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A

TREATISE
or

LONDON MDCCXLTX

PREFACE.

TW

Compofers of Mufick have appear'd in the World, who in their different


Kinds of Melody, have rais'd my Admiration ; namely David Rizzio and
Gio. Baptifta Lulli ; of thefe which flands highefl: in Reputation, or deferves
But when I confider, that
to ftand higheft, is none of my Bufinefs to pronounce
Rizzio was foremoft in point of Time, that till then Melody was intirely rude and barbarous, and that he found Means at once to civilize and infpire it with all the native Gallantry
:

oftheSCOTISH

Nation,

am

inclinable to give

him

the Preference.

But Melody, tho' pleafing to All, feldom communicates the higheft Degree of Plea*
fure ; and it was owing to this Refledion, that I lately have undertaken to improve the
Melody of Rizzio into Harmony, by converting fome of his Airs into two, three, and four
Parts; and by making fuch Additions and Accompanyments to others as fhould give them
all the Variety and Fullnefs required in a Concert.

How far

have fucceeded in this Attempt, thofe who are moft converfant in the Art,
But how difficult it was to fucceed in it. No-body can judge better
are the fitteft to judge
than myfelf (not to deftroy the Simplicity and Beauty, I found required fome Difcretion)
But to add new Parts on the fame Principles, and to create Harmony without violating the
I

Intention of the Melody, required an equal Mixture of Imagination and Judgment.

The Subjed of the

Work

made

was four favourite Airs, all of them


"EngUJhy Scotch or Irijh<, which I diverfify'd with a great Variety of Movements, as well with
Regard to the Melody as Harmony and Modulation, which not only thofe who afpire to the
Art of compofing, but fuch as would be good Performers on the Violin, Violoncello, Flute
and Harpfichord, ought to be thoroughly acquainted with.
laft

that I

public,

View, that the prefent Work is wholly unlike


both in Style and Manner But then I hope thv.'y will difcover alfo, that for the fame Reafon, it is likely to be fo much the more ufeful j and fo much the more entertaining in the
Performance.

The

Ingenious will difcover, at the

firft

do not pretend

to be the Inventor of either

other Compofers of the higheft Clafs

have been Adventurers in the fame Voyage ; and none with more Succefs than the celebrated Conliiy as may be feen in his fifth Compofition upon the Aria della Follia di Spagnia,

had the Pleafure of difcourftng with him myfelf upon this Subjed, and heard him
acknowledge the Satisfadion he took in compofing it, and the Value he fet upon it.
I have

The

Impoffibility

has

that

always been thought to attend

may feem

this

Undertaking
The
and the Envy that
:

on former Profeffors
generally attends every new Difcovcry in the Arts and Sciences, have hitherto dcferr'd my
publifliing thefe Rules of Singing and Playing in a good Tafte. But at laft preferring the
Benefit of the Public to all Manner of other Confiderations, I have determined no longer to
conceal an Article of fuch Importance, which will be even beneficial to fome grumbling Profeflbrs, as well as to true Lovers of Musick.
Imputation of Negligence

it

to caft

An

^ ]

INTRODUCTION

An

WHAT

commonly

Tade

good

good Tafte

to a

Musick.

in

and playing, has been


Years pafl
to deftroy
thought for fome
the true
Melody, and the IntenIt is fuppofed by many that a real good Tafte
tion of their Compofers.
cannot pofllpeculiar Gift of Nature, indulged only
bly be acquired by any Rules of Art ; it being a
And as moft flatter themfelvcs to have
thofe who have naturally a good Ear
to
is

call'd

Perfedion, hence

this

make

to

it

happens that he

fome

continually

Tinging

in

who

much

lings or plays, thinks of nothing fo

favourite Paflages or

Graces, believing that by

as

Means he

this

a good Performer,

not perceiving that playing in good Tafte


fhall be thought
doth not conflft of frequent Paflages, but in exprefllng with Strength and Delicacy the
This Exprcfllon is what every one fhould endeavour to acquire,
Intention of the Compofer.
be

to

be eaflly obtained by any Perfon, who is not too fond of his own Opinion, and
I would not however have it fupdoth not obftinately reflft the Force of true Evidence.
pofed that I deny the powerful Efleds of a good Ear ; as I have found in feveral Inftances
how great its Force is ; I only afl!ert that certain Rules of Art are necefl!ary for a moderate

and

may

it

may improve and perfed a good one. To


Lovers of Muflck may with more Eafe and Certainty

End

Genius, and

the

are

arrive at Perfedion,

therefore that thofe


I

who

recommend

the Study and Pradice of the following Ornaments of Expreflion, which are fourteen in

Number

namely,
plain Shake (
) 2d
inferior Apogiatura (
;

An
ling the

Sound

Turnd Shake

3**
)

Holding the Note


> )
8^^ Diminifliing the Sound
9*^
(
)
5^*^

( -

Apogiatura

fupcrior

6^^ Staccato

10*
14* A

Piano (p.)

