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Anatomy

Subject:
Date:
Muscle & Nervous Tissue
Title:
Lecturer:
Roberto SJ. Tan, M.D., FPPS.
Sem/ A.Y.:
Transcribers: Cabello R., Cacapit J., Cachero B., Cacuyog J., Cafugauan E., Cai, C.
Trans Subject Head: Jacinto, C. (09157536686 | ccjacinto15@gmail.com)

A.

B.

A.

B.

I.
OUTLINE
Muscle Tissue
a. Muscle
i. Terminologies
ii. Classification of Muscle Tissue
b. Types of Muscle Tissues
i. Skeletal Muscle
1.
Organization of Skeletal Muscle
2.
Organization of Skeletal Muscle Fibers
3.
Structural Organization of Myofibrils
ii. Cardiac Muscle
1. Structure and Function
2. 3 Main Junctional Specializations
iii. Smooth Muscle
c. Organelles
d. Motor End Plate
e. Muscle Tissue Regeneration
Nervous Tissue
a. Nervous System and Its Development
b. Cells in the Nervous System
i. Neuron
1,
Parts of a Neuron
2.
Classification of Neurons
3.
Synapse
ii. Neuroglial cells
1. Astrocytes
2. Schwann Cells
3. Oligodendrocytes
4. Microglia
5. Ependymal Cells
c. Nerve Regeneration
i. Nerve Regeneration: CNS
ii. Nerve Regeneration: Peripheral Nerve Fiber
iii. Unsuccessful Nerve Regeneration
II. OBJECTIVES
Muscle Tissue
a. Enumerate the characteristics and functions of each type
of muscle tissue
b. Classify muscle tissue based on morphology and
function
c. Differentiate the 3 types of muscle tissue under light
microscopy
d. Describe the structure of a sarcomere
e. Explain the regenerative capabilities of muscle tissue
Nervous Tissue
a. Show the general organization of the nerve cell
b. Identify the parts of a neuron under light microscopy
c. Classify neurons based on the number of processes,
shape, size, and function
d. Describe the formation, structure and function of the
myelin sheath
e. Classify synapses based on their ultrastructure
f.
Classify the different nerve endings in the body
g. Identify the neuroglia and differentiate each as to
morphology, origin, distribution in the CNS, and function
h. Describe the regenerative capabilities of nervous tissue

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June 25, 2014


1st/A.Y. 2014-2015

III.

MUSCLE & NERVOUS TISSUE


A. MUSCLE TISSUE

a. Muscle
Responsible for the MOST TYPES OF BODY MOVEMENT
Made up of groups of elongated muscle cells with filaments
ORIGIN: MESODERMAL
Differentiation - gradual process of lengthening, with synthesis of
myofibrillar proteins (maturation process)
Terminologies
Sarcolemma cell membrane
Sarcoplasm cytoplasm of muscle cells
Sarcoplasmic reticulum smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of
muscle cells
Sarcosome specialized mitochondria
Sarcomere found in striated muscle fibers; considered as the
functional unit
Classification of Muscle Tissue
According to MORPHOLOGY
Smooth has no striations; located in the walls of blood vessels,
viscera (organs), and dermis of skin
Striated display characteristic alternations of dark and light bands
According to FUNCTION
Voluntary has conscious control or action
Involuntary has NO conscious control or action

Figure 1: Types of Muscles


b. Types of Muscle Tissue
Skeletal Muscle
Long muscle fibers (up to 30 cm); Dm: 10-100um
Cylindrical and multinucleated cells with oval nuclei found at
periphery of cell, under the cell membrane
Striated and pink to red in color due to rich vascular supply and
presence of myoglobin

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ANATOMY 1.5: Muscle & Nervous Tissue


Organization of Skeletal Muscle

Structural Organization of Myofibrils

Figure 2: Organization of Skeletal Muscle


Fibers arranged regularly:
Epimysium dense irregular CT (fascia)
Perimysium (invagination Ms bundles)
Endomysium delicate CT
Figure 4: Schematic Diagram of Muscle Fiber Structure
Organization of Skeletal Muscle Fibers
4 Muscle Proteins
Actin
thin filament;
2 strands of globular G-actin monomers in double helical
formation;
contains binding site for myosin
Myosin
2 heavy and 2 light chains;
heavy chains contain ATP binding site
Troponin
Tropomyosin
Figure 3: Myofibril schematic diagram

