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Skype v.

Hangouts
Quantitative Usability Study

Authors: Leena Ansari, Michael Gruen,


Vlada Mashkovich, Erin Neacy
Executive Summary
Working as a team of four usability researchers, we conducted a quantitative comparative usability research study on
two online video collaboration applications: Google Hangouts and Skype. We focused on measuring tasks commonly
performed by students or professionals collaborating with peers remotely.
After conducting 16, 20-minute one-on-one usability testing sessions, the team identified several good findings and
several issues requiring improvement. Participants were measured in terms of how successful they were, how much
time it took, and how many clicks they used when completing the tasks provided. Participants also provided insights
regarding perceived satisfaction and ease-of-use for both applications.

Good practices include: Issues requiring improvement include:


Participants found both Skype and Google Hangouts generally Increased clicks used to create a video conference call in
Google Hangouts
satisfying and easy to use.
Increased time spent and clicks used to join a video
Both Skype and Google Hangouts clearly and prominently
conference call in Google Hangouts
displayed the mute and unmute functionality. Increased time spent and clicks used to stop sharing the
Both Skype and Google Hangouts clearly and prominently screen in Skype
displayed the enable and disable webcam video functionality Increased clicks used to send a chat message in Google
Both Skype and Google Hangouts clearly and prominently Hangouts
displayed the end video conference call functionality. Users preferred Skypes treatment of navigating to another
Both Skype and Google Hangouts clearly and prominently window and then returning back to the conference call
Users preferred Google Hangouts treatment for sharing the
displayed the exiting an ongoing meeting and then rejoining
screen or sharing a specific window only
that meeting functionality.
Introduction
Evaluation Stimuli
Google Hangouts and Skype were the foci of the usability evaluation for the following reasons:
Both products are commonly relied upon for video conferencing and remote collaboration among college students and
working professionals, for both personal and professional use.
Both products are well known and are highly regarded video conferencing tools in the marketplace (References
https://www.g2crowd.com/categories/web-conferencing).
Each product is owned by one of the biggest technology competitors in the world: Hangouts by Google, and Skype by
Microsoft.
The products simplicity and difficulty of use will be compared and evaluated in respect to efficiency of use and user
experience.
Evaluation Objectives
Google Hangouts and Skype were evaluated and compared in terms of the user experience that both
applications create.
The objectives were to answer the following questions:
Can users complete key tasks (e.g. creating a group conference call, sharing their screen with the group on the conference
call) using Google Hangouts and Skype?
How fast do users complete the key tasks using Google Hangouts and Skype?
What path do the users take to complete key tasks using Google Hangouts and Skype?
Is key functionality easy to use with Google Hangouts and Skype or is it hard?
Are users satisfied with their interactions with Google Hangouts and Skype or are they frustrated?

And to identify the strengths of each product and uncover any areas that could be improved to meet user
expectations and needs by:
Identify the areas that function effectively and meet expectations
Identify areas that need improvement
Focus on these areas
Provide actionable recommendations
Methodology
Participants
Participant Criteria
16 participants were recruited for this usability study
Each participant fit the following profile:
Ages 18+
Uses technology frequent in daily life.
Has prior experience and knowledge of both Google Hangouts and Skype and their uses.
Has experience collaborating remotely with video conferencing on a school or work project.
Participant Demographics
The participant gender distribution of our study The participant age distribution of our study is
is as follows: as follows:

Participants have used the following online applications for academic or professional collaboration:
Skype Lotus Notes Phone call/conference call Trello
Google Hangouts Canvas Google Docs Proprietary collaboration tools
Join.me Minigroup Google Sheets Other online collaboration tools
SMART Bridgit Email Dropbox
Procedure
Study Introduction
Each participant was invited to a 25 minute, one-on-one quantitative usability testing session
(participant and moderator).

Each session consisted of the following:


Upon arrival, each participant will be greeted and asked to read and sign an informed consent form.
The Moderator will introduce the participant to the topic of the session.
The Moderator will explain the rules of the session to the participant:
Participant should attempt to complete the tasks as he or she normally would without worrying about making
mistakes.
Participant should be informed that the study is being recorded and that his or her data will be kept confidential.
Rules not mentioned in the introduction, but throughout the study for better clarity, less confusion, less initial overload of
information, and added emphasis at the appropriate time:
Instruction to abstain from thinking aloud is given immediately before the start of activities.
Think-aloud protocol would invalidate time-on-task collection during activities because of added time during
discussion, and varied discussion length between participants.
Instruction to announce the completion of a particular activity is given immediately before the start of activities.
Such an announcement is necessary for adequately recording the time necessary to complete an activity.
Instruction to freely provide the participants opinion is given immediately before the start of the satisfaction
survey/debrief questions.
Participant Background Questions
The following warm-up questions were asked in order to gather background and demographic data on
the user as well as verify that the participant fits the profile criteria required to participate in the
session:

Tell me a little bit about yourself.


What do you do for work?
Tell me about a time that you had to work on something with a coworker/classmate that was not at your location.
What sort of technology did you use to help you complete that project or assignment?
Tell me about how that technology affected your work on that project.
Activities Using Skype and Hangouts
The participants completed the following activities to compare the efficiency of the both
applications. The applications were counterbalanced between each participant (participants
alternated starting with Google Hangouts or Skype) in order to eliminate bias. The participants were
told not to think aloud while completing the activities provided, as thinking aloud would invalidate
time-on-task collection. Moderators cued the start of each activity and instructed the participants to
announce as they completed each activity:
*Activities were not counterbalanced for this research study to ensure natural task fluidity. Future research initiatives should consider counterbalancing the
activities, as well.

1. Creating/hosting a group conference call 7. Sharing a specific window screen with the group
2. Muting/unmuting the microphone conference call and stopping the screen share

3. Typing a chat message to the group conference 8. Leaving the group conference call
call 9. Joining a group conference call
4. Turning the video off/on 10. Leaving and rejoining a group conference call
5. Performing a task (Google search) while in the
group conference call and returning to the call
6. Sharing the desktop screen with the group
conference call and stopping the screen share
Activity Moderator Prompts
The language used by the moderator to prompt the participant for each activity is as follows:
To start each activity, the moderator began with Please let me know when you are done and begin.

Creating/hosting a group conference call: Turning the video off/on:


Imagine you are working on a group project with a team that cant meet You dont want your teammates to see you. You want them to only hear
face-to-face. Please set up a conference call where your group can both you. Please go ahead and make that happen.
see you and hear you. Please include your teammates _____ and _____.
Participant emails are provided here. You have changed your mind. Please let your teammates both see you
and hear you.
Muting/unmuting the microphone:
Youre in a loud place and your teammates are complaining about the Performing a task (Google search) while in the group conference call
noise. Please silence yourself in the conference call to stop the noise and returning to the call:
interference. While on the call, you need to search for something. Without exiting the
conference call, please go to Google.com, and enter the search terms:
It has quieted down, please make yourself audible to your teammates. French Bulldog. After you are done, please return to the conference
call.
Typing a chat message to the group conference call:
Since your teammates cant hear you, you can only communicate Sharing the desktop screen with the group conference call and
through text. Please send your teammates a message saying You cant stopping the screen share:
hear me, but I can hear you. Your teammates would like to see what you see on your computer.
Please show them what you currently see on your computer.

