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UERMMMCI College of Medicine

SUBJECT: Anatomy

Date: (Friday) June 20, 2014

TITLE: Lecture # 3 Epithelium and Glands


LECTURER: Dr. Imelda D. Rivera, MD, FPSP
1st Semester A.Y. 2014 - 2015

Batch 2018 - A

Transcribers: Baldovino, D., Balgomera, N., Ballesteros, F. (09275457969), Balmaceda, J., Balmaceda, R., Banluta, R.
Trans Subject Head: Jacinto, C. (09157536686)

LECTURE OUTLINE
I.

EPITHELIUM: FUNCTIONS AND


CHARACTERISTICS
a. The Four Tissue Types
b. Functions
c. Characteristics

II. TYPES OF EPITHELIAL CELLS


III. POLARITY OF EPITHELIAL CELLS

Molecular Biology (6th ed.) Philadelphia, USA:


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
3.
Young, B., Lowe, J., Stevens, A., Heath, J.
(2006). Wheaters Functional Histology: A Text
and Colour Atlas (5th ed.). Philadelphia, USA:
Elsevier Churchill Livingston.
4.
I.

EPITHELIUM: FUNCTIONS AND


CHARACTERISTICS

IV. THE BASEMENT MEMBRANE


TISSUE

FUNCTION

V. GLANDS
LECTURE OBJECTIVES
1. Give the functions of epithelial tissue.
2. Enumerate the characteristics of epithelial
tissue,
3. Define cell polarity.
4. Describe the Apical and Lateral
modifications.
5. Differentiate the types of lining and
glandular epithelium
6. Differentiate the types of cell junctions.
7. Describe the organization of an exocrine
gland.
References:
1.
Mescher, A. (2013.) Junquieras Basic
Histology (13th ed.) McGraw-Hill.
2.

Ross, M., Pawlina, W. (2011.) Histology: A


Text and Atlas: With Correlated Cell and

CELL
MORPHO.

ECM

Nervous

Impulse
Transmission

Elongated
processes

None

Epithelial

Lining /
Secretion

Aggregate,
polyhedral

Small
amount

Muscle

Movement

Elongated,
contractile

Moderate
amount

Connective

Support,
protection

Various fixed
& wandering
cells

High
amount

Functions of Epithelium
1) Covering and protection, e.g. skin
2) Absorption, e.g. GI tract lining
3) Secretion, e.g. mammary glands, Goblet
cells (lubrication)
4) Contractility (due to actin fibers), e.g.
myoepithelium of lacrimal glands
5) Receptor via transmembrane proteins

Baldovino, D., Balgomera, N., Ballesteros, F. (09275457969), Balmaceda, J., Balmaceda, R., Banluta, R.
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6) Lubrication via secretion of mucous


membranes
7) Transport of materials to and from the
blood.
Characteristics of Epithelium & Epithelial Cells
1) Polyhedral form due to masses of
adjacent cells packed in dense spaces.
2) Basement membrane ALL epithelium are
connected to the deep layers by the
basement membrane.
3) Polarity Organelles and cell functions are
concentrated in different regions of the cell
(see Polarity of Epithelial Cells)
II.

TYPES OF EPITHELIAL CELLS

Covering Epithelium
Classified according to:
a) Number of layers
1) Simple only 1 cell layer
Pseudostratified 1 layer but
nuclei are at different levels; all
of the cells are touching the
basal membrane but have
different height

c) Apical/Free-surface
Modification/Specialization
1) Ciliated
2) Non-ciliated
3) Flagellated
4) Microvilli
Brush border uniform of
microvilli
Striated border uneven
length of microvilli
Simple Epithelial Tissues
a) Simple Squamous epithelium
o Surface cell shape: flat and very thin
o Function: exchange, gas diffusion,
secretion, lubrication in pleural
cavity, active transport,**
o Ex: pleural and abdominal cavity
(mesothelium,*) peritoneum, lining
blood vessel walls (endothelium,*)
lining of ventricles and atria of heart
(endocardium*)

2) Stratified with 2 or more cell layers


b) Cell type/shape
1) Squamous flat, thin (lateral view);
rounded to polygonal (surface view)
2) Cuboidal height and width roughly
similar
3) Columnar height is greater than
width; taller than they are wide
4) Transitional various/different
shapes (i.e. round, ovoid, cuboidal,
balloon shape, dome shape); always
stratified

