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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION
A. BACKGROUND
Words go together in a grammatical way to make sentences. Sentences can be
combined to form compound and complex sentences. A group of sentences that go
together to talk about an idea form a paragraph. Therefore, a paragraph is made of a
number of related sentences that develop an idea. Written language is divided into
paragraphs to distinguish one main idea from other main ideas. As you have already
noticed, a paragraph is composed of some sentences. There is no strict rule for
determining how many sentences you need for a paragraph. It all depends on the
reader. You should include as many sentences as the reader needs to understand the
point of the paragraph fully. However, many standard paragraphs include between 7
and 13 sentences.
A paragraph includes two types of sentences: (a) one topic sentence, and (b) some
supporting sentences. The main idea of the paragraph is usually stated in a topic
sentence. All other sentences in the paragraph must help the development of the topic
sentence. As such, the topic sentence is the most general and the most important
sentence in the paragraph. Technically, it summarizes the whole of the paragraph.
Depending on the location of the topic sentence in the paragraph, paragraphs can be
classified into four major types: (a) deductive, (b) inductive, (c) hybrid, and (d)
implicit. In a deductive paragraph, the first sentence of the paragraph is the topic
sentence. In an inductive paragraph, the topic sentence is placed at the end of the
paragraph. Hybrid paragraphs are marked by middle position for the topic sentence.
That is, in these paragraphs, the topic sentence is usually placed in the middle of the
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paragraph. In implicit paragraphs, the writer leaves the topic sentence out. In other
words, the topic sentence is hidden. Sentences in a chronological paragraph have their
own special structure. In writing chronological paragraphs, often you can use either of
the two tenses: (a) the real-time tenses, or (b) the simple present tense. When the
writer uses the real-time tense to report past, present, or future events, he is reporting
the events as they relate to the actual now. As such, the writer will use past, future,
present, perfective, or progressive tense types to develop his topic sentence.
B. FORMULATION OF PROBLEM
1. What is developing sentece?
2. How to developing a sentece?
3. What is the purpose of developing sentece?
C. PURPOSE
The purpose of this papers is to someone who want want to write english well,
she/he have to know that language, and understand how the grammar is used. Such
as, know what is sentences,what is development sentences , the kind of sentence, type
and function of the sentence, and the meaning of the sentence. Thispapers clearly
aims to discuss the sentences so that by reading this paper the reader can understand
sentences with different types and kinds, shapes and functions, so that the reader has a
basic capital to be able to communicate properly and correctly according to the rules
of English advanced writing

CHAPTER II
DISCUSSION
A. DEFINITON OF DEVELOPMENT SENTENCES
1. Development
According Brainyquote development is The act or process of changing or
expanding an expression into another of equivalent value or meaning.
According Meriam Websterthe development is act or process of growing or
causing something to grow or become larger or more advanced
According Cambridge Dictionaries develop is to (cause something to) grow or
change into a more advanced, larger, or stronger form
2. Sentence
According Sidney Greenbaum sentence is a group of words that express a
complete thought
According B. A. Accolo sentence is complete thought
According Bas Arts and April Mcmahan sentence is "A sentence is basically a
group of words which are tied together and convey an idea, event or description. The
words in an English sentence have a certain order and rules regarding ways to either
expand or shorten it. The boundaries of a sentence are easily recognized, as it begins
with a capital letter and ends with a terminal punctuation mark (period, question mark

or exclamation point). It is important for English writers to know the language of


sentence grammar terms in order to be able to analyze and develop their writing"
So, according opinion above developing sentece is complicated the sentence the
more care you need to take to make sure that all the parts are properly constructed and
agree with one another. Sentences can be extremely simple or incredibly complicated.
Obviously, the more complicated the sentence the more care you need to take to make
sure that all the parts are properly constructed and agree with one another.
However, when you review your work, you should make sure that all of your
sentences contain all the necessary elements - at the most basic level, at least a subject
and a verb
B. SENTENCES
A sentence is a linguistic unit consisting of one or more words that are grammatically linked.
A sentence can include words grouped meaningfully to express a statement, question,
exclamation, request, command or suggestion. A sentence is a set of words that in principle
tells a complete thought (although it may make little sense taken in isolation out of context);
thus it may be a simple phrase, but it conveys enough meaning to imply a clause, even if it is
not explicit. For example, "Two" as a sentence (in answer to the question "How many were
there?") implies the clause "There were two". Typically a sentence contains a subject and
predicate. A sentence can also be defined purely in orthographic terms, as a group of words
starting with a capital letter and ending in a full stop. (However, this definition is useless for
unwritten languages, or languages written in a system that does not employ both devices, or
precise analogues thereof.) For instance, the opening of Charles Dickens's novel Bleak
House begins with the following three sentences:

