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The Big Picture Grammar Book

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Grammar & Rhetoric

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Verbs: Time (Tense)

Our basketball team was doing well until Michael retired. Now its going
downhill. Weve won twenty five games and lost thirty. (p. 122)

My grandmother passed away last week. She was 91 and active until her very
last day. (p. 122)

It has taken us five years to get this business going, but now we can relax. Its
all downhill from here. (p. 123)

A verb gives clues about the time of an event.


When Ricardo was making flan, he used a couple of the
eggs that we had brought from the farm. There is only one
left, and we have finished all the other food in the house,
so we will have a very small supper.
The verbs in the sentences above can be spread out on a time line like
this:

A verb usually changes to show time differences.


Channice is working on the same paper she worked on
last week. She works on it a little bit every day.

Conditional Sentences

If you start a dance with the wrong foot, you may step on your partners foot. (p.
120)

I could have gone to law school, but I decided to have fun instead. Now, I regret
it. I guess I really missed the boat. (p. 120)

If you are stopped at a red light and it turns green, you have permission to start
moving. (p. 121)

If they are not careful, they will be going downhill from day one. (p. 123)

Zero conditional (general facts, habitual facts)


General fact: If/When I touch an ice cube, it feels cold.
Habitual fact: Whenever I touched an ice cube, it felt cold.
More sentences:
If you heat water to 100 degrees, it boils. [This always happens.]
If you do not eat, you die. [This always happens.]
If you cross an international date line, the time changes [This always happens,
every time you cross a date line.]

First conditional (to make predictions about the future, or


express future intentions or possibilities)

Prediction: If I win the lottery, I can go to Paris.


Intention: If I win the lottery, I will go to Paris.
Possibility: If I win the lottery, I might go to Paris.

More sentences:
If you study hard, you will pass the test. [Maybe you will study hard---thats
possible.]
If its sunny, we will go to the park. [Maybe it will be sunny---thats possible]

Second conditional (to speculate about the future result


of a possible but unlikely condition in the present)

Speculation: If I won the lottery, I would go to Paris.

More sentences:
If I had a million dollars, I would buy a big house. [I dont have a million dollars.]
If I were you, I would drive more carefully in the rain. [I am not you---this is
unreal.]
If dogs had wings, they would be able to fly. [Dogs dont have wings---thats
impossible.]
If Jan left, Paula would be sad. [Jan is still here---thats not going to happen.]

Third Conditional (to speculate about the past result of a

condition that did not happen in the past)

Speculation: If I had won the lottery, I would have gone to Paris.


= Had I won the lottery, I would have gone to Paris.

More sentences:
If I had studied harder, I would have passed the exam. [Regret: I failed the
exam because I didnt study hard enough.]
If it had snowed, we could have gone skiing. [Regret: It didnt snow, so we
couldnt go skiing.]
If you had driven more carefully, you would not have had an accident.
[Criticism: You had an accident because you didnt drive carefully enough.]
If you had saved your money, you could have bought a computer. [Criticism:
You didnt save your money, so you couldnt afford a computer.]

Easy Grammar
0. If I win the lottery, I go to Paris.
1. If I win the lottery, I will go to Paris.
2. If I won the lottery, I would go to Paris.
3

3. If I had won the lottery, I would have gone to Paris.


0.
1.
2.
3.

If you love me, I love you back. [certain]


If you love me, I will love you back. [likely]
If you loved me, I would love you back.
If you had loved me, I would have loved you back.

0.
1.
2.
3.

If I have time, I study English. [When/Whenever I have time, I study English.]


If I have time, I will study English. [It is possible that I will study English.]
If I had time, I would study English. [But, I dont have time]
If I had had time, I would have studied English. [I didnt have time, so I didnt
study English.]

Practice Exercise--Conditional Sentences

Complete each sentence below by giving the correct for of the verb in parentheses.

1. If the city ________ (expand) the parking lot space downtown, we would not
have to park so far away from the movie theatre.
2. Whenever my roommate ________ (snore) loudly, I cannot sleep.
3. Children may be disappointed if they ________ (not receive) good grades.
4. If we ________ (not take) an exam on the conditional, we might not have
learned it.
5. Maya ________ (not pass) her driving test unless she calms down.
6. If it ________ (be) winter, all these trees would be covered in snow.
7. Had it not rained, the farmers ________(lose) all of their crops.
8. If the airplane had not had a mechanical problem, we probably ________
(arrive) in Winnipeg by now.
9. We ________(lie) on the beach in Mexico right now if we had been able to get
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our visas on time.


10. I ________ (try) to find more opportunities to write in English if I were you.

Online Grammar Exercise


1. Which conditional should I use?
http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/elc/studyzone/410/grammar/allcnd1.htm
2. NetGrammar: Conditional Review
http://www.netgrammar.le.ucr.ac.cr/Units/Unit_15/a101c15_601000.html

Pronoun Reference

Peace negotiations have stalled, and many observers think that they wont go
anywhere even if they get started again. (p. 119)

The company is about to market its new weight-loss drug. Company officials
are just waiting for the drug regulatory agency to give them the green light. (p.
121)

1. :
2. :
3. :

Practice Exercise--Pronoun Reference Errors


(Correct the pronoun errors and rewrite them. If you change an antecedent that is acting as a
subject, you may have to change its verb as well.)