Figure 1

Baldovino, D., Balgomera, N., Ballesteros, F. (09275457969), Balmaceda, J., Balmaceda, R., Banluta, R.
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Figure 5
Figure 2

Figure 3

b) Simple cuboidal epithelium


o Surface cell shape: square/cuboidal
with round nucleus at center
o Function: absorption, secretion,
conduit, barrier
o Ex: lining ducts of most glands,
small ducts of exocrine glands,
surface of ovary, kidney tubules,
thyroid follicles

Figure 6

c) Simple columnar epithelium


o Surface cell shape: columnar/tall
cells with nuclei at basal part
o Function: absorption, secretion,
protection, lubrication**
o Ex: lining of much of digestive tract,
intestine, gall bladder

Figure 7

Figure 4

Baldovino, D., Balgomera, N., Ballesteros, F. (09275457969), Balmaceda, J., Balmaceda, R., Banluta, R.
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Ex: lining of respiratory track (nasal


cavity, trachea, bronchi)

Figure 8

d) Simple columnar ciliated epithelium


o Surface cell shape: columnar/tall
and ciliated with nuclei located
toward the midzone of the cell
o Ex: lining of fallopian tube (ciliated)

Figure 10

Stratified Epithelial Tissues


The shape and height of the cells usually vary from
layer to layer, but only the shape of the cells that
form the surface layer is used in classifying the
epithelium. 2

Figure 9

e) Pseudostratified columnar ciliated


epithelium
o Surface cell shape: all cells rest on
basement membrane, but at
different levels (only 1 layer) cells
that reach the surface are columnar;
goblet cells distributed randomly
o Function: secretion, protection,
transport of particles trapped in
mucus out of air passages. 1

a) Stratified squamous epithelium


o Non-keratinized (wet/moist)
Surface cell shape: flat with nuclei (top
most layer)
Function: lubrication, protection,
secretion
Ex: lining of mouth, esophagus, larynx,
vagina

Baldovino, D., Balgomera, N., Ballesteros, F. (09275457969), Balmaceda, J., Balmaceda, R., Banluta, R.
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Keratinized (dry)
Surface cell shape: flat without nuclei
(dead cells;) like flakes
Function: prevents water loss or
desiccation, barrier
Ex: epidermis of skin (Fig. 13)

Figure 11

Figure 13

b) Stratified cuboidal epithelium


o Surface cell shape: several layers of
cuboidal cells
o Function: protection, secretion, conduit
o Ex: lining ducts of sweat glands, large
ducts of exocrine glands
o Has limited distribution in the body

Figure 14

Figure 12

Baldovino, D., Balgomera, N., Ballesteros, F. (09275457969), Balmaceda, J., Balmaceda, R., Banluta, R.
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c) Stratified columnar epithelium


o Surface cell shape: columnar
o Function: protection, conduit
o Ex: conjunctiva of eye, lining some large
excretory ducts
o Has limited distribution in the body

Figure 15. Urinary bladder lining XSA

III.

d) Transitional epithelium/Urothelium*
(ALWAYS stratified)
o Surface cell shape: large dome
shaped/umbrella cells (empty;) flattened
(distended)
o Function: lines organs that are subjected to
changes in pressure or distention; has
minimum of 2 layers even when distended;
specialized to protect underlying tissues
from the hypertonic effects of urine
o Ex: lining renal calyces, renal pelvis,
ureter, urinary bladder

POLARITY OF EPITHELIAL CELLS

Polarity - the position of the nucleus and


organelles within a cell
1) Apical domain - facing the surface/ lumen
of cavity; where activity of the cell is found;
golgi complex is located supranuclear
(above nucleus); direction of product
release is towards apex.
2) Lateral domain - concerned with cell to cell
adhesion through protein attachments.
Increase surface area for absorption
3) Basal domain - anchored to basal lamina,
possesses receptors for hormones and
signaling molecules
Apical Domain
1) Cilia
Structure:
Elongated, hair-like protrusions
Core of cilium consists of an axoneme
(a central mictrotubular pair/doublet
surrounded by 13 microtubular
pairs/doublets in heliocoidal formation
Attached to basal body, which consists
of 9 microtubule triplets in helicoidal
configuration
Motor protein, dynein, converts ATP
into mechanical energy for movement

Baldovino, D., Balgomera, N., Ballesteros, F. (09275457969), Balmaceda, J., Balmaceda, R., Banluta, R.
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Functions:
Motile cilia propel substances
Important locations: respiratory tract,
female reproductive tract

Figure 16. Micrograph (b) show ciliated cells from the


Fallopian tube. Cilia are labeled C. Diagram (c) shows the
structure of a cilium.