A Band
Anisotropic
Dark areas in the center of sarcomeres
I Band
Isotropic
Light areas on either side of Z disk
H Band
Pale area; center of A band
Z line/disk
Center of adjacent sarcomere
Passes through center of each I band, to which thin filaments are
attached
Sarcomere: Smallest contractile unit (Z line Z line)

The sliding filament mechanism of muscle contraction


2 Z disks are brought closer together as thin filaments are brought
together as thin filaments slide past the thick filaments
Morphological Changes in Sarcomere during Muscle Contraction
I band narrower
H band extinguished
Z disks move closer together
A band unaltered
Cardiac Muscle

85-100m (mature); 15m in diameter


Cross striated banding pattern(branching)
1 or 2 centrally located pale-staining nuclei
Endomysial CT with rich capillary network

Structure and Function


Diads 1 T-tubule
1 sarcoplasmic reticulum cisternae
Numerous mitochondria occupies 40% or more of the
cytoplasmic volume
Intercalated disk represent junctional complexes between
adjacent cardiac muscle cells
3 Main Junctional Specializations
Fasciae adherentes
most prominent found in transverse portions, serves as anchoring
sites for actin filaments of terminal sarcomeres
Maculae adherentes (desmosomes)
found in transverse portions, bind cardiac cells together to prevent
their pulling apart under constant contractile activity

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ANATOMY 1.5: Muscle & Nervous Tissue


Gap Junction
found in lateral portions, provide ionic continuity between adjacent
cells
Smooth Muscle
Elongated non-stiated spindle shaped cells fusiform (largest at
midpoint & taper towards ends)
Length: 20m (small blood vessels) & 500m (pregnant uterus)
Centrally-located, cigar-shaped nucleus
Table 1: Summary of the morphology of the 3 types of muscle tissue
Skeletal Muscle

Cardiac Muscle

Mutinucleated

UniMultinucleated

Striated
Nucleus
Periphery
Oval
Nucleus

Smooth Muscle
or

Striated
at

Centrally
Nucleus

Skeletal Muscle

d. Motor End Plate

Uninucleated
Unstriated

Located

Shaped

Voluntary

Mitochondria
Membrane-enclosed organelles with enzyme arrays specialized
for aerobic respiration and production of Adenosine triphosphate
(ATP).
Considered as the powerhouse of the cell
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
Branching network of SER cisternae (end)
keeps the Calcium ions, sequestration and release of Ca+
Transverse tubules
Finger like invaginations of sarcolemma, regulation of Calcium
influx/efflux and propagation of depolarization signals (deepest
region in the muscle tissue); penetrates deep so that Ca+
distribution is uniform

Involuntary
Cardiac Muscle

Centrally
Nucleus
Cigar
Nucleus

Located
Shaped

Involuntary
Smooth Muscle

Figure 7: Micrograph of muscular innervation (legend: MEP-Motor


End Plate, S- Striated Muscle Fiber, NB Nerve Bundle
Myoneural junction
Branching myelinated motor nerves dilated termination
Neuromuscular Spindle

Figure 5: Muscle tissues under light microscopy.


Table 2: Comparison of sarcoplasmic reticulum in muscle types

Figure 8: Micrograph showing the Neuromuscular Spindle


c. Organelles

Receptor for proprioception (sense of position)


1.5 mm long with CT fluid-filled space with -20 myofibers;
intrafusal fibers (encapsulated)
e. Muscle Tissue Regeneration
Skeletal Muscle- can regenerate when tissues are damaged;
satellite cells found at the basal lamina divides and the cells fuse
with existing muscle fibers to regenerate and repair the damaged
fibers
Smooth Muscle- greatest capacity to divide; smooth muscle cells
can undergo mitotic division
Cardiac Muscles- cannot regenerate; absence of stem cells or
satellite cells
B.