A person's vision is adapted to their environment. The Pygmies provide one good
example. They live in forests where trees limit his field of view to about fifty yards,
but within that space, he must make shrewd observations. A person in that situation
can develop a very accurate sense of the relationships among objects near to
them. However, when a Pygmy is taken to a hill in another part of Africa where they
can suddenly see for miles, they look out at elephants on the plain ten miles away
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and act as if the elephants are nearby and only about the size of lizards. He doesn't
perceive the distance and the distortions of perspective.
[Corrected Text]
People's vision is adapted to their environment. The Pygmies provide one good
example. They live in forests where trees limit their field of view to about fifty yards,
but within that space, they must make shrewd observations. People in that situation
can develop a very accurate sense of the relationships among objects near to
them. However, when Pygmies are taken to a hill in another part of Africa where
they can suddenly see for miles, they look out at elephants on the plain ten miles
away and act as if the elephants are nearby and only about the size of lizards. They
don't perceive the distance and the distortions of perspective.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The inversion-glasses experiment provides another example of how anybody's


vision shapes itself to their needs. In this experiment, volunteers were asked to
wear special glasses that showed them everything upside-down. Nobody was
allowed to take off their glasses for a week. Everybody went around for a few days
tripping over their own feet and having a terrible time, but then they began to see
things right side up again without ever taking off their glasses. Then the researchers
removed the glasses. Suddenly each volunteer saw everything upside-down again,
and it took several days for their vision to return to normal.
[Corrected Text]
The inversion-glasses experiment provides another example of how people's vision
shapes itself to their needs. In this experiment, volunteers were asked to wear
special glasses that showed them everything upside-down. Nobody was allowed to
take off his glasses for a week. People went around for a few days tripping over
their own feet and having a terrible time, but then they began to see things right
side up again without ever taking off their glasses. Then the researchers removed
the glasses. Suddenly the volunteers saw everything upside-down again, and it
took several days for their vision to return to normal.

Kinds of Sentences and Their Punctuation


A sentence may be one of four kinds, depending upon the number and type(s) of clauses it
contains.
Review:
An independent clause is comprised of a subject, a verb, and a complete thought.

A dependent clause is comprised of a subject and a verb, but an incomplete thought.

1. A SIMPLE SENTENCE has one independent clause.

Punctuation note: NO commas separate compound elements (subject, verb, direct object,
indirect object, subjective complement, etc.) in a simple sentence.

2. A COMPOUND SENTENCE has two independent clauses joined by


A. a coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so),
B. a conjunctive adverb (e.g. however, therefore), or
C. a semicolon alone.

Punctuation patterns (to match A, B, and C above):


A. Independent clause, coordinating conjunction independent clause.
B. Independent clause; conjunctive adverb, independent clause.
C. Independent clause; independent clause.

3. A COMPLEX SENTENCE has one dependent clause (headed by a subordinating conjunction


or a relative pronoun ) joined to an independent clause.

Punctuation patterns (to match A, B, C and D above):


A. Dependent clause, independent clause
B. Independent clause dependent clause
C. Independent, nonessential dependent clause, clause.
D. Independent essential dependent clause clause.

4. A COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE has two independent clauses joined to one or more


dependent clauses.

CONNECTORS--COMPOUND AND COMPLEX SENTENCES


Two independent clauses may be joined by
1. Coordinating conjunctions (FANBOYS)
2. Conjunctive adverbs
A dependent (subordinate) clause may be introduced by
1. Subordinating conjunctions (ADVERB CLAUSE)
2. Relative pronouns (ADJECTIVE CLAUSE)
3. Relative pronoun, subordinating conjunctions, or adverbs (NOUN CLAUSE)

INFINITIVE PHRASE

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Aninfinitivephraseconsistsofaninfinitivetherootoftheverbprecededbytoandanymodifiersor
complementsassociatedwithit.Infinitivephrasescanactasadjectives,adverbs,andnouns.

Herplantosubsidizechildcarewonwideacceptanceamongurbanpoliticians.[modifies
plan,functionsasanadjective]

Shewantedtoraisetaxes.[nounobjectofthesentence]

TowatchUncleBillytellthisstoryisaneyeopeningexperience.[nounsubjectofthe
sentence]

Toknowheristoloveher.[noun,predicatenominative]

Juanwenttocollegetostudyveterinarymedicine.[tellsuswhyhewent,soit'sanadverb]

GERUND PHRASE
Gerunds,verbalsthatendiningandthatactasnouns,frequentlyareassociatedwithmodifiersand
complementsinagerundphrase.Thesephrasesfunctionasunitsandcandoanythingthatanouncando.
Noticethatotherphrases,especiallyprepositionalphrases,arefrequentlypartofthegerundphrase.