2) Microvilli
Structure:
Short finger-like projections
Actin filaments at core which attaches
to terminal web
Striated Border microvilli of same
height; Brush Border microvilli of
different heights
Functions:
Increases surface area 20x 30x for
absorption
Found lining certain tissues such as the
intestines, allowing absorption

Figure 18. Diagram of microvillus. Note actin filament core.

3) Stereocilia
Structure:
Actin filament core
Longer than microvilli
Anchored by fibrin and erzin
Functions:
No motility but increases surface area
for concentrated absorption
Located in epididymis
4) Flagellum
Structure:
Similar to cilia but larger and usually
limited to single flagellum per cell
Function:
Movement in whip-like motion to propel
cell
Important locations: sperm cells

Figure 17. Microvilli under microscope.

Baldovino, D., Balgomera, N., Ballesteros, F. (09275457969), Balmaceda, J., Balmaceda, R., Banluta, R.
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Anatomy | Epithelium and Glands

The Basement Membrane


Basal Domain
A sheet-like layer that underlies virtually all
epithelia, and isolates them from the subjacent
connective tissue (CT)

Lateral Domain (Junctional Complexes)


Location where two cells contact or attach to
each other laterally

The basement membrane is an acid-Schiff


(PAS) positive area underneath epithelial cells.
Basal Lamina
A product of the epithelium
Lamina Lucida
o an electron-lucent zone; 20-100 nm
thick
o penetrated by nerve cells, never by
blood capillaries
Lamina Densa
o an electron-dense layer located next
to the basal plasmalemma and the
CT.
Components
o Type IV collagen
o Glycoproteins (mainly laminin; also
entactin)
o Perlecan - large heparan sulfate
proteoglycan
Reticular Lamina
A product of the CT
Components
1. Type III collagen delicate and
reticular
2. Type I collagen fibers.
is attached to the basal lamina with collagen
VII anchoring fibrils and fibrillin microfibrils

Figure 19. Various lateral junctions (TJ - Tight junction; ZA Zonula adherens; CJ - Communicating junction; D Desmosome;
HD Hemidesmosome)

Cell-to-Cell Junction
Zonula Occludens/Tight Junction (TJ)
Structure
most superficial to apical surface
(right under microvilli)
fuses adjacent membranes by
transmembrane proteins, claudin
and occluding, arranged in
anastomosing (contact via merging,
see Figure 18) strands (quilt-like
appearance)
reinforced by cadherins (cell
adhesion molecules)

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Function:
regulates paracellular transport
restrict flow of substances between
cell membranes (reason why it is
very present in storage areas, e.g.
gall bladder.

cadherin (mediated by Ca2+) span the


plasma membranes of the cells and bind
to identical cadherins on adjacent cell
anchoring proteins (catenins, vinculin &
alpha-actinin) bind actin filaments to the
cytoplasmic tails of the cadherins

Function:
anchorage points for cytoskeletal
elements, linking the cytoskeletons
of individual cells into a strong
transcellular network (mechanical
attachment to adjacent cells)

Figure 21. Intracellular connection of Zonula Adherens

Macula Adherens / Desmosome (D)

Figure 20. Tight junction under micrograph

Zonula Adherens (ZA): The "adhesion


belt"
Structure:
located below Zonula Occludens
intracellular gap between
membranes (15-20 nm)
transmembrane linker proteins called

Structure:
o 3rd and deepest junction in junctional
complex gap between adjacent
membranes (30 m)
o dense attachment plaques on
cytoplasmic sides (desmoplakin and
plakoglobin)
o intermediate filaments then attach into
the attachment plaque
o Cadherins (desmoglein and
desmocolin) are the transmembrane

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proteins that extend across gap for


attachment of the two membranes
Desmosome numbers are greatest in
stratified squamous epithelia

Function:
o provide strong adhesion between
cells, e.g. skin and intestinal lining
o able to withstand the greatest friction
also use cadherins as their
transmembrane proteins

Figure 22. Micrograph of a desmosome with intermediate filaments


(IF)

broad, intercellular junction in the


transversal sections of an intercalated
disc of cardiac muscle anchoring actin
filaments.