Figure 6: Organelles in Muscle Fiber

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NERVOUS TISSUE

a. Nervous System
composed of a network of billions of nerve cells (neurons) assisted
by glial cells
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ANATOMY 1.5: Muscle & Nervous Tissue


Development of Nervous Tissues

Ectoderm

Neuroepithelium

Neural Plate

Neural Groove

Neural Tube
Figure 9: Embryonic development of neural tube (which gives rise
to the neurons, neuroglia, ependyma and choroid plexus).
b. Cells in the Nervous System
Neurons
functional structural unit of a nervous tissue
Functions: receptive, integrative, and motor function
5 to 150 m in diameter
Parts of a Neuron

Polygonal with concave surfaces between many cell processes in


CNS while in the dorsal root ganglia (in PNS), they have a round
cell body from which only 1 process exits.
Nucleus
Large, spherical to ovoid, centrally located
Nucleolus prominent
Contains finely dispersed chromatin (may appear vesicular)
Cytoplasm
with abundant RER
contains Nissl bodies stacked with RER cisternae and
polyribosomes seen as clumps of basophilic material
represent sites for protein synthesis
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER)
abundant, extends into the axons and dendrites
Golgi Complex
located ONLY in the soma
consists of multiple parallel arrays of smooth cisternae
arranged around the periphery of the nucleus
responsible for packaging of neurotransmitter substances
Mitochondria
found in soma, dendrites & axon
most abundant in axon terminals
more slender
constantly moving along microtubules in the cytoplasm
Centriole
characteristic of preneuronal multiplying cells during embryonic
development
only occasionally encountered in adult neurons
believed to be vestigial structures (because neurons do not
undergo mitosis)
Inclusions
Melanin
coarse, dark-brown/black granules found in some regions of
the CNS and sympathetic ganglia (PNS)
Lipofuscin
golden-brown granules
irregularly shaped
remnants of lysosomal enzymatic activity which increase with
age
Lipid droplet
result of faulty metabolism
Secretory granules
contains signalling molecules and are found in neurosecretory
cells
Cytoskeletal components
Microtubules
Neurofilaments
Microfilaments
Neurofibrils

Dendrites
Cell body projections

Figure 10: Schematic Diagram of a Neuron


Cell Body/Perikaryon/Soma
Central portion which contains the nucleus and perinuclear
cytoplasm

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With abundant mitochondria


RECEIVES stimuli from sensory cells, axons and other neurons
impulse received are transmitted towards soma
Dendrite branching patternpermits a neuron to receive &
integrate multiple impulses
Some have spines (permits dendrites to form synapses with other
neurons)
Sometimes contain vesicles & transmit impulses to other
dendrites

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ANATOMY 1.5: Muscle & Nervous Tissue


Table 3: Summary of Perikaryon parts
Cell Body/ Perikaryon/ Soma
Description and function/s

Large, spherical to ovoid,


centrally located

(CNS)
Polygonal
with
concave surfaces bet. many
cell processes
Nucleus

(DRG in PNS) Round with


only 1 process exit

Nucleolus prominent

With
finely
dispersed
chromatin

With abundant RER, Nissl


Cytoplasm
bodies and polyribosomes;
site for protein synthesis

Abundant and extends into


SER
axon and dendrites

ONLY in the soma

With multiple parallel arrays


of smooth cisternae at the
Golgi complex
nucleus periphery

Site for neurotransmitter


substance packaging

Most abundant in axon


terminal but found in the
Mitochondria
soma, dendrites and axon

Slender
and
constantly
moving across cytoplasm

Unique
in
preneuronal
Centriole
multiplying cells (embryonic
devt)

Microtubules essential for


transport of vesicles and
organelles (soma and axon)

Neurofilaments abundant
in soma and cell processes
Cytoskeletal

Microfilaments composed
components
of 2 strands of polymeryzed
G-actin (helical)