Please stop showing your teammates what you see on your computer.
Activity Moderator Prompts (Cont.)
The language used by the moderator to prompt the participant for each activity is as follows:
To start each activity, the moderator began with Please let me know when you are done and begin.

Sharing a specific window screen with the group conference call and Joining a group conference call:
stopping the screen share: Your teammates are asking you to meet them for another conference
Your teammates would like to see your search results for French call that they are hosting. Please go ahead and do so.
Bulldog. Please show them the search results only.
Leaving and rejoining a group conference call:
Please stop showing your teammates your search results. Something has come up and you need to briefly leave the conference
call. Please go ahead and leave and re-enter the call.
Leaving the group conference call:
Please leave the conference call.
Evaluation Quantitative Measures
The study will be primarily evaluated based on a series of quantitative measures gathered throughout
the usability study.
Success/failure for activity completion
Success - participant completed the activity successfully and without major problems.
Failure - participant gave up or failed to complete activity.
Perceived success/failure for activity completion
Success - participant specified within the satisfaction survey/debrief that they completed the activity successfully
and without major problems.
Failure - participant specified within the satisfaction survey/debrief that they gave up or failed to complete activity.
Time-on-task (measured in seconds)
For each activity completed by the participant, the moderator collects the time elapsed in seconds between
between the prompted start of the activity to the announced completion of the activity
Number of clicks required for activity completion
For each activity, the moderator counts the amount of clicks the participant makes between the prompted start of
the activity to the announced completion of the activity.
Evaluation Quantitative Measures (Cont.)
The study will be primarily evaluated based on a series of quantitative measures gathered throughout
the usability study.
Overall satisfaction ratings with both applications
During the satisfaction survey/debrief, the participant will be asked to rate his/her satisfaction level with both
applications (scale from 1 - very dissatisfied to 5 - very satisfied)
Task satisfaction ratings with both applications
During the satisfaction survey/debrief, the participant will be asked to rate his/her satisfaction level with all tasks
with both applications (scale from 1 - very dissatisfied to 5 - very satisfied)
Overall ease-of-use ratings with both applications
During the satisfaction survey/debrief, the participant will be asked to rate the ease-of-use of both applications
(scale from 1 - very hard to 5 - very easy)
Task ease-of-use ratings with both applications
During the satisfaction survey/debrief, the participant will be asked to rate the ease-of-use of all tasks with both
applications (scale from 1 - very hard to 5 - very easy)
Evaluation Qualitative Measures
The study will additionally be evaluated based on a series of qualitative measures gathered
throughout the usability study.
Usability issues and successes observed.

Other participant actions observed that add context/help explain usability issues and successes.

Observed path taken by participant to complete each prompted activity.

Participant sentiment gathered through open-ended probing questions and think-aloud prompting during the
satisfaction survey/debrief only.
Satisfaction Survey/Debrief
After completing the activities, the participants were asked the following questions about their
experience using the product and their satisfaction with the product. The participants were
encouraged to explain why they felt the way that they did.

Overall, how dissatisfied or satisfied were you using Google Hangouts/Skype?


The following scale was provided:

Very Neither dissatisfied


Dissatisfied Satisfied Very satisfied
dissatisfied nor satisfied

Overall, how difficult or easy was it to use Google Hangouts/Skype?


The following scale was provided:

Very hard Hard Neither hard nor easy Easy Very easy
Satisfaction Survey/Debrief
After completing the activities, the participants were asked the following questions about their
experience using the product and their satisfaction with the product. The participants were
encouraged to explain why they felt the way that they did.

How successful were you in completing the following tasks in Google Hangouts/Skype?

Creating a meeting Joining a meeting Switching to another window and


Turning off the camera Exiting and reentering a meeting returning to the video chat
Sharing my screen Putting myself on mute Sharing my search window only
Typing a chat

The following choices were provided for each task:

Successful Unsuccessful
Satisfaction Survey/Debrief
After completing the activities, the participants were asked the following questions about their
experience using the product and their satisfaction with the product. The participants were
encouraged to explain why they felt the way that they did.

How dissatisfied or satisfied were you when completing the following tasks in Google Hangouts/Skype?

Creating a meeting Joining a meeting Switching to another window and


Turning off the camera Exiting and reentering a meeting returning to the video chat
Sharing my screen Putting myself on mute Sharing my search window only
Typing a chat

The following choices were provided for each task:

Very Neither dissatisfied


Dissatisfied Satisfied Very satisfied
dissatisfied nor satisfied
Satisfaction Survey/Debrief
After completing the activities, the participants were asked the following questions about their
experience using the product and their satisfaction with the product. The participants were
encouraged to explain why they felt the way that they did.

How difficult or easy was it when you completed the following tasks in Google Hangouts/Skype?

Creating a meeting Joining a meeting Switching to another window and


Turning off the camera Exiting and reentering a meeting returning to the video chat
Sharing my screen Putting myself on mute Sharing my search window only
Typing a chat

The following choices were provided for each task:

Very hard Hard Neither hard nor easy Easy Very easy
Findings and
Recommendations
Severity Scale
The findings presented are accompanied with severity indicators immediately to the right of the
header:

Good practices: Worked well for participants. Important to keep intact throughout redesign process
GOOD

Issues requiring Highly impaired participants. Strongly advised for further research or a redesign. Critical
improvement: HIGH usability issue is highly likely to lead to application abandonment.

Somewhat impaired participants. Recommended for further research or a redesign in the near
MED future. Irritating usability issue is likely to to lead to application abandonment.

Slightly impaired participants. Low priority for further research or a redesign. Slightly irritating
LOW usability issue, may not lead to application abandonment, likely to lead to reduced customer
satisfaction.
Positive Findings
Participants did not experience a significant difference in satisfaction rates or
ease of use when comparing the applications.