Crammingfortestsisnotagoodstudystrategy.[gerundphraseassubject]

Johnenjoyedswimminginthelakeafterdark.[gerundphraseasobject]

I'mreallynotinterestedinstudyingbiochemistryfortherestofmylife.[gerundphraseas
objectoftheprepositionin]

Reviewing the general uses of gerunds and infinitives might not be a bad idea. Click
HERE.

GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES: THEIR NOUN ROLES


Both gerunds and infinitives can be nouns, which means they can do just about
anything that a noun can do. Although they name things, like other nouns, they
normally name activities rather than people or objects. Here are five noun-uses of
gerunds and infinitives (and one additional non-noun use, the adjective complement,
that we throw in here, free of charge).
Gerundsandinfintivescanbothfunctionasthesubjectofasentence:()
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a. Playingbasketballtakesuptoomuchofhertime.
b. ToplaybasketballforUConnisherfavoritefantasy.
Itisnotimpossibleforaninfinitivetoappearatthebeginningofasentenceasthesubject(asinIb),
butitismorecommonforaninfinitivetoappearasaSubjectComplement:( )
a. HerfavoritefantasyistoplaybasketballforUConn.
The gerund can also play this role:
b. HerfavoritefantasyisplayingbasketballforUConn.
BothoftheseverbalformscanfurtheridentifyanounwhentheyplaytheroleofNoun
ComplementandAppositive:( )
a. HerdesiretoplaybasketballforUConnbecameanobsession.
b. IcouldneverunderstandherdesiretoplaybasketballforUConn.
c. Heroneburningdesireinlife,playingbasketballforUConn,seemedagoalwithinreach.
The infinitive is often a complement used to help define an abstract noun. Here is a
very partial list of abstract nouns, enough to suggest their nature. Try following these
adjectives with an infinitive phrase (their desire to play in the championship game, a
motivation to pass all their courses, her permission to stay up late, a gentle reminder
to do your work) to see how the phrase modifies and focuses the noun.
advice
appeal
command
decision
desire
fact
instruction
motivation

opportunity
order
permission
plan
possibility
preparation
proposal
recommendation

refusal
reminder
request
requirement
suggestion
tendency
wish

Infinitivephrasesoftenfollowcertainadjectives.Whenthishappens,theinfinitiveissaidtoplay
theroleofAdjectiveComplement.(Thisisnotanounfunction,butwewillincludeitherenonetheless.)
()
a. Shewashesitanttotellthecoachofherplan.
b. Shewasreluctanttotellherparents,also.
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c. Butshewouldnothavebeencontenttoplayhighschoolballforever.
Hereisalistofadjectivesthatyouwilloftenfindinsuchconstructions.
ahead
amazed
anxious
apt
ashamed
bound
careful
certain
content
delighted

determined
disappointed
eager
eligible
fortunate
glad
happy
hesitant
liable
likely

lucky
pleased
proud
ready
reluctant
sad
shocked
sorry
surprised
upset

Althoughwedonotfindmanyinfinitivesinthisnextcategory,itisnotuncommontofindgerunds
takingontheroleofObjectofaPreposition:
a. Shewroteanewspaperarticleaboutdealingwithcollegerecruiters.
b. Shethankedhercoachforhelpinghertodealwiththepressure.
Two prepositions, except and but, will sometimes take an infinitive.
a. ThecommitteehadnochoiceexcepttoelectFrogbellowchairperson.
b. Whatisleftforusbuttopackupourbelongingsandleave?

And,finally,bothgerundsandinfinitivescanactasaDirectObject:
Here, however, all kinds of decisions have to be made, and some of these
decisions will seem quite arbitrary. The next section is about making the choice
between gerund and infinitive forms as direct object.
Why do we decide to run, but we would never decide running? On the other hand, we
might avoid running, but we would not avoid to run. And finally, we might like
running and would also like to run. It is clear that some verbs take gerunds, some
verbs take infinitives, and some verbs take either. The following tables of verbs
should help you understand the various options that regulate our choice of infinitive
or gerund.
The verbs in the table below will be followed by an infinitive. We decided to leave. He
manages, somehow, to win. It is threatening to rain. Notice that many, but not all, of
these verbs suggest a potential event.
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Some of the verbs in the following table may be followed by a gerund if they are
describing an "actual, vivid or fulfilled action" (Frodesen). We love running. They
began farming the land. These are described, also, below.
Emotion
care
desire
hate

Hate
like
loathe

love
regret
yearn

Choice or Intent
agree
choose
decide
decide
expect

hope
intend
need
plan
prefer

prepare
propose
refuse
want
wish

Initiation, Completion, Incompletion


begin
cease
commence
fail

get
hesitate
manage
neglect

start
try
undertake

Mental Process
forget
know how

Learn

remember

Request and Promise


demand
offer

promise
swear

threaten
vow

Seem

tend

claim
continue

pretend
wait

Intransitives
appear
happen
Miscellaneous
afford
arrange

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The verbs in the next table will often be followed by an infinitive, but they will also be
accompanied by a second object. We asked the intruders to leave quietly. They
taught the children to swim. The teacher convinced his students to try harder.
The verbs in blue, with an asterisk, can also follow the same pattern as the verbs in
the table above (i.e., the second object is optional). We all wanted to go. They
promised to be home early.
Communication
advise
ask*
beg*
challenge
command
convince