Neurofibrils

possibly
represent clumped bundles
of neurofilaments

Nerve fiber axon + certain sheaths of ectodermal origin


Synapse region where impulses can be transmitted between
cells
Myelin Sheath
Fatlike substance covering axons
concentric layers of mixed lipids alternating with thin layers of the
protein neurokeratin
associated only with axons
Unmyelinated Axons
Myelinated Axons
Produced by Oligodendrocytes (CNS), Schwann cells (PNS)
Structure of Myelin Sheath
Nodes of Ranvier
sites of discontinuity between successive Schwann cells along
the axon
Internodal segments
consists of a singular Schwann cell & its concentric lamellae of
myelin around the axon
delineated by successive nodes of Ranvier
Incisure of Schmidt-Lantermann
aligned sites of local separation of the myelin lamellae by
residues of cytoplasm trapped in the spiral structure
Functions of the Myelin Sheath
Increases the speed of conduction from 1 m/s in slender
unmyelinated axons to 120 m/s in heavily myelinated axons of
large calibre
Serves as a high-resistance low-capacitance insulator
Role in nutrition of the axon
Protective role assuring continuing conductivity
Mechanism of Myelination
Schwann cells or oligodendrocytes concentrically wrap its
membrane around the axons to form the myelin sheath
Wrapping may continue for more than 50 turns
Cytoplasm is squeezed back into the body of the cell bringing the
cytoplasmic surfaces of the membranes in contact with each
other forming the major dense line that spirals through the myelin
sheath
Peripheral Nerve Sheaths

Axon
Axis cylinder with varying diameter
Usually very long processes (may be up to 100cm in length) with
only 1 axon per neuron.
Conducts impulses AWAY from the soma to other neurons,
muscles or glands (Impulse conduction)
Axonal transport
Crucial to trophic relationships
Interruptions lead to atrophy of target cells
Anterograde: soma to axon terminal; via kinesin
Retrograde: axon terminal to soma; via dynein
Pathway followed by toxins and neurotropic viruses to penetrate
and invade the CNS
Parts of the axon
Axolemma cell membrane
Axoplasm axon cytoplasm
Axon hillock where axon arises; absent RER
Collateral branches
Axon terminal

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Figure 11: Micrograph of Peripheral Nerve Sheaths


Epineurium
envelops the nerve & sends extensions into it to surround the
separate nerve fascicles w/in it
outermost sheath
thick & strong investment composed of dense irregular
connective tissue
associated with adipose tissue in larger nerve

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ANATOMY 1.5: Muscle & Nervous Tissue


Perineurium
covers each bundle of nerve fiber (fascicle)
consists of dense CT, of a few to several layers of flattened
epithelium-like cells bounded both internally & externally by a
basal lamina
barrier to passage of particulate tracers, dye molecules/toxins
into the endoneurium, thus protecting the perineural
compartment
Endoneurium
surround individual nerve fibers (axons)
delicate, loose connective tissue consisting of small fibrils of
collagen, fibroblasts, fixed macrophages, capillaries,
perivascular mast cells, & EC fluid
thin layer of reticular fibers produced by Schwann cells
Classification of Neurons

Originates in the CNS and transmits impulses to effector organs


throughout the body such as muscle fibers, exocrine and
endocrine glands
Interneurons
Located completely in the Central Nervous System or function as
interconnectors or integrators that established
According to SIZE
Golgi Type I
Very long axons that originate from neurons in the motor nuclei of
the CNS
Example: Purkinje cells of cerebellum
Golgi Type II
Very short axons
Interneurons of the CNS
Example: granule cells of cerebellum

According to MORPHOLOGY (No. of processes)

Figure 12: Schematic Diagram of Neuron Morphological Types


Bipolar
Possess 2 processes emanating from the soma, a single dendrite
and a single axon
Found in the vestibular, cochlear, ganglia, olfactory epithelium of
the nasal cavity, inner nuclear layer of retina; where they serve
the senses of sight, smell and balance
Pseudounipolar
Present in the dorsal root ganglia and the ganglia of some cranial
nerves
single process (axon) leaves body then bifurcates
Peripheral branch
proceeds to its destination in the body
Central
enters the CNS
Multipolar
Various arrangements of multiple dendrites emanating from soma
and a single axon
Most common and possess various arrangement of multiple
dendrites emanating from the soma and a single axon
Mostly motor neurons, in ventral horn of spinal cord
Some are named according morphology (e.g. Pyramidal cells )
Unipolar
Possess only one process that bifurcates close to the perikaryon,
with the long branch extending to a peripheral ending and other
toward the CNS
exists in early embryonic life