Y )

7^ Swel-

Forte

Separation ( ^ )
clofe Shake
> )
( // )
From the following Explanation we may comprehend the Nature of each Element
(

11^^ th. Anticipation


)

12^^

'

13^^

Beat

in particular.

f Firjlj

The

plain

Shake

cbfeivingafter

it

is

Of

proper for quick Movements

to pafs

immediately

turn'd Shake being

to the

Of

(Second^)
The

Plain Shake.

the

and

may

made upon any Note,

be

enfuing Note.

the

Turned Shake.

made quick and long

is

to cxprefs Gaiety

fit

and continue the Length of the Note plain and

it fliort,

it

fofr,

it

may

but if you

make

then exprefs fome of

more tender Pafllons.

Of

(Thirdy)
The
be
to,

Superior Apogiatura

made

fwell

If

it

made

be

a pleaflng Efled:, and

Affedion, Pleafure,

fuppofed to exprefs Love,

It

fhould

it

fliort, it will lofe


it

Apogiatura.

more than half the Length or Time of the Note it belongs


the Sound by Degrees, and towards the End to force the Bow a

pretty long, giving

obferving to

little:

is

the Superior

may

Fourth^

much of the

aforefaid Qualities

be added to any Note you


)

Of

the Inferior

but will always have

will.

Apogiatura.

Apogiatura has the fame Qualities with the preceding, except that it is much
more confin'd, as it can only be made when the Melody rifes the Interval of a fecond or

The

third,

Inferior

obferving to

make
(

It

is

a Beat on the following Note.

Fifth )

necefiary to ufc this often

Cf Holding
;

for

were we

to

Note.

make

Beats and Shakes continually with-

out fometimes fuffering the pure Note to be heard, the Melody would be too

much

diverfify'd.

Sixth

[ 3 ]

Of

(Sixth )

Staccato.

the

This exprefles Reft, taking Breath, or changing a Word ; and for this Reafon Singers fhould
be careful to take Breath in a Place where it may not interrupt the Scnfe.

(^th and ^th ) Of Swelling and Falling the Sound.


Thefe two Elements may be ufed after each other; they produce great Beauty and Variety
in the Melody, and employ'd alternately, they are proper for any Expreffion or Meafure.

Of Piano and Forte.

( gth and loth J

are both extremely neceflary to exprcfs the Intention of the Melody ; and as all
MuHck fhould be compofed in Imitation of a Difcourfe, thefe two Ornaments are de-

They
good

figned to produce the fame Effects that an Orator does by railing and falling his Voice.

Of Anticipation.

f Eleventh )

Anticipation was invented, with a View to vary the Melody, without altering its Intention:
When it is made with a Beat or a Shake, and fwelling the Sound, it will have a greater EfTecl,
efpecially

if

you obferve

to

ufe of

make

when

it

the Melody

rifes

or defcends the Interval of

a Second.

Of

(Twelfth J

the Separation.

and takes place moft


properly when the Note rifes a fecond or third ; as alfo when it defcends a fecond, and then
it will not be amifs to add a Beat, and to fwell the Note, and then make the Apogiatura to

The

Separation

is

only defigned to give a Variety to the Melody,

the following Note.

By this Tendernefs

is

exprefs'd.

Of

( Thirteenth J

the

Beat.

Example, if it be performed with


Strength, and continued long, it exprefles Fury, Anger, Refolution, ^c. Ifitbeplay*d
&*c. But if you play it quite foft,
lefs ftrong and fhorter, it exprefles Mirth, Satisfadion,
and fwell the Note, it may then denote Horror, Fear, Grief, Lamentation, &c. By making
it ftiort and fwelling the Note gently, it may exprefs Afledtion and Pleafure.
This

is

proper to exprefs

fcveral Paflions

Of

(Fourteenth)

as for

the Clofe Shake.

To perform it, you


This cannot poflibly be defcribed by Notes as in former Examples.
muft prefs the Finger ftrongly upon the String of the Inflrument, and move the Wrift in
and out flowly and equally, when it is long continued fwelling the Sound by Degrees,
drawing the Bow nearer to the Bridge, and ending it very ftrong it may exprefs Majefty,
Dignity, ^c. But making it fliorter, lower and fofter, it may denote Afflidlion, Fear, ^c,
and when it is made on fhort Notes, it only contributes to make their Sound more agreable \ and for this Reafon it fliould be made ufe of as often as poflible.
Men

of purblind Undcrftandings, and half Ideas may perhaps ask, is it poflible to give
Meaning and Expreflion to Wood and Wire ; or to beftow upon them the Power of raiSng
and foothing the Paflions of rational Beings ? But whenever I hear fuch a Qiieftion put, whether for the Sake of InformationjOr to convey Ridicule,

I lliall

mak no

in theaffimative, and without fearching over-deeply into the Ciufe,


to appeal to the Effed.

a different Meaning.