Forbid
invite
order
permit
persuade
promise*

remind
require
tell
warn
urge

instruct
teach

train

force
get
hire

need*
would like*

Instruction
encourage
help
Causing
allow
cause
choose

Miscellaneous
dare*
expect*

trust
prepare*

want*

Gerunds accompany a form of the verb to go in many idiomatic expressions: Let's go


shopping. We went jogging yesterday. She goes bowling every Friday night.
The following verbs will be followed by a gerund. Did I mention reading that novel last
summer? I recommend leaving while we can. I have quit smoking These verbs tend to
describe actual events.
Initiation, Completion and Incompletion
anticipate
avoid
begin
cease
complete

delay
finish
get through
give up
postpone

quit
risk
start
stop
try

Communication
15

admit
advise
deny
discuss

encourage
mention
recommend

report
suggest
urge

Continuing Action
continue
can't help

practice
involve

keep
keep on

love
mind
don't mind
miss
prefer

regret
can't stand
resent
resist
tolerate

Emotion
appreciate
dislike
enjoy
hate
like

Mental Process
anticipate
consider
forget

imagine
recall
remember

see
can't see
understand

The verbs in the following table can be followed by either an infinitive or a gerund,
and there will be virtually no difference in the meaning of the two sentences. I like to
play basketball in the park. I like playing basketball in the park.
attempt
begin
continue
hate

like
love
neglect
prefer

regret
can't stand
stand
start

The verbs in this next, very small table can be followed by either an
infinitive or a gerund, but there will be a difference in meaning. I
stopped smoking means something quite different, for instance, from I
stopped to smoke. The infinitive form will usually describe a potential
action.
forget

remember

stop

Finally, the verbs below will be followed by either a gerund or a simple verb and a
second subject will be required. I saw the team losing its composure. I overheard my
landlord discussing a rent increase. (I heard Bill sing/singing.) These verbs involve the
senses.

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Verbs Involving Senses


feel
hear
listen to

look at
notice
observe

overhear
see
watch

Verbs of perception hear, see, watch and a handful of other verbs help, let,
and make will take what is called the bare infinitive, an infinitive without the
particle "to." This is true of these verbs only in the active voice.
a. Wewatchedhimclearthetable.
b. Theyheardthethiefcrashthroughthedoor.
c. Shemademedoit.
d. Wehelpedherfinishthehomework.

1-language.com- Online English Courses - Unit 37


Grammar
Gerunds and Infinitives: Verb + Gerund / Verb + Infinitive
A gerund is a verb that functions as noun. For example:
- I enjoy playing tennis. I enjoy play tennis" is incorrect.
- We practice speaking English every day.
- They just bought a new swimming pool.
In English the infinitive is made of to and the verb. For example:
- I want to learn a new language.
- You forgot to close the door.
Verbs are often followed by infinitives or gerunds and choosing which to use has few fixed rules,
it depends mainly on the individual verb.
Verb + Gerund
Here are some common verbs that can be followed by gerunds, but not infinitives.
admit - He admitted taking the money.
celebrate - We celebrated winning the competition.
deny - The government denied spending too little on education.
dislike - I dislike complaining.
enjoy - She enjoys meeting her friends.
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finish - I finished working there last month.


imagine - I imagine being a waitress is a difficult job.
keep - Where are my keys? I keep losing them.
mind - I don't mind waiting, we've got time.
miss - I miss talking with my sisters.
remember - Do you remember going to Italy?
risk - Jeff's always late. He risks losing his job.
stop - Don't stop singing, it's really nice.
suggest - I suggest having lunch first.
Gerunds are also used after some phrasal verbs. For example:
- If you keep on doing the same thing, you'll get the same results.
- She wants to give up drinking coffee.
Verb + Infinitive
Below are some common verbs that can be followed by infinitives, but not usually gerunds.
aim - I'm aiming to finish this book by the end of March.
afford - I can't afford to buy new clothes.
agree - My boss agreed to give me a reference.
decide - We decided to have a baby.
deserve - You deserve to have a better score.
forget - Don't forget to lock the door.
hope - I hope to go to Harvard Business School.
learn - I learnt to read when I was 3 years old.
mean - I'm sorry, I didn't mean to make you angry.
need - You don't need to study a lot, you need to study a little for a long time.
offer - He offered to help me carry these bags.
plan - They plan to go abroad next year.
pretend - He's pretending to be sick.
promise - She promised to be here on time.
refuse - Why do they always refuse to listen?
seem - She seems to be really intelligent.

