charge,

Q = ( It /

W = (QV /

V Q

/

)

Q V

iii) Base on your answer in 2(i) and (ii) derive the work done, W in terms of I, V and t.

W

QV

ItV

3. If a charge of 5.0 C flows through a wire and the amount of electrical energy converted

into heat is 2.5 J. Calculate the potential differences across the ends of the wire.

W

QV

2.5

5.0 (V)

0.5 V

4. A light bulb is switched on for a period of time. In that period of time, 5 C of charges

passed through it and 25 J of electrical energy is converted to light and heat energy. What

is the potential difference across the bulb?

W

QV

20

6 (V)

V

=

3.33 V

5. The potential difference of 10 V is used to operate an electric motor. How much work is

done in moving 3 C of electric charge through the motor?

W

QV

- 21 -

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

3 (10)

30 J

20 V, the current flow is 3 A. How much work

done to transform electrical energy to light and

heat energy in 50 s?

W

VIt

20 (3) (50)

3000 J

Bulb

3A

A

20

of resistance 5 when the current that passes

through it is 0.5 A?

V

IR

0.5 (5)

2.5 V

2.0 A through it. Calculate R.

V

IR

3.0

2.0 (R)

1.5

R =

the dry cells supply 2.0 V and the ammeter

reading is 0.5 A?

V

IR

2.0

0.5 (R)

R =

what is the reading shown on the ammeter, if the

dry cells supply 3 V?

- 22 -

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

IR

3.0

6 (R)

0.5

R =

3 in the figure, calculate the voltage supplied

by the dry cells?

V

R =

IR

0.5 (3)

1.5

determine the resistance of a wire. The resistance

of the wire is

From V-I graph, resistance

V/V

1.2

= gradient

=

= 2.4

0

current, I flowing through a constantan wire when

the potential difference V across it was varied.

The graph shows the results of the experiment.

What is the resistance of the resistor?

From V-I graph, resistance

= gradient

=

= 2.0 x 10-3

- 23 -

I/A

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

V

IR

12

I (5)

2.4 A

through the resistor in 30 s

Q

It

2.4 (30)

72 C

electric energy to the heat energy in 30 s.

W

QV

72 (12)

or

= 12(2.4)(30)

864 C

= 864 C

cells. The two dry cells are able to provide a

current of 0.3 A when the bulb is at its normal

brightness. What is the resistance of the filament?

V

IR

3.0

0.3(R)

= VIt

10

and S made of the same substance.

a) Which of the rod has the most

resistance?

P

b) Which of the rod has the least

resistance?

S

- 24 -

+ 1.5 V -

+ 1.5 V -

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

V/V

8

From V-I graph, resistance

= gradient

=

2

0

= 4

I/A

From V-I graph, resistance

= gradient

=

= 1

m2, and the length of X is 1.2 m, calculate its

resistivity.

I/A

conductors, P, Q and R.

i)

ii)

From V-I graph, resistance

= gradient

The greater the gradient, the greater the resistance

Gradient of P > Gradient of Q > Gradient of R

- 25 -

V/V

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

19. Figure shows a wire P of length, l with a crosssectional area, A and a resistance, R. Another

wire, Q is a conductor of the same material with

a length of 3l and twice the cross-sectional area

of P. What is resistance of Q in terms of R?

Conductor P R

Conductor Q R

=

=

R

20. PQ, is a piece of uniform wire of length 1 m

with a resistance of 10. Q is connected to an

ammeter, a 2 resistor and a 3 V battery. What

is the reading on the ammeter when the jockey

is at X?

Resistance in the wire

R is directly proportional to l

= 10

100 cm

Hence, 20 cm =

R

(10)

= 2

Total resistance

2 + 2 = 4

Current, I

=

=

= 0.75 A

- 26 -

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

21. Figure shows the circuit used to investigate the relationship between potential

difference, V and current, I for a piece of constantan wire. The graph of V against I

from the experiment is as shown in the figure below.