Purpose of sentence
1. Declarative Sentences.
At first glance, learning the definition of a declarative sentence is easy. Declarative
sentences are statements made that provide some type of information.These types of
sentences are so common that you'll find that they make up the majority of this lesson
and a good portion of your everyday conversations too.
2. Interrogative sentence
If you listen to an every day conversation, youll notice the exchange isnt simply
statements of facts or ideas. Of course, these types of statements (called declarative
sentences) are part of the dialogue, but unless the conversation is entirely one-way,
chances are youll also hear requests or commands (imperative sentences), exclamations
(exclamatory sentences) or questions (interrogative sentences). Thats how normal
dialogue occurs and in order for your writing to be engaging and interesting, you need to
do what comes naturally in every day language.Sentences that ask a question are called
interrogative sentences. Theyre easy to spot -they always end with a question mark (?).
But its not quite as simple as that. All interrogative sentences are not the same.
3. Immperative sentence
An imperative sentence gives a direct command. It can end in a full stop or an
exclamation mark, depending on the forcefulness of the command.The main verb in an
imperative sentence is said to be in the imperative mood.
4. Exclamatory sentece
An exclamatory sentence, or exclamation, is a more forceful version of a declarative
sentence. In other words, an exclamatory sentence makes a statement (just like a

declarative sentence), but it also conveys excitement or emotion. An exclamatory


sentence ends with an exclamation mark (!)Exclamatory sentences are common in
adverts and informal correspondence (e.g., emails, texts). They are quite rare in business
correspondence, where a level head usually needs to be portrayed.
PART OF SENTENCES
1. Subject
As noted earlier, the subject of a positive or negative statement is
usually the first element of a clause or sentences.
2. Object
As with the Subject, the Object can be anything from a single word to
a phrase. You will notice that the Object in each case directly follows
the Verb. This is by far the most common position for the Object
element in English, although, again, there are exceptions. English is,
therefore, usually referred to as an SVO type language, meaning that
the expected and most natural order of clause elements is Subject +
Verb + Object. If you are a native speaker of English, this might seem
so obvious as not to be worth comment. However, there are many
languages in the world that do not follow this pattern; for example,
Welsh and Irish are both VSO languages, while Japanese and Turkish
are SOV. It appears that this latter type is more common than the
English SVO.
A complete sentence has a subject and a verb. It is also called a clause.
Subjects and verbs do specific things in sentences.
C. HOW TO DEVELOPING SENTENCES

A complete sentence has a subject and a verb. It is also called a clause. Subjects and verbs
do specific things in sentences.

Subjects(nouns) ,person ,place ,thing = do an action in a sentence.

Verbs

a) ..show the action of a sentence in time (past, present, future).


b) join or link to the subject words that describe them.

Examples:
1. Terry and Jack play soccer.
2. The mall has many stores.
3. The computer is new.
Examples 1, 2, and 3 are simple sentences. A simple sentence is a clause which makes
sense on its own. It is also called an independent clause (IC).
A compound sentence contains two independent clauses joined with a coordinating
conjunction
Coordinating conjunctions are for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. They are also known as
FANBOYS.

Examples:
1. It was raining hard, and there was a strong wind.
2. He was tired, so he went to bed.
3. The power went out, so I got scared.
A complex sentence contains both an independent clause and a dependent clause (DC).