1-language.com- Online English Courses - Unit 38


Grammar
Gerunds and Infinitives: Verb + Gerund or Infinitive
18

Some verbs can be followed by an infinitive or a gerund. These verbs in turn can be subdivided
into two groups, verbs with little difference in meaning, and verbs with a distinct change in
meaning.
Verb + Gerund or Infinitive: Little difference in meaning.
Here are some common verbs that can be followed by gerunds or infinitives with little change in
meaning. A change of meaning may still exist however, as there are almost limitless combinations
of verbs and gerunds/infinitives.
begin - She began to sing. - He began working here last year.
bother - Don't bother to wash the dishes. I'll do it. - Don't bother washing the dishes. I'll do it.
continue - You can continue to live here for 6 months. - You can continue living here for 6
months.
start - I started to learn the clarinet when I was 8. I started learning the clarinet when I was 8.
love / like / hate /prefer
These four verbs use the gerund for situations or actions in progress. The infinitive is used for
factual information.
hate
- I hate working at my new job (I'm workng there now.)
- I hate to work on Sundays. (specific time and situation)
like
- I like playing the piano. (I like the process andfeeling of playing the piano.)
- I like to play the piano. (It's a fact I like to play the piano.)
love
- I love living in the country. (I'm probably living there now.)
- I love to live in the country. (Generally speaking I like the country, maybe I'm not living there
now.)
prefer
- I prefer to study by myself. (Sounds factual)
- I prefer studying by myself. (Sounds more personal, perhaps I'm studying now.)
These verbs are also often used with would and the infinitive, and refer to specific situations. For
example:
- I would love to go to China.
- We would prefer to meet at 7.00.
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Allow / permit
Allow and permit have one pattern for gerunds and another for infinitives.
allow + gerund - My teacher doesn't allow eating in class.
allow + object + infinitive - My teacher doesn't allow us to eat in class.
permit + gerund - My teacher doesn't permit eating in class.
permit + object + infinitive - My teacher doesn't permit us to eat in class.
-----

1-language.com- Online English Courses - Unit 39


Grammar
Verb + Gerund or Infinitive: Distinct difference in meaning.
These verbs can be followed by gerunds or infinitives but with a change in meaning.
forget / regret / remember
When these verbs are used with a gerund they refer to something that happened before a certain
time. When they are used with an infinitive they refer to something that happens at or after a
certain time.
forget
Forget with the gerund is often used with never for a memorable previous action.
- I'll never forget going to Japan.
Forget with the infinitive means something happens at or after a certain time.
- Don't forget to meet me at 5.00.
regret
Regret with the gerund refers to a previous action.
- I don't regret leaving my job.

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Regret with the infinitive is used to give bad news in a formal, polite way. It's often used with the
verbs to say, to announce, to tell you and to inform you.
- We regret to inform you the interview is cancelled.
remember
Remember with the gerund refers to a previous action.
- I remember meeting you last year. (I met you before now).
Remember with the infinitive is used for something that happens at or after a certain time.
- Please remember to close the door. (in the future please close the door.)
go on
Go on with the gerund means to continue an action in progress. For example:
- I want to go on studying here.
Go on with the infinitive means to do something new. For example:
- After university, he went on to study law.
mean
mean with the gerund shows negative consequence. For example:
- You can buy a new car, but it means spending a lot of money.
mean with the infinitive shows intention.
- He means to leave his job next month.
- I didn't mean to make you angry.
try
Try with the gerund is used for suggestions.
- "I need to lose weight." "Try exercising and eating healthy food".
- "I'm really hot." "Try sitting here, it's much cooler."
Try with the infinitive means to attempt something.
- I tried to lift it but I can't.
- I'll try to finish this by tomorrow morning.

stop
stop with the gerund means to end an action.
- I stopped eating fast food last year.
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- I can't stop loving you.


- Stop being so annoying!
stop with the infinitive means to interrupt an action.
- I was walking to the subway station, and I stopped to say "Hi" to my friends.
- I was working at home, and I stopped to answer the 'phone.
come
come with the gerund means movement with a sense of surprise or excitement.
- The ball came flying toward me - it almost hit me on the head!
- Don't come running to me! (this means don't expect sympathy)
come with the infinitive means a change in perception.
- I thought he wasn't smart, but I came to realize he's very talented.
- I didn't like teaching, but I came to like it.
come with the infinitive can also mean just reason.
- Why did you come? - I came to watch a movie.
help
help is often used with an infinitive.
- I helped to make dinner.
help is also used without to, especially in American conversational English.
- I helped make the dinner.
help is also used with with and the gerund.
- I helped with making the dinner.
These three usages have similar meanings.
Help with the gerund is also used with can't to mean a reaction beyond the subject's control.
- I can't help laughing.
- Those kids are noisy, but I can't help liking them.
When I saw his funny face, I couldnt but laugh.
=When I saw his funny face, I couldnt help laughing.
=When I saw his funny face, I couldnt help but laugh.

-----------------------------------------------------

22

On Line Grammar Exercises


Exercise (1) Gerunds vs. Infinitives Quiz 1
http://www.eflnet.com/grammar/gerinf1.php
Exercise (2) Gerunds vs. Infinitives Quiz 2
http://www.eflnet.com/grammar/gerinf2.php
Exercise (3) Gerund or Infinitive
http://a4esl.org/q/f/z/zz97mkm.htm

Adverb Clauses
Pattern:
Process:

Adv. conj + S1 + V1 + O1, S2 + V2 + O2.