(a)

Length // cross-sectional area // type of material // temperature of the wire

(b)

i) the constantan wire is heated

R , gradient // the resistance increases, hence the gradient increases

ii) a constantan wire of a smaller cross-sectional area is used

R , gradient // the resistance increases, hence the gradient increases

iii)a shorter constantan wire is used

R , gradient // the resistance decreases, hence the gradient decreases

- 27 -

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

Current Flow and Potential Difference in Series and Parallel Circuit

SERIES CIRCUIT

PARALLEL CIRCUIT

the same.

bulb/resistor

I = I 1 = I2 = I3

V = V1 = V2 = V3

resistors in its parallel branches.

V = V1 + V2 + V3

difference across the

I = I1 + I2 + I3

battery

resistor, we get :

resistor, we get :

V = V1 + V2 + V3

IR = IR1 + IR2 + IR3

I = I 1 + I2 + I3

V

V

V

V

R = R1 + R2 + R3

1

R

R = R1 + R2 + + R3

- 28 -

= R + R + R

3

1

2

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

(a)

(b)

(c)

- 29 -

(d)

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

Effective resistance, R

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

(h)

(g)

(i)

(j)

- 30 -

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

Exercise 7.3

1.

respectively. If the voltage of the dry cell is 2.5 V, calculate

(a) the effective resistance, R of the circuit

Effective R = 2 + 3 = 5

(b) the main current, I in the circuit

2: V = IR = (0.5)(2) = 1V

3: V = IR = (0.5)(3) = 1.5 V

V = IR

2.5 =I(5)

= 0.5 A

2.

resistance of 1. If a 3V voltage causes a current of 0.5A to flow

through the circuit, calculate the resistance of R2.

V = IR

3=0.5(1+R2)

R2 = 5

- 31 -

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

3.

Chapter 7: Electricity

The electrical current flowing through each branch, I1 and I2, is 5

A. Both bulbs have the same resistance, which is 2. Calculate

the voltage supplied.

Parallelcircuit;V =V1=V2 = IR1 or

= IR2

= 5(2)

= 10 V

4.

The voltage supplied to the parallel is 3 V. R1 and R2 have

a resistance of 5 and 20. Calculate

3 V (parallel circuit)

(b) the effective resistance, R of the circuit

1/R = 1/5 + 1/20 =1/4

R=4

(c) the main current, I in the circuit

5:

V = IR

3 =I(4)

= 0.75 A

5.

20 :

when switch, S

(a) is open?

Effective R = 6

V = IR

12 =I(6)

I=2A

6.

V = IR

3 =I(5)

I = 0.6 A

(b) is closed?

Effective R = 4

V = IR

12 =I(4)

I=3A

(a)

(a)

(b)

- 32 -

V = IR

3 =I(20)

I = 0.15 A

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

7.

Calculate

resistor.

R = 12

V = IR

= 2(8) = 16 V

I=2A

resistor.

resistors.

V = IR

I=2A

= 2(2.5) = 5 V

(e) The current passing through 6 resistor.

V = V8 + V2.5 +Vparallel

24 = 16 + 5 + Vparallel

Vparallel = 3V

V = IR

3 = I(6)

I = 0.5 A

- 33 -

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

8.

The electrical components in our household appliances are connected in a combination of series and

parallel circuits. The above figure shows a hair dryer which has components connected in series and

parallel. Describe how the circuit works.

When switch A is switched on, the dryer will only blow air at ordinary room temperature

When switches A and B are both switched on, the dryer will blow hot air.

As a safety feature to prevent overheating, the heating element will not be switched on if the fan is

not switched on

The hair dryer has an energy saving feature. Switch C will switch on the dryer only when it is held

by the hand of user

The body of the hair dryer must be safe to hold and does not get hot easily

- 34 -

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

Electromotive force

Figure (a)

Figure (b)

Voltmeter reading,

potential difference, V < e.m.f.,

E

Voltmeter reading,

e.m.f.