Satisfaction: We conducted a paired t-test to compare the satisfaction ratings


GOOD
Wasn't very friendly, You can see everything
participants assigned to Google Hangouts and Skype applications. There was no
didn't give much better here and just
information and there significant difference between the satisfaction ratings for Google Hangouts (M = 4.31, SD
hover over it and see
weren't enough =0.79) and Skype (M = 3.81, SD = 1.17) at alpha level .05. explanations. The
symbols. images were helpful as
Ease of Use: We conducted a paired t-test to compare the ease of use ratings well. They give you a
I like Skype, very participants assigned to Google Hangouts and Skype applications. There was no good idea of what
casual, but shoves ads they're gonna do.
significant difference between the ease of use ratings for Google Hangouts (M = 4.19, SD
down your throat, works
better on Windows =0.98) and Skype (M = 3.75, SD = 0.93) at alpha level .05.
Didn't feel as smooth.
It was nice, I just didn't
Didn't feel as smooth. know how to make that
It was nice, I just didn't pop-up screen with all
know how to make that the actions come up.
pop[up screen with all Things just seemed
the actions come up. unfamiliar.
Things just seemed
unfamiliar. Tool that is used with
team collaboration in
Skype was a lot easier mind - does it
and was more perfectly.
satisfying because of
that
Participants found both Skype and Google Hangouts generally satisfying and
easy to use.

Participant Experience: Despite stating personal preference for video


GOOD
Neutral, not a huge fan Very satisfied using
conferencing applications freely, no participant was dissatisfied with or found it Google Hangouts. The
of Skype, somewhat
hard to use either application. screenshare aspects and
clunky and unreliable
other little "doo-dats" were
and touchy (especially
super easy to use. I use
with older computers), Impact: Because both applications are in good standing with users that prefer their
Google and Hangouts it
use it every day, audio competitors, innovative and intuitive features presented in those applications have sway was very much aligned
issues over users that are open minded or on the fence. Improvement over the competitor can with a product I was
cause users to jump ship and use the preferential application. familiar with in terms of
Was very satisfied icons, colors, and styles.
because all of the They were really intuitive
features that were Recommendation: Both applications should continue to conduct research on and improve because I gchat I think.
required were there. upon their features to stay ahead of the competitor.
The button make sense -
They were easy to find. listed on the dashboard in
And the quality of the an intuitive way. The icons
video was very good. are clearly labeled and
positioned in the right
Definitely wasn't very way. What you're used to
hard, but wasn't as easy be doing over the phone or
as i wanted it to be what you see on other
devices. Like on the
phone. I have an android
phone and so it's similar
functionality on it
Participants did not experience significantly different success rates,
time-on-task rates, or click rates when using the mute and/or unmute
functionality.

Success Rates: We conducted Fishers test to compare the task completion rate
GOOD
Same set of icons as Muting is super easy.
turning off the camera - of muting the microphone with Skype (94%) to the task completion rate of muting
was very quick and the microphone with Hangouts (100%) we found no significant differences at an alpha level Very easy. There was a
responsive. As soon as of .05. clearly indicated button,
I clicked it, I was on but as soon as I clicked
mute. Time on Task: We conducted a paired t-test to compare the time to mute between Skype it, it responded.
and Google Hangouts. We did not find a significant difference (t(14) = 0.61, p > .05) between Although there was a
little bit of lag in the
Skype (M = 7.2 seconds, SD = 8.71 seconds) and Google Hangouts (M = 6.53 seconds, SD =
That was easy process.
7.87 seconds).
Able to click on the mic
Button was easy to Number of Clicks: We conducted a paired t-test to compare the number of clicks it would and there was an x
find take to mute between Skype and Google Hangouts. We did not find a significant difference through it. There was
(t(14) = 1, p > .05) between Skype (M = 1.27, SD = 0.7) and Google Hangouts (M = 1.27, SD = also a sign.
0.7). Intuitive. Button/icon
In your face, super
right where i expected it
easy
to be.

Muting was really easy.


One click and done And even easier to get
yourself off because
your attention is drawn
to that speaker phone.
Both Skype and Google Hangouts clearly and prominently displayed the mute
and unmute functionality.

Participant Experience: All but three participants quickly and easily selected
GOOD
the correct icon to mute/unmute in both applications with just 1 click. Participants
spoke of the intuitive nature of the microphone icons and their functionality for both
applications.

Impact: Muting and unmuting the microphone an essential task for video conferencing. The
need to block out potential background noise is a very common one in collaborative
situations. Without the ability to block out disruptive noise, conversations and collaboration
over video conferencing simply cannot happen. Users were able to easily and effectively
mute and unmute their microphones in both Google Hangouts and Skype.

Recommendation: Because of its effectiveness, we strongly advise keeping the icon used to
mute/unmute the way it is throughout any redesign process.
Participants did not experience significantly different success rates,
time-on-task rates, or click rates when using the enable and/or disable video
functionality

Success Rates: We conducted Fishers test to compare the task completion rate
GOOD
Turning off camera, Was very easy...similar
muting, typing, and of enabling/disabling video from the webcam with Skype (94%) to the task
to other hangouts
joining a meeting are completion rate of enabling video with Hangouts (100%) and we found no significant
easy to find and differences at an alpha level of .05. Very clear camera icon
intuitive are easy with a slash through it.
because they are on the Time on Task: We conducted a paired t-test to compare the time to enable/disabling video
same screen When I clicked the
between Skype and Google Hangouts. We did not find a significant difference (t(14) = 0.84, p
camera button, it turned
> .05) between Skype (M = 2.6 seconds, SD = 2.2 seconds) and Google Hangouts (M = 2.47 off and there was a line
Very quick and
responsible. As I seconds, SD = 1.92 seconds). through it.
clicked on the screen,
very clear icons Number of Clicks: We conducted a paired t-test to compare the number of clicks it would The button was in a
appeared. And as I take to enable/disabling video between Skype and Google Hangouts. We did not find a place that I expected it
clicked the correct icon, to be, and when clicking
significant difference (t(14) = 1, p > .05) between Skype (M = 1.13, SD = 0.52) and Google
there was a very clear it did what was
Hangouts (M = 1.13, SD = 0.52).
response. expected

The camera icon was One click - easy and


in an intuitive place and done
it responded as
expected

One button, one click,


and done
Both Skype and Google Hangouts clearly and prominently displayed the enable
and disable webcam video functionality

Participant Experience: All but three participants quickly and easily selected
GOOD
the correct icon to enable/disable webcam video in both applications with just
1 click. Participants spoke of the intuitive nature of the video icons and their functionality for
both applications.

Impact: Enabling and disabling the webcam is another essential task for video conferencing.
The need to disable video feed is another common one in collaborative situations. This need
may occur because of disruptive background movements in public places, because of the
lag caused by the video feed, or personal preference. If this features was to work
ineffectively, it would greatly frustrate the users. However, in both Skype and Google
Hangouts users were able to easily and effectively enable and disable their webcam video.

Recommendation: Because of its effectiveness, we strongly advise keeping the icon used to
enable/disable the webcam the way it is throughout any redesign process.
Participants did not experience significantly different success rates,
time-on-task rates, or click rates when ending a video conference call.