If S1=S2, then omit S1 and change V1 to be V-ing phrase or V-ed phrase
V1-ing phrase, SVO.
Vi-ed phrase, SVO.

(a) adv. conj.: when, while, once, after, etc.


When saw me, he went away.
=When seeing me, he went away.
=Seeing me, he went away.
When he had finished his work, he joined the game.
=When having finished his work, he joined the game.
=Having finished his work, he
(b) adv. conj.: because, as, etc.
Because I felt tired, I went to bed early.
=
( c) adv. conj.: if, unless, etc.
If you take exercise every morning, you will improve your health.
=
(d) adv. conj.: although, though, even though, even if, etc.
Although he was wounded, the brave soldier continued to fight.
=Although (being) wounded, the brave soldier continued to fight.
23

:
He is kind. We like him.

He is kind. We dont like him.

SVO, so SVO

SVO, but SVO

SVO. Therefore, SVO.

SVO. However, SVO.

SVO. Thus SVO.

SVO. Nevertheless(,) SVO.

SVO; therefore, SVO

SVO; however, SVO.

SVO; thus SVO.

SVO; nevertheless(,)SVO

On-Line Adverb Clauses Exercises


http://www.learn4good.com/languages/evrd_grammar/adverb_clauses_ex.htm

Noun Clauses
(1) that-clause
(2) whether-clause
(3) wh- clause (who, what, when, where, which + why & how)

(1) that + SVO

That he loves me is true.--------It is true that he loves me.

I know that he loves me.

(2) whether + SVO

I dont know whether he loves.

(3) wh-clause (when, where, why, how) + SVO

I dont know when he came.

I dont know where he lives.

I dont know why he did it.

I dont know how he did it.


24

(3*) wh-clause (who, what, which) + Vt O / S Vt

I dont know who did it / whom I love.

I dont know what happened / what I can do.

I dont know which (one) is good for you / which (one) you like.

Exercise A
Use who, what, when, where, which, why, and how to construct direct questions and indirect questions:

Direct question:

Wh.?

Indirect questions: Do you know wh..?

Exercise B
Compare the following sentences:

I dont know (1) how I can do it (2) what I can do.

I dont know (1) how to do it (2) what to do.

On-Line Noun Clauses


http://www.eslgold.com/site.jsp?
sk=D2IPZvVVflhXnnTJ&resource=pag_stu_grammar_expl_exa_exer_hi_noun_cla

Adjective (Relative) Clauses


: who, whom (), which ()

A:

a man who loves me..


(a) N N. : a man whom I love
a book which I like
(b) N S, O., Be-V.
(c) (b) N
a man whom I enjoy working[I enjoy working for/with him.]
a man for whom I enjoy working.
the house which we live is very large. [We live in the house.]
25

the house in which we live is very large.


= where

B.
(a)
I met John, who is a good friend of mine.
I met John, (being) a good friend of mine.
John, a good friend of mine, came to see me.
John, ____, came to see me.
______, John came to see me.
Halloween, which falls on October 31, is one of the most unusual holidays in the U.S.
(b)
the girl who danced here yesterday : the girl dancing here yesterday
the boy who is standing over there : ________________________
the car which is parked over there : _________________________
Here is my mother, who loves me very much.
Here is my mother who loves me very much.

C. "that" N, who, whom, which, :


(1). that ; that " " :
the girl, that comes here every Monday
(2). that
the house in that I live
in which

On-Line Relative Clauses Exercises


http://www.edict.com.hk/vlc/clauses/frames1.htm
Grammar Notes

26

The Purpose of a Sentence


The other classifications in this chapter describe how you construct your sentences,
but this last set describes why you have written the sentences in the first place. Most
sentences which you write should simply state facts, conjectures, or arguments, but
sometimes you will want to give commands or ask questions.
The Declarative Sentence
The declarative sentence is the most important type. You can, and often will write
entire essays or reports using only declarative sentences, and you should always use
them far more often than any other type. A declarative sentence simply states a fact
or argument, without requiring either an answer or action from the reader. You
punctuate your declarative sentences with a simple period:
Ottawa is the capital of Canada.
The distinction between deconstruction and post-modernism eludes me.
He asked which path leads back to the lodge.
Note that the last example contains an indirect question, "which path leads back to
the lodge." An indirect question does not make a sentence into an interrogative
sentence -- only a direct question can do that.
The Interrogative Sentence
An interrogative sentence asks a direct question and always ends in a question
mark:
Who can read this and not be moved?
How many roads must a man walk down?
Does money grow on trees?
Note that an indirect question does not make a sentence interrogative:
Direct/Interrogative
When was Lester Pearson prime minister?
Indirect/Declarative
I wonder when Lester Pearson was prime minister.
A direct question requires an answer from the reader, while an indirect question does
not.
The Rhetorical Question
Normally, an essay or report will not contain many regular direct questions, since you
are writing it to present information or to make an argument. There is, however, a
special type of direct question called a rhetorical question -- that is, a question
which you do not actually expect the reader to answer:
Why did the War of 1812 take place? Some scholars argue that it was simply a
land-grab by the Americans ...
If you do not overuse them, rhetorical questions can be a very effective way to
introduce new topics or problems in the course of a paper; if you use them too often,
27