Even

And

Difficulty to

fhall

think

it

anfwer

fufficient

common

Speech a Difference of Tone gives the fame Word


with regard to mufical Performance^ Experience has fhcwn that
in

the

[4]
the Imagination of the Hearer

Help of

is

much at

in general fo

the Difpofal of the Mafter that by the

Movements, Intervals and Modulation he may almoft ftamp what Imprefljon on the Mind he pleafcs.
Thefe extraordinary Emotions are indeed moft eafily excited when accompany'd widi
Words ; and I would befides advife, as well the Compofer as the Performer, who is ambitious to infpire his Audience to be tirft infpired himfelf, which he cannot fail to be if hechufes
a Work of Genius, if he makes himfelf thoroughly acquainted with all its Beauties ; and
if while his Imagination is warm and glowing he pours the fame exalted Spirit into his own
Variations,

Performance.

Explanation of the Acciaccature for the Harpftchord,

The

Acciaccatura

is

a Compofition of fuch

Chords

with Refped to the


difpofed in their proper Place produce that
as are diflonant

fundamental Laws of Harmony ; and yet when


very Effe(fl which it might beexpeded they would dcftroy.
No Performer therefore fhould flatter himfelf that he is able to accompany well till he is
Mafterof this delicate and admirable Secret which has been in ufe above a hundred Years :
and of which a great many Examples may be found in the Book which I have composed for
that Inftrument.

The Example which

however fomething in it peculiar, as it ferves to (pecify


a Signature called Tatto^ which has a very great and Angular Effed in Harmony, and which
a Spring as if it was
is performed by touching the Key lightly, and quitting it with fuch
follows, has

Fire.

have colleded and explained all the Ingredients of a good Talle, and nothing remains but to caution the Performer againft concluding, that a mere mechanical Application
of them, will anfwer the great Purpofe of eftablifliing a Charader among the Judicious in
all Arts and Sciences, fomething mull be left to the good Senfe of the Profeflbr ; for as the
Soul informs the Body, fo every Rule and every Principle mufl: be enforc'd by the Knowledge

Thus

and

Skill

of him

who

puts

Laflly^ as the chief

it

End

in Practice.

have in view,

is

to contribute as far as

my

Abilities will permit,

to the Perfedion of an Art that I love, and to refcue the Charader of Mufician from the Difgrace and Contempt which the Follies of ignorant Pretenders have brought upon it, I hope

Countenance to the Mifconftrudion which thofe Pretenders may think their Interefi^ to pafs upon it.
To fay All in few Words, the Road to Emulation is both open and wide ; the moft effedual Method to triumph over an Author is to excel him ; and he manifefts his AfFedion
to a Science moft who contributes moft to its Advancement.
When I came firft to hondon^ which was Thirty-four Years ago, I found Muftck in fo
thriving a State, that I had all the Reafon imaginable to fuppofc the Growth would be fuita-

no acknowledg'd Mafter

will lend his

ble to the Excellency of the Soil.

But I have lived to be moft miferably difappointed ; for tho' it cannot be faid that there
was any want of Encouragement, that Encouragement was ill beftow'd.
The Hand was more confidered than the Head ; the Performance than the Compofition ;
and hence it followed, that inftead of labouring to cultivate a Tafte, which feem'd to be all
that was wanting, the Publick was content to nourifh Inftpidity.
Architecture, on the contrary, at that Time was in a very deplorable State, and yet in
the fame Interval, it has rifen to its Meridian under the Protedion of a moft noble and inteland under a Patronage yet more illuftrious and fublime, I have ftrong
ligent

LORD;

Reafons

to flatter

myfelf of feeing

MU S

CK

do tht fame.

Georgh E
.j/2a// r^//2^

JV/zere/Zj; Francis Geminiani, V"^-

^^e/i>^:

^^S^^ t^EAaz^^^^ll/e^lrc^

l^^ a^^iS^T^AAi^/i^^A^re^;

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ye^(r?^/z^o?^ aA?'i^i^e

tAe

2/67////ZA/ ?2/Aa^<?e^i/e^;

M^^Acf/z*/e/2^

Gemimani

E^ourZ/'im 2/ea?\y,

KJaA?^7f^rA,yv?^ ^Ae ^er/^t

/<?

tJa/^A Francis

Uam/' eA^2er
,

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C<7/iArary

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Examples
0^tAe<Slement o^jjIi^^./^ aruLtsir^i/^ Uhdjfooci^idte

rfi

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iiDiiiniihiiiinifii

I'^

an <me CroioAet.

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Examples

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a-4o--HL-U

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Song

Accompaiiy'd by Imo Violins two German Flutes Tenor and ThoroniPh Bafs
Pi;

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Viol?

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