E,r

R

Current flowing

No current flow

connected across a dry cell which labeled 1.5 V.

a) Figure (a) is (an open circuit / a closed circuit)

b) There is (current flowing / no current flowing) in the circuit. The bulb (does not light up /

lights up)

c) The voltmeter reading shows the (amount of current flow across the dry cell / potential

difference across the dry cell)

d) The voltmeter reading is (0 V / 1.5 V / Less than 1.5 V)

e) The potential difference across the cell in open circuit is (0 V / 1.5 V / Less than 1.5 V).

Hence, the electromotive force, e.m.f., E is (0 V / 1.5 V / Less than 1.5 V)

f) It means, (0 J / less than 1.5 J / 1.5 J / 3.0 J) of electrical energy is required to move 1 C

charge across the cell or around a complete circuit.

- 35 -

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

a) Figure (b) is (an open circuit / a closed circuit)

b) There is (current flowing / no current flowing) in the circuit. The bulb (does not light up /

lights up)

c) The voltmeter reading is the (potential difference across the dry cell / potential difference

across the bulb / electromotive force).

d) The reading of the voltmeter when the switch is closed is (lower than/ the same as /

higher than) when the switch is open.

e) If the voltmeter reading in figure (b) is 1.3 V, it means, the electrical energy dissipated by

1C of charge after passing through the bulb is (0.2 J / 1.3 J / 1.5 J)

f) The potential difference drops by (0.2 V/ 1.3 V / 1.5 V). It means, the potential difference

lost across the internal resistance, r of the dry cell is (0.2 V/ 1.3 V / 1.5 V).

g) State the relationship between e.m.f , E , potential difference across the bulb, VR and drop

in potential difference due to internal resistance, Vr.

Electromotive force, e.m.f., E = Potential Difference + Drop in Potential Difference

across resistor, R

= VR + Vr

where VR = IR and Vr = Ir

= IR + Ir

= I (R + r)

- 36 -

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

3.

i. Why is the potential difference across the resistor not the same as the e.m.f. of the battery?

The potential drops as much as 0.4

Since E

Ir

1.5

1.1

0.8

0.5 r

Since V

IR

1.1

0.5 R

2.2

- 37 -

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Activity :

Chapter 7: Electricity

the internal resistance, r of the cell

Voltmeter

V

Internal resistance

Dry cell

Ammeter

Switch

Rheostat

Aim

Apparatus /

materials

Method

:

a)

b) Turn on the switch, and adjust the rheostat to give a small reading of the

ammeter, I, 0.2 A.

c)

d) Adjust the rheostat to produce four more sets of readings, I = 0.3 A, 0.4 A, 0.5

A and 0.6 A.

Tabulation of

data

:

Current,I/A

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

- 38 -

Volt, V/V

2.6

2.5

2.4

2.2

2.0

1.9

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Analysis of data

Chapter 7: Electricity

:

Based on the

above data,

draw a graph of

V against I

Discussion

1. From the graph plotted, state the relationship between the potential difference, V

across the cell and the current flow, I?

The potential difference, V across the cell decreases as the current flow increases.

2. A cell has an internal resistance, r. This is the resistance against the movement of

the charge due to the electrolyte in the cell. With the help of the figure, explain the

result obtained in this experiment.

When the current flowing through the circuit increases, the quantity of charge

flowing per unit time increased. Hence, more energy was lost in moving a larger

amount of charge across the electrolyte. Because of this, there was a bigger drop in

potential difference measured by the voltmeter.

3. By using the equation E = V + Ir

(a) write down V in terms of E, I and r.

V = -rI + E

(b) explain how can you determine the values of E and r from the graph plotted in

this experiment.

E = the vertical intercept of the V I graph

R = the gradient of the V I graph

(c) determine the values of E and r from the graph.

By extrapolating the graph until it cuts the vertical axis,

E = 2.9 V

r = - gradient

= 1.4

- 39 -

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

Exercise 7.4

A voltmeter connected directly across a battery gives a reading of 1.5 V.

battery and the ammeter reading is 0.3 A. Find the internal resistance of

the battery.