however, you may sound patronising and/or too much like a professor giving a
mediocre lecture.
The Exclamatory Sentence
An exclamatory sentence, or exclamation, is simply a more forceful version of a
declarative sentence, marked at the end with an exclamation mark:
The butler did it!
How beautiful this river is!
Some towns in Upper Canada lost up to a third of their population during the
cholera epidemics of the early nineteenth century!
Exclamatory sentences are common in speech and (sometimes) in fiction, but over
the last 200 years they have almost entirely disappeared from academic writing. You
will (or should) probably never use one in any sort of academic writing, except where
you are quoting something else directly. Note that an exclamation mark can also
appear at the end of an imperative sentence.
The Imperative Sentence
An imperative sentence gives a direct command to someone -- this type of
sentence can end either with a period or with an exclamation mark, depending on
how forceful the command is:
Sit!
Read this book for tomorrow.
You should not usually use an exclamation mark with the word "please":
Wash the windows!
Please wash the windows.
Normally, you should not use imperative sentences in academic writing. When you do
use an imperative sentence, it should usually contain only a mild command, and
thus, end with a period:
Consider the Incas.

28

English Grammar - Questions


1) Yes/No questions and short answers with the verb to be
Subject and verb change their positions in statement and question.
statement:
question:

You are
Are you

from Germany.
from Germany?

Always use the short answer, not only "Yes" or "No".


NOTE:

If the answer is "Yes" use the long form. Example: Yes, I am.

Are

you

from Germany? Yes,

am.

No,

am
not.

Is

he

your friend?

Yes,

he

is.

Are

Peter and
John

from England?

Yes,

they

are.

2) Questions with question words and the verb to be


question
word

verb

rest

answer

Where

are

you from?

I'm from Stuttgart.

What

is

your name?

My name

How

are

Pat and Sue? They're fine.

is

Peter.

3a) Yes/No questions and short answers with the verb to have

29

auxilia subject
ry

verb rest

Yes/ subje auxiliary


No
ct
+ n't
(where
necessar
y)

Have

you

got

a cat?

Yes,

have.

Have

you

got

a new
car?

No,

we

haven't.

Has

your
brother

got

a bike?

Yes,

he

has.

3b) Questions with question words and the verb to have


question auxiliary subject verb rest
word

answer

Where

I've got it in my
pencil case.

have

you

got

your
ruler?

4a) Questions without question words in the Simple Present


auxiliary

subject

verb

rest

Yes/No

subject

auxiliary +
n't (where
necessary)

Do

you

read

book?

Yes,

do.

No,

don't.

Yes,

he

does.

Does

Peter

play

football?

4b) Questions with question words in the Simple Present


question
word

auxiliary

subject

verb rest

30

answer

What

do

you

play

on your
computer?

I play games on my
computer.

When

does

your
mother

go

to work?

She goes to work at


6 o'clock.

Where

do

you

meet your friends?

I meet them at the


bus stop.

5a) Questions without question words in the Simple Past


auxiliary subject verb

rest

Yes/No

subject auxiliary +
n't (where
necessary)

Did

football?

Yes,

he

did.

No,

he

didn't.

Yes,

did.

No,

didn't.

Did

Max

you

play

watch the film


yesterday?

BUT:
to be

subject

Were

you

xxx

rest

Yes/No

subject

auxiliary +
n't (where
necessary)

in Leipzig last
week?

Yes,

was.

No,

wasn't.

5b) Questions with question words in the Simple Past


question auxiliary subject verb rest
word

answer

What

did

you

do

When

did

she

meet her boyfriend?

yesterday evening?

31

did

She

my homework.
met

him

yesterday.
Where

did

they

go

after the match?

They

went

to a caf.

BUT:
question
word

to be subject xxxxx

rest

answer

Where

were you

yesterday? I

was

at the cinema.

6. Questions with who and what


subject question
question verb rest
word

subject verb

Who

Peter

runs to the shop?

object

- place -

time

runs to the shop.

object question
question auxiliary subject verb
word

rest

answer

Who

do

you

like?

I like my

mum.

Who

did

Mandy

phone last
Monday?

Mandy phoned

NOTE!
subject question
Who

phoned

object question
John?

Who

32

did

John

phone?

her uncle.

How to form questions - 3


http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises/fragen3.htm
Form a question. Ask for the underlined phrase in the sentence. Mind the
question mark at the end.
Example:
Answer:

The class plays football.


______________________
The class plays football.
What does the class play?

1. On Thursday Peter has got German, History and Maths.


2. Yesterday Carol and Jane went to the swimming pool.
3. Sarah has to stop because of a security check.
4. The boys are hiding under Tom's bed.
5. Andrew's new mountain bike costs 1000.
6. The children prefer porridge for breakfast.
7. The telephone is ringing.
8. At sunset Peter and Sally are walking along the beach.