Success Rates: We conducted Fishers test to compare the task completion


GOOD
Could either exit the
Was able to exit by the rate of ending a video conference call with Skype (100%) to the task completion
call by hanging up or
red hang up button rate of ending a video conference call with Hangouts (100%) and we found no significant
closing the call
differences at an alpha level of .05. window.
One click, one button,
Time on Task: We conducted a paired t-test to compare the time to end a video conference
and done
call between Skype and Google Hangouts. We did not find a significant difference (t(16) = One button and done.
0.20, p > .05) between Skype (M = 3.88 seconds, SD = 3.24 seconds) and Google Hangouts Pretty simple
Quick (M = 2.94 seconds, SD = 1.61 seconds).

Number of Clicks: We conducted a paired t-test to compare the number of clicks it takes to
end a video conference call between Skype and Google Hangouts. We did not find a
significant difference (t(16) = 0.33, p > .05) between Skype (M = 1.06, SD = .25) and Google
Hangouts (M = 1.00, SD = 0.00).
Both Skype and Google Hangouts clearly and prominently displayed the end
video conference call functionality.

Participant Experience: All but 1 participants quickly and easily selected the
GOOD
correct icon to end the video conference call in both applications with just
1 click. Participants spoke of the intuitive nature of the video icons and their functionality for
both applications.

Impact: Ending the conference call is critical functionality. Ambiguity around whether the call
has been ended can make users incredibly uncomfortable. If a user suspects that another
individual on a conference call has overheard him/her discussing personal matters meant to
be discussed offline, the video conferencing application make the user feel as though
his/her privacy has been breached. This will inevitably lead to application abandonment.
Luckily, users were able to easily and effectively end their conference calls in both Google
Hangouts and Skype.

Recommendation: Because of its effectiveness, we strongly advise keeping the icon used to
end the video conference call the way it is throughout any redesign process.
Participants did not experience significantly different success rates,
time-on-task rates, or click rates when exiting an ongoing meeting and then
rejoining that meeting.

Success Rates: We conducted Fishers test to compare the task completion


GOOD
There was a very clear
By clicking on that rate of exiting an ongoing meeting and then rejoining that meeting with
indicator of where to
current call, I was able Skype (94%) to the task completion rate of exiting an ongoing meeting and then rejoining
press to re-enter the
to re-enter very easily that meeting with Hangouts (100%) and we found no significant differences at an alpha level video call
of .05.
Quick
Easy to hop back on
It had kept the call up Time on Task: We conducted a paired t-test to compare the time to exit an ongoing meeting calls
so I could just rejoin it, and then rejoin that meeting between Skype and Google Hangouts. We did not find a
Was able to exit and
with a button to rejoin significant difference (t(15) = 0.73, p > .05) between Skype (M = 20.27 seconds, SD = 16.04 re-enter through
after exiting. seconds) and Google Hangouts (M = 18.67 seconds, SD = 10.29 seconds). existing chat window.
Had a sidebar with Very helpful.
current calls. By Number of Clicks: We conducted a paired t-test to compare the number of clicks it takes to
clicking on that current exit an ongoing meeting and then rejoin that meeting between Skype and Google Hangouts.
call, I was able to We did not find a significant difference (t(15) = 0.39, p > .05) between Skype (M = 3, SD =
re-enter very easily 2.04) and Google Hangouts (M = 2.47, SD = 0.92).
Both Skype and Google Hangouts clearly and prominently displayed the exiting
an ongoing meeting and then rejoining that meeting functionality.

Participant Experience: With an average of about 3 clicks in both Google


GOOD
Hangouts and Skype, all but 1 participant quickly and easily found the correct
path to exit an ongoing meeting and then rejoin that meeting. In applications, users hung up
using the hang-up buttons, went to the contact conversation screens, and clicked a button to
rejoin the ongoing conversation visible within a prominent banner. Participants spoke highly
of the intuitive nature of the icons and disclaimers used by both applications.

Impact: The ability to step away from a conference call while it is in progress is an important
component to video conferencing. Similarly to ending the call, the user has to know for
certain that they have been disconnected from the call as they step away from the computer.
Ambiguity around whether the call has been ended can make users incredibly
uncomfortable. If a user suspects that another individual on a conference call has overheard
him/her discussing personal matters meant to be discussed offline, the video conferencing
application can make the user feel as though their privacy has been breached. This will
inevitably lead to application abandonment. Furthermore, if it becomes necessary for the
user to rejoin the call, confusion around the process can lead to increased frustration,
biasing use against the application in question. Luckily, users were able to easily and
effectively exit an ongoing meeting and then rejoin that meeting in both Google Hangouts
and Skype.

Recommendation: Because of its effectiveness, we strongly advise keeping the icons,


banners, and disclaimers used by both applications the way they are throughout any
redesign process.
Usability Issues
Participants used significantly more clicks to create a video conference call in
Google Hangouts than in Skype.

Number of Clicks: We conducted a paired t-test to compare the amount of


HIGH
Very satisfied, I didn't know how - I
contacts are saved as clicks used to create a video conference between Skype and Google Hangouts. had to pull up the menu
actual contacts, its We found a significant difference (t(10) = 0.011, p < .05), such that participants used more first
great and easy clicks to create a video conference when using Google Hangouts (M = 9, SD = 5.14) than
when using Skype (M = 5, SD = 1.70). Off to a rocky start, but
I mean they had it in I did it. I thought I knew
green...It was where the how to chat and the the
mouse and I wanted to video camera icon, but
go. getting two people into
that meeting was more
"I could control and challenging than it
select both at the same should've been.
time
A lot of steps to create
the meeting, did not like
that.

All very easy as soon


as you absorb the
dashboard. Once you
understand what all the
icons mean. You just
had to learn it a little
first.
Skype has more successfully implemented the create a video conference call
functionality by displaying clear and prominent call-to-action buttons that
appear when rolling over a contacts icon.

Participant Experience: There were two main paths taken by participants


HIGH
with both Skype and Google Hangouts, one interacting with screens housing the
users contacts and the other with creating meeting from within active video conference call
windows. When creating a meeting from within an active video conference call, the
interaction between applications is very similar. However, when creating a meeting from the
contacts screens, Skype displays a bright green button with clear call to action (Video Call,
Add to Call) when rolling over a contact. Hangouts forces the user to click into a chat
conversation and find a less prominent icons not accompanied by text.
Impact: As creating a video conference is the paramount component of Skype and Google
Hangouts, the interaction associated with it should be as easy and as seamless as possible.
Furthermore, creating a video conference is usually one of the first thing that the user does
when interacting with the application, and is therefore the first impression that the user
receives. A lengthy and cumbersome video conference creation process that takes more
steps to complete will cause increased user confusion and frustration, causing user bias or
abandonment for the competing product.
Recommendation: Google Hangouts should add a start video conferencing option
accessible on as the user rolls their cursor over the contact they desire to reach. That
button should be prominent, in color, and have descriptive text as well as icons.
Participants took significantly more time and used significantly more clicks to
join a video conference call in Google Hangouts than in Skype.