E = 3.0 V, V = 1.35 V, I = 0.3 A

Substitute in :

E = V + Ir

1.5 = 1.35 + 0.3(r)

r = 0.5

2. A circuit contains a cell of e.m.f 3.0 V and internal resistance, r. If the external resistor has a value of 10.0

and the potential difference across it is 2.5 V, find the value of the current, I in the circuit and the internal

resistance, r.

E = 3.0 V, R = 10 , V = 2.5 V

Calculate current : V = IR

Calculate internal resistance : E = I(R + r)

r = 2.0

A simple circuit consisting of a 2 V dry cell with an internal resistance of 0.5. When the switch is

closed, the ammeter reading is 0.4 A.

Calculate

(a) the voltmeter reading in open circuit

The voltmeter reading = e.m.f. = 2 V

(b) the resistance, R

E = I(R + r)

2

V = IR

= 0.4(R + 0.5)

= 0.4 (4.5)

R = 4.5

= 1.8 V

Find the voltmeter reading and the resistance, R of the

resistor.

E = V + Ir

12 = V + 0.5 (1.2)

V = 11.4 V

V = IR

e.m.f.

R = 22.8

- 40 -

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

5

/V

a rheostat. The ammeter reading, I and the voltmeter

6

rheostat. The graph of V against I is as shown.

a)

E = V + Ir

Rearrange

:V = E - Ir

Equivalent

: y = mx + c

/A

2

b) the internal resistor, r of the cell

r = - gradient

= - (6 - 2)

2

=2

=6V

V/V

1.5

0.2

5

1/A

i) the internal resistance of the battery

r = -gradient

E = c = intercept of V-axis

= 0.26

= 1.5 V

A graph of R against 1/I shown in figure was obtained

R/

1.3

graph, determine

a)

E = I(R + r)

0.5

- 0.2

1 (A-1) Rearrange

I

- r,

:R=

b) the e.m.f. of the cell

e.m.f. = gradient = 3 V

- 41 -

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

Electrical Energy

1.

Energy Conversion

battery

(chemical energy)

(a)

current

(b)

current

battery

(chemical energy)

current

current

Energy Conversion:

Electrical energy Light energy

+ Heat energy

Energy Conversion:

Electrical energy Kinetic

energy

2. When an electrical appliance is switched on, the flows and the .............................. energy

supplied by the source is ................................... to other forms of energy.

- 42 -

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

1. Potential difference, V across two points is the ............................ dissipated or

transferred by a coulomb of charge, Q that moves across the two points.

2. Therefore,

3. Hence, E = VQ

Charge, Q

5. Hence, Power, P = Energy dissipated, E

time, t

Electrical Energy, E

From the definition of potential

Electrical Power, P

Power is the rate of transfer of electrical energy,

difference, V

E = VQ

; where Q = It

Hence,

E = VI t

; where V = IR

Hence,

E = I2R

; where I = V

R

Hence,

SI unit : Joule

P = VQ

t

P = VI

2

P= I R

t

P = I2 R

2

E= V t

R

(J)

SI unit : Joule

- 43 -

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

1. The amount of electrical energy consumed in a given period of time can be calculated by

Energy consumed

E

Power rating x

Time

Pt

energy, E is in Joules

where

power, P is in watts

time, t is in seconds

2. The unit of measurement used for electrical energy consumption is the

...

1 kWh

1000 x 3600 J

3.6 x 106 J

1 unit

... hour

4. Household electrical appliances that work on the heating effect of current are usually

marked with, and ..

5. The energy consumption of an electrical appliance depends on the and

the., , E = Pt

6. Power dissipated in a resistor, three ways to calculate:

P = I2R

= (0.5)2 100

= 25 watts

P = (V/R)2 R

= V2/R

= (50)2 /100

= 2500/100

= 25 watts

Cost of energy

- 44 -

P = I2(V/I)

= IV

= (0.50)50

= 25 watts

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

Appliance

Quantity

Power / W

Power / kW

Time

Energy

Consumed

(kWh)

Bulb

60

8 hours

Refrigerator

400

24 hours

Kettle

1500

3 hours

Iron

1000

2 hours

= 16.58 kWh

Cost

= RM 4.64

1. A tungsten filament lamp changes ...............................to

useful ................ energy and unwanted ................energy

2. A fluorescent lamp or an energy saving lamp produces

less heat than a filament lamp for the same amount of

light produced.