Function:
o serves to stabilize non-epithelial tissue
o similar to the Zonula Adherens of
epithelial cells a broad intercellular
junction in the transversal sections of
an intercalated disc of cardiac muscle
anchoring actin filaments
o helps to transmit contractile forces

Communicating or Gap Junctions/Nexus


(CJ)
o Contains numerous transmembrane
channels (connexons) that permit the
passage of inorganic ions and other small
molecules from the cytoplasm of one cell to
another.
o more numerous in embryonic epithelia,
involved in exchange of chemical
messengers, cell recognition, differentiation
and control of cell position

Fascia Adherens
Structure:
o mainly found in cardiac muscle
Figure 23. Connexons forming a gap junction patch

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Function:
o Cell-cell communication (electrically and
metabolically)
o

thought to be important in the control of


growth, development, cell recognition and
differentiation
Connexon - is made up of six
transmembrane proteins known as
connexins; may be opened or closed
depending on the intracellular concentration
of calcium ions, the pH or on extracellular
signals

Cell-to-Extracellular Matrix Junctions


Hemidesmosome
Structure:
o half desmosomes that are found at the
basal surface of the cell
o its transmembrane proteins (integrins) bind
to extracellular laminins in the basement
membrane
o the intracellular component of the integrins
binds to the anchor protein, plectin and
thus to the intermediate filament keratin

Focal Adhesion
anchors the actin cytoskeleton to the
extracellular matrix
function: detects and transduces signals
from outside the cell
adhesion process depends on the integrin
receptors embedded in the plasma
membrane
Summary of Junctional Features
Junction Type
Cell-tocell

Occluding
Junction

Classificatio
n
Zonula
Occludens

Major link
proteins
Occludins,
claudins, JAM

Anchoring
Junction

Zonula
Adherens

E-cadherincatenin
complex

Macula
Adherens

Cadherins
(e.g.,
desmogleins,
desmocolins)

Function:
o anchors the epithelial cells to the basement
membrane and the adjacent connective
tissue

Fascia
Adherens

Cell-toextra
cellular
matrix

Communicating
/ Gap Junction

Nexus

Connexin

Anchoring
Junction

Hemi
desmosome

Integrins,
collagen XVII

Focal
adhesion

Integrins

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IV.

GLANDULAR EPITHELIUM

Glandular Epithelia
Epithelial cells specialized to secrete substances in
membrane-bound secretory granules (vesicles).
Examples of Glandular Epithelia
1) Sebaceous glands (lipid)
2) Pancreatic acini (enzymes)
3) Salivary glands (carbohydrate-protein
complex)
Classifications of Glandular Epithelia
I.

Based on Path of Release


1) ENDOCRINE
o Ductless
o Releases secretions directly into
bloodstream can act on distant tissues
o Basement membrane has a network of
blood vessels that absorb the secreted
hormones (e.g. thyroid)

Two major components:


a. Acinus (secretory portion)
contains cells that produce secretion
b. Ducts (Conducting portion) transport
the secretion out of the gland
connects to the surface glands
(e.g. sweat glands, salivary
glands, mammary glands, and
liver.)
c. Intercalated duct joins together with
acinus
d. Intralobar ducts drain to main
excretory duct
e. Interlobular ducts between lobules
f. Lobule where the acini and
intercalated ducts are
g. located
h. Lobes contains lobules

Figure 24. Arrangement of secretor structures arround capillary

2) EXOCRINE
o releases secretions onto an epithelial
surface either directly or via a duct
o Have ducts that lead to another organ or
body surface

Figure 25. Structure of a typical lobular gland

3) PARACRINE
o cells whose secretions target the
immediate extracellular environment,
travels short distances then Endocrine

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4) AUTOCRINE
o the target cell is on the secreting cell itself

o
II.

III.