Time on Task: We conducted a paired t-test to compare the amount time to


HIGH
One click, one button, I could only see the
join a video meeting between Skype and Google Hangouts. We found a incoming call on a tab
and done
significant difference (t(16) = .014, p < .05), such that participants took more time to join the
Able to - there was a meeting when using Google Hangouts (M = 20.25 seconds, SD = 20.58 s) than when using
pop-up when I received Skype (M = 6.75 seconds , SD = 7.72 s).
a video call. When
clicking accept, I was Number of Clicks: We conducted a paired t-test to compare the amount of clicks to join a
sent over to the video video meeting between Skype and Google Hangouts. We found a significant difference
chat window. (t(16) = .023, p < .05), such that participants used more clicks to join the meeting when
using Google Hangouts (M = 2., SD = 1.29) than when using Skype (M = 1, SD = .40).
Popup was very
helpful

One click, one button,


and done

Super easy, just click


the button

You have the auditory


feedback of the call
and a thing comes up
and you can answer it.
Skype has more successfully implemented the join a conference call functionality
because it uses an entire system overlay when receiving an incoming call.

Participant Experience: While both applications had similar interactions when


MED
HIGH
it came for the user to join the video conferencing call, both presenting the user
with a sort of pop-up within which there are options for the user to either accept or decline
the call, the Google Hangouts pop-up was nested within the browser window and the Skype
pop-up created a full screen overlay. To join the Google Hangouts video conference call, the
user often had to navigate back to the specific browser tab and click accept. To join the
Skype video conference call, however, the user only had to click accept as the pop-up was
already on the screen regardless of what the user was doing.

Impact: As joining a video conference is another paramount component of Skype and


Google Hangouts, the interaction associated with it should be as easy and as seamless as
possible. Joining a video conference, too, is usually one of the first thing that the user does
when interacting with the application, and is therefore the first impression that the user
receives. Furthermore, hearing and accepting a call can be time sensitive for the client so it
is necessary to accept the call in a short amount of time. A delay in this process can seem
to call hosts that the user is being unresponsive or is not available. All of these issues are
likely to cause bias or abandonment for the competing product.
Recommendation: Google Hangouts should create an incoming call pop-up that will show
on the screen regardless of whether the user is in the Hangouts tab or not. It should be an
entire system overlay rather than existing only within a specific tab.
Participants took significantly more time and used significantly more clicks to
stop sharing their screen in Skype than in Google Hangouts.

Time on Task: We conducted a paired t-test to compare the time to stop


MED
Found it a little hard to There are really big
find the menu of sharing a screen between Skype and Google Hangouts. We found a significant buttons about how to
buttons to press at first, difference (t(13) = 0.05, p < .05), such that participants took longer to stop sharing their do those things. They
but once I found that, it screen when using Skype (M = 7.46 seconds, SD = 6.09 seconds) than when using Google are intuitive and they
was fine. Hangouts (M = 3.69 seconds, SD = 2.25 seconds). show you exactly what
they will do.
It was relatively easy, it
took me a little bit of Number of Clicks: We conducted a paired t-test to compare how many clicks it took to stop
time to find it within the sharing a screen between Skype and Google Hangouts. We found a significant difference
It was a button right in
conversations window. (t(13) = 0.002, p < .05), such that participants used more clicks to stop sharing their screen
front of you
And then I had to share when using Skype (M = 2, SD = 1.26) than when using Google Hangouts (M = 1, SD = 0).
my screen.
Really weird because it
wasn't intuitive like on
Hangouts. Had to go to
the top of the tool bar -
didn't notice it on the
dashboard. Had to look
for it for a little bit, but I
found it for a little bit
Going through the
menu bar and looking at
the "conversation"
options
Google Hangouts has more successfully implemented the stop sharing the
screen functionality by displaying a clear and prominent banner within the
video conference call containing the appropriate action buttons.

Participant Experience: All the users stopped sharing their screen in Google
MED
Hangouts with just one click. While, this was also possible to do with one click
in Skype by clicking the video icon, only two participants used the feature in that way. There
was also no text or any other sort of signifier that alerted the participant that the video icon
would work in this way. In most other cases, the users sharing their screen in Skype by
clicking on the + sign icon or going to the Conversations menu item and then click on
"Stop sharing screen" option.

Impact: The prolonged period of time and excessive clicks it takes to stop sharing a screen
on Skype will cause user confusion and frustration leading to user bias or product
abandonment for the competing product. More critically, not being able to effectively or
easily stop sharing a screen can lead to accidentally exposing undesired, proprietary, or
classified information in the conference call. This possibility may lead to businesses
restricting the use of the product.

Recommendation: Rather than requiring the user to select Stop sharing screen from the
Conversations menu item or the + icons pop-up menu, Skype should include a bright and
prominent disclaimer shown on the screen with a Stop button that appears once the user
starts sharing their screen. The immediate visibility of the button will decrease the amount
of confusion, time spent, and clicks made by the user to stop sharing their screen.
Participants used significantly more clicks to send a chat in Google Hangouts
than in Skype.

Number of Clicks: We conducted a paired t-test to compare the amount of


LOW
Little hard to figure out,
Always supported and clicks to send a chat to group members between Skype and Google Hangouts.
but not terrible
visible We found a significant difference (t(16) = 0.018, p < .05), such that participants used more
clicks to send a chat when using Google Hangouts (M = 2, SD = 1.10) than when using
Skype (M = 1, SD = .40). There was a chat
Pretty clear.
looking icon.

Very clear button to


Different icon in the
bring up the chat
sidebar that was clearly
window and that all
indicated. And a typical
made sense to me.
chat window opened
and I was able to type
my message.

Very simple and very


easy - one button and
you're in a chat
Skype has more successfully implemented the chat functionality by having it
be already open as the user enters the video conference call.

Participant Experience: In most cases, Skype had the chat functionality


LOW
already open having the user simply type into the chat field. Google
Hangouts had the chat functionality closed, the user having to press a speech bubble icon
to open it.

Finding: Because more clicks are required to send a chat message in Google Hangouts, the
potential delay in text communication between users can cause great frustration not only
on the sending end but also on the receiving end of the message. Users expecting a text
communication may infer that a prolonged delay in communication may mean users
sending a message are unresponsive or unavailable. While this functionality doesnt greatly
impair the use of the application, it can cause preference for the competing product.

Recommendation: Google Hangouts should have their chat functionality already open as
the users enter the video conference call. If sound/video issues occur, the user will be able
to communicate to other video conference call members immediately through text.
Immediate visibility of the chat feature will also remind the user that other methods of
communication are available if they do, in fact, run into sound/video issues.
Participants did not experience significantly different success rates,
time-on-task rates, or click rates when navigating to another window and then
back to the conference call.