3. a) Efficiency of a filament lamp :

Efficiency

Input power

3 x 100

60

5%

saving lamp

Efficiency

Input power

3 x 100

12

25 %

Exercise 7.5

- 45 -

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

R = 10

(a)

5V

(b)

R = 10

R = 10

5V

2.

V= 15V

R1=2

R2=4

R3=4

Calculate

(a) the current, I in the circuit

in an hour?

- 46 -

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

supply. How much heat is released after 2 minutes?

4. An electric kettle is rated 240 V 2 kW. Calculate the resistance of its heating element and

the current at normal usage.

(a) How much charge will flow through the heating coil in 2 minutes.

(b) How much energy will be transferred to the water in the kettle in 2 minutes?

- 47 -

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

The electric kettle dissipates electrical power 3 kW if it operates at 240 V

(b) What is the current flow through the kettle?

12 A

(d) Determine the resistance of the heating elements in the kettle.

7. Table below shows the power rating and energy consumption of some electrical appliances

when connected to the 240 V mains supply.

Appliance

Quantity

Power rating / W

Kettle jug

2000

1 hour

Refrigerator

400

24 hours

Television

200

6 hours

Lamp

60

8 hours

Calculate

(a) Energy consumed in 1 day

Energy consumed

Kettle jug,

=1x2x1

= 2 kWh

Refrigerator

Television

= 1 x 0.2 x 6

= 1.2 kWh

Lamp

= 5 x 0.06 x 8

= 2.4 kWh

= 15.2 kWh

(b) How much would it cost to operate the appliances for 1 month?

Cost

- 48 -

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

= RM 108.43

8. A vacuum cleaner consumes 1 kW of power but only delivers 400 J of useful work per

second. What is the efficiency of the vacuum cleaner?

9. An electric motor is used to lift a load of mass 2 kg to a height 5 m in 2.5 s. If the supply

voltage is 12 V and the flow of current in the motor is 5.0 A, calculate

(a) Energy input to the motor

Part A: Objective Questions

- 49 -

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

A.

Ampere, A

B.

kelvin,K

C.

Coulomb, C

D.

Volt, V

A.

B.

A.

C.

B.

C.

D.

How much energy will it use when it is

run for 5 minutes?

A. 90 J

B. 120 J

C. 1800 J

D. 7200 J

for an ohmic conductor?

- 50 -

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

battery in a digital watch is 3.0 x 10-5

A. What is the quantity of charge that

flows in 2 hours?

A. 2.5 x 10-7 C

B. 1.5 x 10-5 C

C. 6.0 x 10-5 C

shape of a coil?

D. 3.6 x 10-3 C

E. 2.2 x 10-1 C

a higher resistance.

B. To increase the current and produce

used to determine the resistance of the

bulb?

more energy.

C. To decrease the resistance and

produce higher current

A.

a higher potential difference

8. Which of the following will not

affect the resistance of a conducting

wire.

B.

A. temperature

B. length

C. cross-sectional area

D. current flow through the wire

C.

points in a circuit is

A. the rate of flow of the charge from

one point to another

B. the rate of energy dissipation in

moving one coulomb of charge

from one point to another

D.

- 51 -

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

coulomb of charge from one point

to another

D. the work done per unit current

flowing from one point to another

10.

240 V main supply draws a current

of 10 A. What is the power of the

A. P and Q

kettle?

B. P and S

A. 200 W

C. Q and R

B. 2000 W

D. R and S

C. 2400 W

E.

D. 3600 W

E. 4800 W

11. An e.m.f. of a battery is defined as

A. the force supplied to 1 C of charge

B.

charge

is turned on?

charge

A. 1.0 A

B. 1.5 A

charge

C. 2.0 A

D. 9.0 A

E. 10.0 A

the same resistance between X and Y?