Figure 13: Micrograph of Golgi type I and II cells (legend: P =


Purkinje cells (Golgi Type I), Gr = Granule cells (Golgi Type II)
According to SHAPE
Stellate star-shaped
Pyramidal

Figure 14: Stellate Neuron Micrograph (DS = dendritic spines)

According to FUNCTION
Sensory or Afferent Neurons
Receives and transmits impulses to CNS for processing
Motor or Efferent Neurons

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Types of a Chemical Synapse
Axodendritic- axon synapses with a dendrite
Axosomatic- axon synapses with a cell body
Axoaxonic - axon synapses with another axon
dendrodentritic
somatodendritic
somatosomatic
somatoaxonic
dendroaxonic
axoaxodendritic

Figure 15: Pyramidal Neuron in the Cerebrum (Micrograph)


Synapse
Site of transmission of nerve impulses
Point of contact of a neuron & another cell
Allows neurons to communicate with each other or with effector cells
(muscle & gland)
Types of Synapses
Electrical
Uncommon
Few places in the brain, retina and cerebral cortex
Rapid transmission
Transmit impulse via gap junctions that cross pre- and
postsynaptic membranes
Thereby conducting neuronal signal directly
Ions pass freely through these gap junctions
Prominent in cardiac & smooth muscles
Chemical
release of neurotransmitters at axon terminal
Components of a Synapse
Presynaptic membrane
production of neurotransmitters
Area where electrical signal (impulse) is converted into a chemical
signal
Synaptic cleft
Gap between pre- and postsynaptic membranes
Small gap between that separates the pre- & postsynaptic
membranes (12-20 nm)
May contain polysaccharides & some fine intersynaptic filaments
Postsynaptic membrane
Presynaptic neuron
neuron that transmits the impulse
Postsynaptic cell
cell that receives the impulse (neuron, muscle or gl.)
Bouton
expanded portion of the process that is involved in the formation
of a synapse
Presynaptic axon terminal (Terminal Bouton) from which
neurotransmitter is released
Synaptic vesicles
contain chemical neurotransmitters, fill the bouton

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Classification of Nerve Endings


Sensory receptors
Free (non-encapsulated)
no connective tissue
high amount in the body
For touch, heat and cold sensation
Encapsulated
e.g. Vater Pacinian corpuscle (in hypodermis)
pressure, concentric layer of lamellae. Vibration
e.g. Meissners corpuscle
touch, located in dermal papillae
e.g. neuromuscular spindle and golgi tendon organ for
proprioception
located at deeper dermis (hypodermis)
Chemoreceptors
Baroreceptors
detect pressure changes
Receptor for special senses
rods and cones: for vision
organ of Corti: for hearing
Efferent Nerve Endings
Somatic: motor end plate
Visceral: in smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands
b. Neuroglial Cells
Astrocytes
Largest and most numerous
Star shaped with numerous branching processes
Bundles of intermediate filaments made of glial fibrillary acid that
reinforces structure
Binds neurons to capillaries and pia mater
2 Types of Astrocytes

Figure 17: Schematic Diagram of Astrocyte Types


Protoplasmic
Many and short branching processes
Found in gray matter
Large ,spherical and pale staining nucleus
Abundant cytoplasm
Fibrous
Few, long and unbranched processes
Found in white matter

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Ovoid nucleus
Euchromatic cytoplasm containing only few organelles, free
ribosomes and glycogen
Schwann cells
Flattened cells
Few mitochondria
Form myelinated and unmyelinated cover over axons of the PNS
Oligodendrocytes
Scanty cytoplasm with smaller ovoid/ spherical nucleus
Fewer and short processes
Located in white matter
Microglia
Dense, elongated nuclei
Small cell with short processes
Phagocytic in nature
Involved in inflammation and repair in the adult CNS
Produce and release neutral proteases and oxidative radicals
Ependymal cells
Low columnar to cuboidal epithelial cells that line cavities of CNS
Abundant mitochondria and bundles of intermediate filaments
Possess short cytoplasmic processes and microvilli
Some are ciliated for the facilitation of movement of the
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
Table 4: Summary of Neuroglial cells
Cells
Origin
Location