C heck

Show answ er

IndirectQuestions in English
by Francis Lide
Elaine Bacon Literacy Program

In direct questions, the verb is either first or comes immediately after the question
word:
Is she at home? Can you help me? Has she told them? How is she feeling?
(With auxiliary do:) Does he understand? What did she say?
33

Indirect yes/no question:


Do you know if she is at home? (Supply if or whether , usually if. Subject
back to first position.)
Indirect wh- question (who, when, what, where, how). Note that the do disappears.
What did he say?

Becomes:

Do you know what he said?

Contrasting examples:
Direct question

Indirect (embedded) question

Is she at home?

Do you know if she is at home?

Can you help me?

Do you think you can help me?

Has she told them?

Do you know if she has told them

(She is sick:) How is she feeling?

Have you heard how she is


feeling?

Does he understand?

Do you think he understands?

What did she say?

Do you know what she said?

Exercises:
1. (When does our flight leave?) Do you know . . .?
2. (Where is she living now?) Do you know . . . ?
3. (One person asks: Can you do that or not?) The other answers: I dont know .
..
4. (Did she send the letter?) Do you know . . . ?
5. (What does he do for a living?) Do you know . . . ?
6. (Did he understand me?) Do you think . . . ?
7. How do they do that? Do you know . . . ?
8. What does this word mean? Can you tell me . . .?
9. What does that cost? Do you have any idea . . . ?
10. Who is that? Do you know . . .?
Answers
34

Direct question

Indirect (embedded) question

Is she at home?

Do you know if she is at home?

Can you help me?

Do you think you can help me?

Has she told them?

Do you know if she has told them

(She is sick:) How is she


feeling?

Have you heard how she is


feeling?

Does he understand?

Do you think he understands?

What did she say?

Do you know what she said?

When does our flight


leave?

Do you know when our flight


leaves?

Where is she living now?

Do you know where shes living


now?

Can you do that or not?

I dont know whether I can do


that or not.

Did she send the letter?

Do you know if she sent the


letter?

What does he do for a


living?

Do you know what he does for a


living?

Did he understand me?

Do you think he understood me?

How do they do that?

Do you know how they do that?

What does this word


mean?

Can you tell me what this word


means?

What does that cost?

Do you have any idea what that


costs?
35

Who is that?

Do you know who that is?

Indirect Questions
Start the sentence with the words given in parentheses.
Click the answer button to see the answer.
http://a4esl.org/q/h/vm/indirectques.html
36

1. Who built that enormous bridge? (I wonder...)


2. What's Brazil like? (I want to find out...)
3. Did Benjamin Franklin write 'Poor Richard's Almanac'? (I can't remember ....)
4. How do you do it? (Can you tell me ...)
5. Who did you meet at the party? (I'd like to know ...)
6. How long have you been waiting for me? (I wonder ...)
7. What happened to them? (Nobody cares ...)
8. How important is that meeting to the company? (Can you tell me ...)
9. When was the film produced? (Nobody remembers ...)
10. Have they flown an ultralight too? (I don't know ...)
11. What is it called in English? (I can't remember ....)
12. Should people be allowed to smoke in public places? (I'd like to know ....)

More exercises:
http://smccd.net/accounts/sevas/esl/gramcheck/nounclause1.html

Indirect questions and speech


e16
37

Change into INDIRECT QUESTIONS:


1. The teacher asked Joe: 'Why did you break that window?'
2. Tania wanted to know: 'Does the earth go round the sun?'
3. The teacher wondered: 'Has John had his hair cut?'
4. The boss asked me: 'Does Peter really intend to fly to London tomorrow?'
5. Bill asked Julia: 'What's your landlady's name?'
6. He also asked her: 'Do you know a girl called Naomi who works at the library?'
7. Sue asked Henry: 'Shall we wait until the others come back?'
8. The teacher asked: 'What's the capital of Australia?'
9. The policeman asked me: 'Can you read that sign?'
10. He added: 'Do you want to go to prison?'

e17
INDIRECT SPEECH

Text

The carpenter was astonished that such a weird, weak-looking creature as Nasrudin
was applying for a job. 'Okay, I'll give you a chance,' said the doubtful carpenter
finally. 'Take this axe and chop as much lumber as you can.' At dusk Nasrudin
returned. 'How many trees have you felled?' asked the carpenter. 'All the timber in
the forest,' Nasrudin replied. Shocked, the carpenter glanced out of his window. There
were no trees standing on the hillside. Nasrudin had destroyed the entire forest.
'Where did you learn to chop lumber?' asked the astonished carpenter. 'In the Sahara
Desert,' answered Nasrudin. 'That's ridiculous!' exclaimed the carpenter. 'There aren't
any trees in the desert!' 'There aren't any, NOW,' said Nasrudin calmly.
Turn the carpenter's and Nasrudin's direct speech into indirect (reported) speech.

38