14. A 2 kW heater takes 20 minutes to

heat a pail of water. How much

- 52 -

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

A. 1.2 x 106 J

vertical height of 4 m

B. 1.8 x 106 J

A. 20 s

C. 2.4 x 106 J

B. 40 s

D. 3.6 x 106 J

C. 60 s

E. 4.8 x 106 J

D. 80 s

E. 100 s

identical. Which circuit has the

measurement of

A.

A. Power

B. Electrical energy

C. Electromotive force

B.

C.

D.

bulb labeled A, B, C and D is the

brightest?

potential difference 12 V and fixed

current 2.5 A. If the efficiency of the

- 53 -

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

E. 8.0 W

Calculate the power dissipated in the

resistor.

A. 0.5 W

B. 2.0 W

A. Resistance

C. 4.0 W

B. Potential difference

D. 6.0 W

C. Electric current

1.

- 54 -

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

The figure above shows a graph of electric current against potential difference for three

different conductors X, Y and Z.

(a) Among the three conductors, which conductor obeys Ohms law?

Conductor Y

(b) State Ohms law.

The potential difference across a conductor is directly proportional to the current that

flows through it, if the temperature and other physical quantities are kept constant.

(c) Resistance, R is given by the formula R = V/I. What is the resistance of X when the

current flowing through it is 0.4 A? Show clearly on the graph how is the answer

obtained.

From the graph I against V;

resistance, R

=

1

0.11

= 9.09

(d) Among X, Y and Z, which is a bulb? Explain your answer.

X, because as I increases, the gradient decreases. Hence, the resistance X increases

as I increases which is a characteristic of a bulb.

2.

The figure below shows an electric kettle connected to a 240 V power supply by a

flexible cable. The kettle is rated 240 V, 2500 W.

- 55 -

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

The table below shows the maximum electric current that is able to flow through

wires of various diameters.

(a)

diameter of wire / mm

maximum current / A

0.80

1.00

10

1.20

13

1.40

15

What is the current flowing through the cable when the kettle is switched

on?

P = IV

I = P/V

(b)

i. What is the smallest diameter wire that can be safely used for this

kettle?

1.20 mm

ii. Explain why it is dangerous to use a wire thinner than the one selected

in b(i)

As resistance is inversely proportional to cross-sectional area,

a thinner wire will have a higher resistance thus the wire will

become very hot. This could probably cause a fire to break

out.

(c)

State one precautionary measure that should be taken to ensure safe usage of

the kettle.

- 56 -

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

(d)

Mention one fault that might happen in the cable that will cause the fuse in the

plug to melt.

Short circuit might occur if the insulating materials of the wires in the cable are

damaged.

- 57 -

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

1.

Chapter 7: Electricity

Figure 2 shows the reading of the same voltmeter

(b) Referring to figure (a) and figure (b), compare the state of the switch, S, and

the readings of the voltmeter. State a reason for the observation on the

readings of the voltmeter.

(c) Draw a suitable simple electric circuit and a suitable graph, briefly explain

how the e.m.f. and the quantity in your reason in (b) can be obtained.

(d)

The figure above shows a dry cell operated torchlight with metal casing

(i)

(ii)

Why it is safe to use the torchlight although the casing is made of metal?

(iii)

Answer

1. (a)

The work done by a battery to move a unit charge around a complete circuit.

- 58 -

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

(b)

Chapter 7: Electricity

- Switch in figure 2 in turned on

- Reading of voltmeter in figure 1 is higher than in figure 2

- This is due to the presence of an internal resistance in the battery

(c)

internal resistance = -(gradient of the graph)

(d)

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

To improve the contact between the dry cells and the terminals of the

torchlight

Current flowing through the torchlight is very small, will not cause

electric shock

To converge the light rays to obtain increase the intensity of the light rays

projected by the torchlight.

transmitting cable for a long distance electrical transmission through National Grid

Network.

- 59 -

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

Four different cables and their characteristic of the cables were given. The length and

diameter of all the cables are similar.