Based on Number of Cells


1) UNICELLULAR (Single Cell)
o Consist of large isolated secretory cells
o Classic example is the goblet cell which
lines the
o respiratory tract and small intestines
2) MULTICELLULAR (More than one Cell)
o Most common; have cluster of cells
o Have connective tissue in a surrounding
capsule and
o in septa that divide the gland into lobules

Ruptures and releases


secretion with bits of cytoplasm
and plasma membrane
e.g. mammary glands and sweat
glands
The secretory portions of a mammary
gland demonstrate apocrine secretion,
characterized by extrusion of the
secretion product along with a bit of
apical cytoplasm.

Based On Mechanism Of Product Released


1) MEROCRINE/ECCRINE
o Most common mode of protein secretion
o Involves exocytosis of proteins or
glycoproteins from membrane-bound
vesicles
o Cells remain intact
o e.g. Pancreatic acinar cells

Figure 26. Mammary glands with membrane-bound secretory vesicles


visualized (see arrows)

3) HOLOCRINE
o Whole cell disintegrates when it secretes
product
o Cell makes and fills with secretion and
ultimately burst and releases secretions
o suicidal glands
o e.g. sebaceous glands of skin
2) APOCRINE
o Secretion accumulates at the cells
apical ends.

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Figure 29. Mucous cells. The lumens (arrows) of mucous tubules are
larger than those of serous acini. Much connective tissue surrounds
the mucous tubules and ducts (D).
Figure 27. Longitudinal section of sebaceous gland with duct (D)

2) Serous (Viscous secretion)


o With smaller lumen; cytoplasm is
granular; oval nuclei
o Excretes proteins, often enzymes
o Filled apically with secretory granules in
different
o Pyramidal-shaped cells lining the acinus
o e.g. parotid gland, lacrimal gland

Figure 28. Mechanisms of exocrine gland secretion.

IV.

Based on Type of Secretion


1) Mucus/Mucinous (Watery secretion)
o Filled apically with secretory granules
containing strongly hydrophilic
glycoproteins called mucins
o most common mechanism of product
release
o e.g. goblet cells, sublingual gland

Figure 30. Serous cells duct (D) Abundant RER (R), a Golgi
complex (G), apical secretory granules (SG) and the small acinar
lumen (L)

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3) Mixed Gland
o With both mucinous and serous glands
o With both serous acini and mucous
tubules capped by groups of serous
cells
o product is a mixture of digestive enzyme
and watery mucus
o e.g. submandibular gland

V.

Based on Morphology
1) Simple (Unbranched) with single duct
(e.g. sebaceous glands)
2) Compound with two or more
branches

VI.

Based on Morphology Ducks

Simple Glands
1) Simple Tubular- Elongated secretory
portion duct usually short or absent
2) Branched tubular- Several long secretory
parts joining to drain 1 duct
3) Coiled Tubular- Secretory portion is very
long and coiled
4) Acinar/Alveolar- Rounded, Saclike
secretory parts entering the same duct
Compound Glands
1) Acinar/Alveolar Several saclike secretory
units with small ducts converge at a larger
duct
2) Tubular Several enlongated, colied
secretory units and their ducts converge to
form larger ducts
3) Tubuloacinar/Tubuloalveolar - Ducts of
both tubular and acinar secretory units
converge at larger ducts

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V.

HISTOGENESIS AND THE THREE GERM


LAYERS

Germ Layer
The primary layer of cells formed during the embryo
stage. Differentiated epithelial cells rise from the
three layers.
1) ENDODERM (innermost layer)
a. Respiratory system epithelium
b. Alimentary canal epithelium
c. Extramural digestive gland epithelium
d. Thyroid, parathyroid, and thymus
glands epithelial components
e. Lining epithelium of the tympanic cavity
and
f. Eustachian tube
2) MESODERM (middle layer)
a. Epithelium of kidney and gonads
b. Mesothelium
c. Endothelium
d. Adrenal cortex
e. Seminiferous and genital duct
epithelium
3) ECTODERM (outer layer)
a. Epidermis
b. Cornea, lens epithelia
c. Components of the inner ear
d. Adenohypophysis
EPITHELIAL CELL RENEWAL
o Achieved through Mitosis
Dependent on epithelial type:
Small intestine: 4-6 days; not easily abraded
Epidermis: 28 days
Stem cells are located along
the walls of the hair follicles
Stratified Epithelium
Mitosis occurs only in the basal layer in
contact with the basal lamina

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