Astrocytes

Neural
tube

CNS

Schwann
cells

Neural
tube

PNS

Oligodendro
-cytes

Neural
tube

CNS

Ependymal
cell

Neural
tube

CNS

Microglia

Mesoderm

CNS

Principal Functions
Structural support
Repair processes
Regulate
constituents of the
extracellular
environment
Metabolic
exchanges
Myelin production
that provides
electric insulation
One Schwann cell
can form myelin
around a segment
of one axon only
Myelin production
that provides
electric insulation
Can serve more
than one neuron
and its processes
Lining cavities of
central nervous
system
Macrophagic activity

c. Nerve Regeneration
Microglia
phagocytose injured cells
Glial scar
hinder repair (this is a permanent process)
Neural Plasticity
Neuronal circuits may reorganize (growth of neural processes)
form new connections or synapses
Functional recovery after neuronal injuries.
Stem Cells
New neurons
New astrocytes
Found in ependymal cells
Provide avenue in regeneration of new synapses
Nerve Regeneration: CNS
Connective tissue sheaths are absent in the CNS
Injured cells are phagocytosed by special macrophages (microglia)
Space liberated by phagocytosis is occupied by proliferation of glial
cells form cell mass called GLIAL SCAR
Glial cell mass hinder the process of repair thus damage to the CNS
may be permanent
*Neuroplasticity after an injury, neuronal circuits may be
reorganization by the growth of neuronal processes, forming new
connections or synapses. New communications are established with
some degree of functional recovery.
Nerve Regeneration: Peripheral nerve fiber
Neuron attempts to repair the damage, regenerate process and
restore function
Axon reactions are localized in 3 regions:
Site of damage (local changes)
involves repair and removal of debris by neuroglial cells
Distal to the site of damage (anterograde changes)
portion of the axon distal that degenerates due to an injury and
is phagocytosed (Wallerian degeneration)
Proximal to the site of damage (retrograde changes)
proximal portion of the injured axon undergoes degeneration
followed by sprouting of a new axon whose growth is directed
by Schwann cells.
Schwann cells proliferate and produce neutrophins for
regenerative purposes.
*Some changes occur simultaneously, others weeks or months apart

*Chromatolysis: dissolution of nucleus and RER from the distal injured


part of the axon by degradation of macrophages. The proximal of the
axon will then continue to repair until it reaches the distal part of the
degenerated axon thereby re-establishing the connection.
Unsuccessful nerve regeneration
Misalignment of proximal and distal
Complete removal of structure
Leads to shrinking of the nerve fibers
Formation of Neuroma
lump of unsuccessfully regenerated nerve fibers
may produce pain
tumor growing from a nerve or made up largely of nerve cells and
nerve fibers

Figure 19: Neuroglial cells

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NOTES:
Injured Axons:

After 3 weeks, axon appears smaller, no innervation=ATROPHY

After 3 months, the axon is already healed

Axon: 0.5-3mm/day (peripheral nerve growth after injury)

What happens when the axon doesnt penetrate the tube?


NEUROMA which causes pain.
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ANATOMY 1.5: Muscle & Nervous Tissue


IV.

GUIDE QUESTIONS

1.

True or False? Calcium is the only ion needed for the


contraction of muscle tissue.
2. The time interval wherein, immediately after the generation of
an action potential, no amount of stimuli will elicit another
response/impulse.
A. Time lapse limitation
B. Impulse-stimuli correspondence
C. Absolute refractory period
D. Relative refractory period
3. Which of the following is true about axons?
A. Nissel bodies are abundant in axon hillock
B. Unmyelinated axons in the PNS are enclosed in Schwann
cell sheaths
C. Axons are immediately surrounded by connective tissue
called epineurium
Answer Key: 1)False 2) C 3) C
V.

STUDY GUIDES

VERY HELPFUL VIDEO HERE for Peripheral Nerve


Regeneration:<https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UaKuY1W
YJcA>
VI. REFERENCES

Mescher, A.L. (2009). Junquieras basic histology: Text & atlas. (12th
ed). New York, NY, Mc-Graw Hill Medical.
Tan, R. (2014). Muscles and Nervous Tissue [PowerPoint slides].

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