(a) Define the resistance of a conductor.

(b) The table below shows the characteristic of the four cables, A, B, C and D.

Resistivity /

m

Maximum load

before breaking/

N

Density /

kgm-3

Rate of

expansion

0.020

500

2800

Low

0.056

300

3200

Low

0.031

400

5600

Medium

0.085

200

3800

High

(i)

Explain the suitability of each characteristic of the table to be used for a long

distance electricity transmission

(ii)

(c) Suggest how three similar bulbs are arranged effectively in a domestic circuit.

Draw a diagram to explain your answer. Give two reasons for the arrangement.

(d) An electric kettle is rated 2.0 kW.

(i)

Calculate how long would it take to boil 1.5 kg of water from an initial

temperature of 280 C.

[specific heat capacity of water = 4200 J kg-1 0C-1]

(ii)

Answer

2.(a) Resistance is the ratio of potential difference to current flowing in an ohmic conductor.

(b)

- 60 -

JPN Pahang

Students Copy

Chapter 7: Electricity

Characteristics

Explanations

A low resistivity

braking is high

tower

A low density

Cable A is chosen because it has low resistivity, high max load before breaking, low

density and low expansion rate.

(c) (i) If one bulb is burnt the others is still be lighted up

(ii) Each bulb can be switch on and off independently

(d) (i)

Pt = mc

(2000)(t)

t

(ii)

(1.5)(4200)(100-28)

226.8 s

END OF MODULE

- 61 -

- 03 Icee Fem for ElectromagneticsUploaded byFaouzi Tlemcen
- EE Model Paper 3Uploaded bychantaiah
- Amperis VMTUploaded byCuenta Coorporativa
- ElectricityUploaded bymisterbrowner
- Applied Physics Lab1-3 TL'16Uploaded byShameel Uddin
- 09170slUploaded byBatzorig Mandakhbayar
- Pacific-Power--Agricultural-Pumping-ServiceUploaded byGenability
- 45096146 Physics GCE Teacher SampleUploaded byAriful Islam
- Physics GCSE Electric CircuitsUploaded byNotmeNo
- Lecture Jan7 & Jan12Uploaded byarmon_domingo
- ElectricalUploaded byKim Ciudadano
- EF132 BEE Lecture 2 & 3Uploaded byAnonymous gdLjDz
- 12th Physics Current ElectricityUploaded byAbhay Sinha
- whole text el current and potential dif bbcUploaded byapi-351638964
- Learn Sparkfun Com Tutorials What is a Circuit All (1)Uploaded byjohnconnar
- 07357902Uploaded byricoda
- Exam2 SolsUploaded byanaklembah@Scribd
- Hcl Conet Aptitude Questions_www.profmariamichael.comUploaded byRishabh Jain
- Experiment 1 PreworkasdasdasdasdasdUploaded byadil
- Et101 - Electrical TechnologyUploaded byNurhidayah Jamaluddin
- Chapter 5 circuit 1Uploaded bypeter
- Sf6 Gcb 245kv 800kvenglishUploaded bymunindragoswami
- Circuit 6Uploaded byvims124
- Chapter 3Uploaded byاحمد عقل
- tcee-161003100321Uploaded byAnil KumAr Mote
- Solution (1)Uploaded byJose Daniel Ochoa Moya
- problem2-text2Uploaded bysuperstring
- CSNP661Uploaded byLong Nguyen
- TC Tutorial 2Uploaded bymetiucocs
- Basics of ElectricityUploaded bytod1981