Success Rates: We conducted Fishers test to compare the task completion


LOW
Would have liked to
Like the small window rate of navigating to another with Skype (100%) to the task completion rate of
have the feature from
that shows your camera navigating to another window with Hangouts (94%) and we found no significant differences
skype where a box with
feed at an alpha level of .05. your camera visuals
I really liked - as soon shows up when you are
as I switched over to Time on Task: We conducted a paired t-test to compare the time to navigate to another in a different tab
the browser window. I window between Skype and Google Hangouts. We did not find a significant difference (t(14)
showed me that I was = 0.45, p > .05) between Skype (M = 26.07 seconds, SD = 17.04 seconds) and Google
on a call. I could rejoin Hangouts (M = 29.93 seconds, SD = 12.41 seconds). Easy. Was able to click
the call or hang up - over to the browser
who I was with and how window to switch away.
Number of Clicks: We conducted a paired t-test to compare the number of clicks it takes to
long the call was. I was able to click
Without switching to navigate to another window between Skype and Google Hangouts. We did not find a back/or alt-tab over to
another window, I could significant difference (t(14) = 0.09, p > .05) between Skype (M = 4.40, SD = 1.18) and Google the other window to
click the small window Hangouts (M = 5.13, SD = 1.51). switch back.
and return to my call.
actually a little window
that was at the top of
the screen, so it made
me think that I was still
in the chat. In Hangouts
it didn't occur.
While there is no significant difference between Skype and Google Hangouts
when allowing the user to navigate to another window while on a call, users
preferred Skypes small pop-out window.

Participant Experience: When navigating away from the video conferencing


LOW
widow in Skype, a small window appears and remains on the screen at all times.
This window displays the video feed of the conference call and other controls. Clicking on
the small window returns the user to the main window containing the conference call. This
widow does not exist in Google Hangouts and the conference call is nested within a browser
tab. This forces the user to navigate within the browser and return to the specific tab when
needed. The user also does not see what happens in the Google Hangouts video feed while
he/she is away. Despite several comments from the users stating that they prefered Skypes
feature of the small window, there was no significant difference found between the two
applications in terms of success rates, time-on-task, and click rates.

Impact: Users often need to navigate away from the the video conferencing widow when
collaborating in order to gather more for that call. If this feature is cumbersome for the user,
they will become increasingly frustrated and potentially gravitate toward the competing
product.

Recommendation: While this analysis did not find a statistical difference between the two
applications when working with this feature, many users commented on the convenience of
Skypes small pop-out window. Google Hangouts should conduct more research on the
different treatments used for navigating away from the video conference call and returning
to that call to assess whether there is a significant difference not caught by this analysis or
whether users substantially prefer Skypes small pop-out window.
Participants did not experience significantly different success rates,
time-on-task rates, or click rates when sharing their entire screen or sharing a
specific window only.

Success Rates: We conducted Fishers test to compare the task completion


LOW
rate of sharing the entire screen with Skype (56%) to the task completion rate of
Sidebar was a very
It was relatively easy, it
clear icons. One of
took me a little bit of sharing the entire screen with Hangouts (75%) and we found no significant differences at an alpha
them had a clear
time to find it within the level of .05.
monitor icons and I was
conversations window.
We conducted Fishers test to compare the task completion rate of sharing a specific window only able to share my
And then I had to share
with Skype (81%) to the task completion rate of sharing a specific window only with Hangouts (88%) screen.
my screen.
and we found no significant differences at an alpha level of .05.
Really weird because it
wasn't intuitive like on Time on Task: We conducted a paired t-test to compare the time to share the entire screen between Little slow -
Hangouts. Had to go to Skype and Google Hangouts. We did not find a significant difference (t(11) = 0.07, p > .05) between straightforward
the top of the tool bar - Skype (M = 32.55 seconds, SD = 16.32 seconds) and Google Hangouts (M = 17.82 seconds, SD = 12.00
didn't notice it on the seconds).
dashboard. Had to look There are really big
We conducted a paired t-test to compare the time to share a specific window only between Skype and
for it for a little bit, but I buttons about how to
Google Hangouts. We did not find a significant difference (t(13) = 0.73, p > .05) between Skype (M =
found it for a little bit do those things. They
26.08 seconds, SD = 24.52 seconds) and Google Hangouts (M = 22.54 seconds, SD = 30.47 seconds). are intuitive and they
Again, this and sharing
Number of Clicks: We conducted a paired t-test to compare the number of clicks it would take to share show you exactly what
the window are not
the entire screen between Skype and Google Hangouts. We did not find a significant difference (t(11) = they will do.
great because you have
to exit the space you 0.13, p > .05) between Skype (M = 6.64, SD = 4.37) and Google Hangouts (M = 3.91, SD = 2.39).
are working in to find
We conducted a paired t-test to compare the number of clicks it would take to share a specific window
them, you have to know
only between Skype and Google Hangouts. We did not find a significant difference (t(13) = 0.06, p >
where they are or
.05) between Skype (M = 5.38, SD = 1.80) and Google Hangouts (M = 3.92, SD = 1.71).
search for them
While both Skype and Google Hangouts allow the user to easily share their
screen or share a specific window, users preferred the Google Hangouts
navigation for doing so.

Participant Experience: In Skype, the users shared their screen by clicking


LOW
on the + sign icon or going to the Conversations menu item and then click
on the "Share Screen" option. From there, users had to select whether they wanted to share
their screen or a particular window from a dropdown at the top of the overlay. If they wanted
to select a specific window to share, they then had to specify which window. In Google
Hangouts, users clicked a screen share icon on the left hand toolbar, bringing them to a
single window where they selected sharing the desktop or a specific screen. Despite several
comments from the users stating that they prefered the Google Hangouts screenshare
treatment, there was no significant difference found between the two applications in terms
of success rates, time-on-task, and click rates.

Impact: Screen share functionality is an incredibly useful feature when collaborating online.
Though it isnt essential, if a competitor has this feature or has a superior form of this
feature, it is likely that users will gravitate toward the product of the competitor product for
this feature.