To check if a sentence is complete, first find the subject and the verb.
Finding Subjects
To find the subject of any sentence, ask the question: who or what is the sentence about?
Remember:
*subjects usually come earlier in the sentence
*subjects can be modified by adjectives
*subjects can be compounded
*subjects can be pronouns (he, she, it, they, we)
*subjects must agree with verbs: a singular subject agrees with a singular verb, plural subjects
agree with plural verbs

Other Challenges in Finding Subjects


1. Changes in the normal subject position
Some sentences begin with words that indicate a question is being asked, such as why, where,
how and when. These opening words are not the subject.
2. Using the word there
The word there can never be the subject of the sentence.
3. Commands
Sometimes, a sentence contains a verb that gives an order.
4. Appositive Phrases
An appositive phrase is a group of words in a sentence that provides more information about a
noun in a sentence.

Prepositional Phrases
A prepositional phrase is a group of words which contains a preposition and an object of the
preposition with its modifiers. The nouns within prepositional phrases are never the subject of
the sentence.
In sentences with prepositional phrases, the subject can be difficult to find.
In the young mans apartment, books covered the walls.
Since the subject of the sentence is never in the prepositional phrase, it is helpful to cross out the
prepositional phrase.
IFinding Verbs

A. Action Verbs indicate what the subject is doing. The action verb also indicates when the
subject does the action, either past, present or future tense.

B. Linking Verbs join the subject of a sentence to words that describe or identify it.

C. Helping Verbs are used to help the main verb express a special time or meaning.
Remember: the verb phrase may contain words which are not verbs. These words are
usually adverbs, which modify the verb.

Clauses

A clause is a group of words that contain a subject and a verb. The two main types of clauses are
independent and dependent.
Independent Clauses (IC)

An independent clause contains a subject and a verb and expresses a complete thought. It is
called independent because it can stand on its own as a complete sentence.

Joining Two Independent Clauses


Two independent clauses can be connected using either a coordinate conjunction (FANBOYS) or
a conjunctive adverb.
When a FANBOYS word is used to connect two independent clauses, a comma is placed before
the FANBOYS word.
When a conjunctive adverb is used to connect two independent clauses, a comma is placed after
the conjunctive adverb.
These rules are summarized in the following formulas:
IC , fanboys word IC
IC ; conjunctive adverb , IC
To develop sentences we should already learnt how to develop a words to a sentences ,from
sentences to make it into a paragraph writing .This is step to develop sentences .the first is
connect .connect here mean join ideas and build bridges between thoughts , and then define

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,define is clarity terms that yours readers may not understand .after you define you must
describe and supply your readers with clear images which convey the meaning,

Techniques for sentences development is :


1. Coordination : link related in idea
2. Idea separated
3. Ideas combined
4. Subornation
Seven step for develop sentences into good paragraph
1. Tink about the subject carefully (ideas)
2. Narrow the subject to a few topic.
3. Choose on of the topic ,make sure the topic will be interested to the readers.
List some detail about the topic
4.

Choose the most important detail you want to communicate it should be

interesting or important to the readers .


5. Write a topic sentences based on this details include a few controlling ideas
in this topic sentences to limit the size of your paragraph.
6. Make the outline for the paragraph.

D. SENTENCES COMPONENTS
ADJECTIVE CLAUSE: further definies nouns or pronouns using the
words ,which,that,who, whoses and whom.
example : Wesley ,who speak only few words at the begiing of the movie
ADVERB CLAUSE : further defines verbs and other adverbs using word
such as because ,although,since,even if, im order that ,if ,whereas,after,before
and when.

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Example: the little boy ground with disgust when he open the present a
book.
APPOSITIVE : Allow more descriptions by remaining nouns and pronouns
PREPOSIONAL PHRASE : Provides additional descriptions in a sentences
PARTICIPAL PHRASES : Modifies sentences by changing words
commonly used as verb to adjective.

CHAPTER III
CLOSING
A. CONCLUSION
A paragraph is unified if all of the sentences are clearly connected and flow logically.
Each sentence should relate to the previous sentence in the paragraph or directly back to
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the topic sentence. Parallel structures, repetition of key words and phrases, pronoun use
and transitional words or expressions can help to create this flow.
Transitional expressions connect ideas in a sentence and between sentences. Think of
them as signposts for the reader. Paragraphs should be unified and coherent so they are
more easily understood by the reader. There are many paragraph patterns writers can use
to help keep their paragraphs unified. Paragraphs often combine different patterns of
development: chronological order used with comparison/contrast, definitions with
recommendations and so forth.
B. SUGGEST

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