- Std 3 bi 22.8.17Uploaded byLim SF
- Std 3 mm 31.8.17Uploaded byLim SF
- Science Form 2 Notes Chapter 5 : Water and SolutionsUploaded byKiri Kaniathran
- T1 Cuaca Dan IklimUploaded byLim SF
- Std 3 mm 29.6.17.pdfUploaded byLim SF
- y5 Eng March RevisionUploaded byLim SF
- Std 3 bi 11.7.17Uploaded byLim SF
- Std 3 mm 24.8.17Uploaded byLim SF
- Std 3 bi 6.6.17Uploaded byLim SF
- Std 3 bi 27.6.17Uploaded byLim SF
- Std 3 bi 12.9.17Uploaded byLim SF
- Std 3 bc (w) 30.9.17Uploaded byLim SF
- Geografi PMR: Tema1 (Bentuk Muka Bumi)Uploaded bySyahrul
- Std 3 bm (w) 23.9.17Uploaded byLim SF
- Ayat Aktif dan Ayat Pasif.pdfUploaded byHuey Ling Ng
- Std 3 bm (w) 1.7.17Uploaded byLim SF
- Std 3 bm (w) 12.8.17Uploaded byLim SF
- Std 3 bi (w) 24.6.17Uploaded byLim SF
- Std 2 bm (w) 1.7.17Uploaded byLim SF
- Std 3 bm (w) 10.6.17Uploaded byLim SF
- Std 3 bc 4.9.17Uploaded byLim SF
- Std 3 sn 2.6.17Uploaded byLim SF
- Std 3 bc (w) 8.7.17Uploaded byLim SF
- Std 3 bm (w) 2.9.17Uploaded byLim SF
- Std 3 bi (w) 3.6.17Uploaded byLim SF
- Std 3 bc (w) 29.7.17Uploaded byLim SF
- Std 3 sn 25.8.17Uploaded byLim SF
- Std 3 bi (w) 15.7.17Uploaded byLim SF
- Std 3 bi (w) 26.8.17Uploaded byLim SF
- Std 3 bc 10.7.17.pdfUploaded byLim SF

- The Hunger Crop: Poverty and the sugar industryUploaded byOxfam
- Nikon 80i service manualUploaded byAndrew Holmes
- Press Release - Etihad Airways Marks 10 Years of Flying to Qatar With Additional Frequencies - 12-06-16 - EnglishUploaded byArden Muhumuza Kitomari
- Testequipmentshop.com Agilent Spectrum-Analyzers TES-E4440A DatasheetUploaded byTeq Sho
- Pure ModulesUploaded byTom Davis
- Abdelkader 2008Uploaded byArif Pasadita
- HPNUploaded byFerdy Pamungkas
- Prob CalxElFinIng.docxUploaded byCaleb Harris
- Export Procedures and DocumentsUploaded byCentra Lin
- INTELLIswitch993 Instruction SheetUploaded bysegashark
- anthropology eportfolio essayUploaded byapi-267697848
- 7000 EXL Generator Owners ManualUploaded byabrote7114
- Workshop Watermatex CFDUploaded byLuay Kadhum Alwaili
- Unistrut UK Mini 090214 WebUploaded bykurtain
- A Mine UnitUploaded byrgvazquez
- CFA Challenge Final VersionUploaded bySean Moore
- Pipe Sizes & Pressure RatingsUploaded byArifDarmawan
- 15. Eng-Analysis of Leakage Current in Extremely-Savita MauryaUploaded byImpact Journals
- Hoisting & Rigging Safety Manual.docxUploaded byEndy Destriawan
- Treatment of Jean-wash Wastewater by Combined Coagulation Hydrolysisacidification and Fenton OxidatiUploaded byJúlio César Spillere Ronchi
- Designing an Optimal Supply Chain for a Fast Growing Specialty Retail ChainUploaded byTarek Elsayed
- Chichawatni Road - Kamalia ExchangeUploaded byraja_liaqat
- Flash Card FullUploaded byabdulgafoor54
- Back CountersinkingUploaded byNeuza River
- Infrared Thermal Imaging Inspection Report-Production LinesUploaded byAnonymous Wu6FDjb
- Experiment 11Uploaded bySteveFarra
- Dominus Iesus (txt) - EnglishUploaded byCatholic Inside
- HP / Compaq Quick Troubleshooting GuideUploaded byRAM_Arbeitsspeicher
- Cook Yourself Thin RecipesUploaded bynellyestelar
- Grossberg_Change_the_World.pdfUploaded byAnthony McIntyre