Recommendation: While this analysis did not find a statistical difference between the two
applications when working with the screen share and/or specific window share feature,
many users commented on the convenience of the Google Hangouts navigation to get to
this feature. Skype should conduct more research on the different treatments used for
sharing the screen or a specific window to assess whether there is a significant difference
not caught by this analysis or whether users substantially prefer one treatment over another.
Appendix
Quantitative Findings
Participant success/failure for assigned activities:
Create meeting Mute Chat Unmute
Skype Hangouts Skype Hangouts Skype Hangouts Skype Hangouts
PARTICIPANT 1 1.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 2 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 3 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 4 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 5 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 6 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 7 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 8 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 9 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 10 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 11 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 12 1.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 13 0.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 14 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 15 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 16 0.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Percentage
Completion 75% 75% 94% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%
Alpha 1 1 1 1
Participant success/failure for assigned activities:
No Video Turn On Video Go to another Widow/Return Share Screen
Skype Hangouts Skype Hangouts Skype Hangouts Skype Hangouts
PARTICIPANT 1 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 2 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 3 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 4 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 5 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.00
PARTICIPANT 6 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 7 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 8 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 9 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 10 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 11 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 0.00
PARTICIPANT 12 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 0.00
PARTICIPANT 13 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 14 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 0.00
PARTICIPANT 15 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 16 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Percentage
Completion 94% 100% 94% 100% 100% 94% 56% 75%
Alpha 1 1 1 0.46
Participant success/failure for assigned activities:
Stop Share Screen Share Search Results Only Stop Sharing Search Results End Meeting
Skype Hangouts Skype Hangouts Skype Hangouts Skype Hangouts
PARTICIPANT 1 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 2 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 3 0.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 4 0.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 5 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 6 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 7 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 8 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 9 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 10 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 11 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 12 1.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 13 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 14 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 15 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 16 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Percentage
Completion 75% 100% 81% 88% 88% 88% 100% 100%
Alpha 0.10 1 1 1
Participant success/failure for assigned activities:
Join Meeting Exit Meeting/Re-enter
Skype Hangouts Skype Hangouts
PARTICIPANT 1 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 2 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 3 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 4 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 5 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 6 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 7 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 8 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 9 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 10 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 11 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 12 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 13 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 14 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 15 1.00 1.00 0.00 1.00
PARTICIPANT 16 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Percentage
Completion 100% 100% 94% 100%
Alpha 1 1
Participant time-on-task for assigned activities:
Create meeting Mute Chat Unmute
Skype Hangouts Skype Hangouts Skype Hangouts Skype Hangouts
PARTICIPANT 1 N/A N/A 5 4 27 9 4 5
PARTICIPANT 2 23 133 4 5 10 15 4 3
PARTICIPANT 3 30 140 15 5 10 12 4 4
PARTICIPANT 4 131 54 3 5 16 44 4 2
PARTICIPANT 5 17 54 2 5 12 21 2 2
PARTICIPANT 6 28 24 2 3 13 16 1 2
PARTICIPANT 7 38 44 2 1 26 26 1 3
PARTICIPANT 8 18 55 1 6 12 25 2 4
PARTICIPANT 9 24 58 5 2 10 13 2 2
PARTICIPANT N/A N/A 4 3 33 28 3 2
10 N/A N/A 34 34 21 21 1 1
PARTICIPANT N/A N/A N/A N/A 15 29 2 2
11
N/A N/A 17 4 15 14 4 3
PARTICIPANT
48 142 4 5 18 15 94 6
12
47 34 6 6 11 14 4 5
PARTICIPANT
13 N/A N/A 4 10 9 7 3 3

PARTICIPANT 40.40 73.80 7.20 6.53 16.13 19.31 8.44 3.06


14 33.66 45.79 8.71 7.87 7.14 9.37 22.85 1.39
PARTICIPANT 0.10991562 0.61430385 0.21971257 0.34521089
Participant time-on-task for assigned activities:
No Video Turn On Video Go to another Widow/Return Share Screen
Skype Hangouts Skype Hangouts Skype Hangouts Skype Hangouts
PARTICIPANT 1 26 20 N/A N/A 42 12 31 41
PARTICIPANT 2 4 4 4 3 29 30 60 10
PARTICIPANT 3 3 4 2 7 22 32 24 20
PARTICIPANT 4 3 4 8 3 14 40 19 22
PARTICIPANT 5 1 1 1 1 12 43 18 38
PARTICIPANT 6 2 1 1 1 39 35 66 11
PARTICIPANT 7 2 2 1 2 22 17 34 8
PARTICIPANT 8 3 2 1 1 20 25 34 11
PARTICIPANT 9 3 1 2 1 14 29 N/A N/A
PARTICIPANT 1 1 1 1 38 37 N/A N/A
10 2 9 1 1 19 54 N/A N/A
PARTICIPANT 4 2 1 1 76 42 N/A N/A
11
7 3 6 3 15 25 17 9
PARTICIPANT
4 3 5 2 N/A N/A N/A N/A
12
6 7 2 6 15 18 24 20
PARTICIPANT
13 5 5 3 4 14 10 31 6

PARTICIPANT 4.75 4.31 2.60 2.47 26.07 29.93 32.55 17.82


14 5.90 4.76 2.20 1.92 17.04 12.41 16.32 12.00
PARTICIPANT 0.53143946 0.83953870 0.45056457 0.06541024
Participant time-on-task for assigned activities:
Stop Share Screen Share Search Results Only Stop Sharing Search Results End Meeting
Skype Hangouts Skype Hangouts Skype Hangouts Skype Hangouts
PARTICIPANT 1 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 6 2
PARTICIPANT 2 8 8 94 25 N/A N/A 12 6
PARTICIPANT 3 24 4 25 6 7 5 1 4
PARTICIPANT 4 N/A N/A 34 120 N/A N/A 2 3
PARTICIPANT 5 16 1 6 34 5 2 3 2
PARTICIPANT 6 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 1 2
PARTICIPANT 7 4 2 28 7 5 2 3 1
PARTICIPANT 8 4 2 14 7 2 1 1 2
PARTICIPANT 9 5 3 7 18 4 4 9 2
PARTICIPANT 2 1 57 12 1 2 2 1
10 3 2 16 21 2 1 1 3
PARTICIPANT 4 3 N/A N/A 3 1 2 1
11
5 5 15 10 4 4 3 5
PARTICIPANT
7 4 17 17 6 5 7 5
12
7 7 16 9 8 6 6 5
PARTICIPANT
13 8 6 10 7 4 3 3 3

PARTICIPANT 7.46 3.69 26.08 22.54 4.25 3.00 3.88 2.94


14 6.09 2.25 24.52 30.47 2.09 1.76 3.24 1.61
PARTICIPANT 0.05030180 0.73190970 0.00445229 0.20283137
Participant time-on-task for assigned activities:
Join Meeting Exit Meeting/Re-enter
Skype Hangouts Skype Hangouts
PARTICIPANT 1 6 15 13 14
PARTICIPANT 2 2 35 31 20
PARTICIPANT 3 2 12 10 38
PARTICIPANT 4 2 3 15 24
PARTICIPANT 5 4 11 10 14
PARTICIPANT 6 5 16 10 6
PARTICIPANT 7 6 23 21 10
PARTICIPANT 8 3 40 11 12
PARTICIPANT 9 5 11 7 15
PARTICIPANT 3 19 63 23
10 23 87 22 43
PARTICIPANT 29 2 46 21
11
3 3 28 9
PARTICIPANT
6 16 8 18
12
5 14 N/A N/A
PARTICIPANT
13 4 17 9 13

PARTICIPANT 6.75 20.25 20.27 18.67


14 7.72 20.58 16.04 10.29
PARTICIPANT 0.01394681 0.72920592
Participant number of clicks for assigned activities:
Create meeting Mute Chat Unmute
Skype Hangouts Skype Hangouts Skype Hangouts Skype Hangouts
PARTICIPANT 1 N/A N/A 1 1 1 2 1 1
PARTICIPANT 2 5 16 1 1 1 1 1 1
PARTICIPANT 3 5 12 1 1 1 1 1 1
PARTICIPANT 4 6 7 1 1 1 1 1 1
PARTICIPANT 5 2 6 1 1 1 4 1 1
PARTICIPANT 6 4 4 1 1 1 2 1 1
PARTICIPANT 7 6 7 1 1 1 4 1 2
PARTICIPANT 8 3 5 1 1 2 2 2 2
PARTICIPANT 9 6 8 1 1 1 2 1 1
PARTICIPANT N/A N/A 1 1 1 2 1 1
10 N/A N/A 3 3 2 2 1 1
PARTICIPANT N/A N/A N/A N/A 1 4 1 1
11
N/A N/A 3 1 1 2 1 1
PARTICIPANT
8 20 1 1 1 1 1 2
12
5 8 1 1 1 1 1 1
PARTICIPANT
13 N/A N/A 1 3 2 1 1 1

PARTICIPANT 5.00 9.30 1.27 1.27 1.19 2.00 1.06 1.19


14 1.70 5.14 0.70 0.70 0.40 1.10 0.25 0.40
PARTICIPANT 0.01110498 1.00000000 0.01792761 0.16387561
Participant number of clicks for assigned activities:
No Video Turn On Video Go to another Widow/Return Share Screen
Skype Hangouts Skype Hangouts Skype Hangouts Skype Hangouts
PARTICIPANT 1 2 1 N/A N/A 5 4 4 4
PARTICIPANT 2 1 1 1 1 4 3 16 3
PARTICIPANT 3 1 1 1 3 5 5 6 3
PARTICIPANT 4 1 1 1 1 3 5 3 4
PARTICIPANT 5 1 1 1 1 3 5 4 11
PARTICIPANT 6 1 1 1 1 4 7 2 3
PARTICIPANT 7 1 1 1 1 4 5 9 3
PARTICIPANT 8 1 1 1 1 3 5 4 3
PARTICIPANT 9 1 1 3 1 5 5 N/A N/A
PARTICIPANT 1 1 1 1 5 3 N/A N/A
10 1 1 1 1 7 9 N/A N/A
PARTICIPANT 1 1 1 1 6 5 N/A N/A
11
1 1 1 1 3 6 6 3
PARTICIPANT
1 1 1 1 N/A N/A N/A N/A
12
1 1 1 1 5 6 6 3
PARTICIPANT
13 1 1 1 1 4 4 13 3

PARTICIPANT 1.06 1.00 1.13 1.13 4.40 5.13 6.64 3.91


14 0.25 0.00 0.52 0.52 1.18 1.51 4.37 2.39
PARTICIPANT 0.33317014 1.00000000 0.09376886 0.13089651
Participant number of clicks for assigned activities:
Stop Share Screen Share Search Results Only Stop Sharing Search Results End Meeting
Skype Hangouts Skype Hangouts Skype Hangouts Skype Hangouts
PARTICIPANT 1 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 1 1
PARTICIPANT 2 2 1 9 3 N/A N/A 2 1
PARTICIPANT 3 5 1 5 3 2 1 1 1
PARTICIPANT 4 N/A N/A 5 9 N/A N/A 1 1
PARTICIPANT 5 5 1 4 5 2 1 1 1
PARTICIPANT 6 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 1 1
PARTICIPANT 7 2 1 6 3 2 1 1 1
PARTICIPANT 8 1 1 4 3 1 1 1 1
PARTICIPANT 9 2 1 5 5 2 1 1 1
PARTICIPANT 1 1 9 4 1 1 1 1
10 2 1 6 4 2 1 1 1
PARTICIPANT 2 1 N/A N/A 2 1 1 1
11
2 1 5 3 2 1 1 1
PARTICIPANT
2 1 3 3 2 1 1 1
12
2 1 5 3 2 1 1 1
PARTICIPANT
13 3 1 4 3 2 1 1 1

PARTICIPANT 2.38 1.00 5.38 3.92 1.83 1.00 1.06 1.00


14 1.26 0.00 1.80 1.71 0.39 0.00 0.25 0.00
PARTICIPANT 0.00189513 0.05991984 0.00001333 0.33317014
Participant number of clicks for assigned activities:
Join Meeting Exit Meeting/Re-enter
Skype Hangouts Skype Hangouts
PARTICIPANT 1 1 1 2 2
PARTICIPANT 2 1 2 6 2
PARTICIPANT 3 1 1 2 5
PARTICIPANT 4 1 1 2 3
PARTICIPANT 5 1 2 3 2
PARTICIPANT 6 2 2 2 2
PARTICIPANT 7 2 2 3 2
PARTICIPANT 8 1 5 2 2
PARTICIPANT 9 1 2 2 2
PARTICIPANT 1 2 4 3
10 2 5 3 4
PARTICIPANT 1 1 2 2
11
1 1 9 2
PARTICIPANT
1 1 1 2
12
1 1 N/A N/A
PARTICIPANT
13 1 2 2 2

PARTICIPANT 1.19 1.94 3.00 2.47


14 0.40 1.29 2.04 0.92
PARTICIPANT 0.02284661 0.38948732
Overall Satisfaction with online collaboration applications:
Satisfaction Ease of Use
Hangouts Skype Hangouts Skype
PARTICIPANT 1 3 5 3 4
PARTICIPANT 2 5 3 4 4
PARTICIPANT 3 4 4 5 3
PARTICIPANT 4 4 5 5 5
PARTICIPANT 5 5 5 4 5
PARTICIPANT 6 5 4 5 4
PARTICIPANT 7 4 5 3 4
PARTICIPANT 8 4 1 2 1
PARTICIPANT 9 5 5 5 4
PARTICIPANT 5 3 5 3
10 5 3 4 4
PARTICIPANT 3 4 3 4
11
5 3 5 3
PARTICIPANT
4 3 5 4
12
3 5 4 4
PARTICIPANT
13 5 3 5 4

PARTICIPANT 4.31 3.81 4.19 3.75


14 0.79 1.17 0.98 0.93
PARTICIPANT 0.22000000 0.13037722