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Original Title: Frobenius Method of Finding Roots

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And

Frobenius Method

(Mathematical Physics Assignment)

(Submitted to Dr. Abhishek Kumar Singh)

Name: Rajneil Baruah

Class:B.Sc(H) Physics

Roll: 5015

Year: 2ndYear

Series Solution:

Consider a Linear, Second order, Homogeneous, Ordinary Differential

Equation(ODE), in the form of:

d

d2

y + P (x) y + Q(x)y = 0

2

dx

dx

(1)

Wronskian, it can be shown that for a second order, Linear, Homogeneous

ODE, NO third linearly independent solution exists.

Thus, the most general soln of eq n (1) is the linear combination of the two

independent soln of the eq n .

If y1 (x) and y2 (x) are the independent soln , then the general soln to

eq n (1) is given by:

y = c1 y1 (x) + c2 y2 (x)

(2)

Our aim in this section is to obtain the solutions to the ODEs as a power

series.

Any function f (x) can be expressed as the sum of powers of 0 x0 about any

point x = x0 Thus, the series expansion of f (x) about x = x0 is given by:-

f (x) =

fm xm = f0 (x x0 )0 + f1 (x x0 )2 + f2 (x x0 )3 .......... (3)

m=0

For x = x0 = 0

f (x) =

fm xm = f0 x0 + f1 x2 + f2 x3 ..........

m=0

f (x) =

fm (x x0 )m

m=0

However, eq n (3) holds good only if the the functionf (x) is analytic at

0

x = x0 . Thus, if f (x0 ) = undef ined(

, 0 , , etc.), then,

f (x) 6=

fm (x x0 )m

m=0

f (x) =

fm (x x1 )m

m=0

1. x0 is a singular point.

2. x1 is an ordinary point.

Thus from eq n (1), we haveP (x) and Q(x). If P (x)|x=x0 and Q(x)|x=x0 are

NOT exploding, then P (x) and Q(x) are called analytic functions.

If P (x) and Q(x) are analytic functions in eq n (1), then the soln for the

ODE in the eq n can be given by:

y(x) =

Cm x m

(4)

m=0

[considering for x0 = 0]

Differentiating both sides twice w.r.t. x,

y 0 (x) =

mCm xm1

(5)

(6)

m=1

y 00 (x) =

X

m=2

m(m 1)Cm x

m2

+ P (x)

mCm x

m1

+ Q(x)

m=1

m=2

C m xm = 0

m=0

(m+1)(m+2)Cm+2 x +P (x)

m=0

(m+1)Cm+1 x +Q(x)

m=0

X

m=0

C m xm = 0

Since, P (x) and Q(x) are analytic about x = x0 = 0, thus, the above eq n

changes to:

(7)

m=0

Since xm 6= 0

(8)

Cm+2 =

q0 Cm p0 (m + 1)Cm+1

(m + 1)(m + 2)

(9)

For m = 0, we getC2 in terms of C0 and C1 . Again, for m = 1, we can obtain the value of C3 in terms of C1 and C2 . Since,C2 be expressed in terms

of C1 and C0 , therefore, C3 can also be expressed in terms of C1 and C0 .

Similarly, all other constants Cm can be expressed in therms of C0 and

C1 .

Thus,

y=

C m xm

m=0

2

y = C0 (1 + a1 x + a2 x + ........) + C1 (1 + b1 x + b2 x2 + ......)

NOTE:

a1 , a2 ...an and b1 , b2 ...bn are calculated by putting the values of m in

eq n (ix). But C0 and C1 are constants whose values depend upon the initial

condition(or boundary condition).

However, the solution given is based on the assumption that P (x) and

Q(x) are analytic at x = x0 = 0. When atx = 0, P (x) or Q(x) blow up,

they become singular.

Hence, a simple power series solution cannot be found.

Frobenius Method:

The Solution that we obtained in the previous section was strictly based

on the assumption that P (x) and Q(x) are analytic atx = x0 = 0.

Now, let us consider a differential equation of the form-

d2

c(x)

b(x) d

y+ 2 y=0

y+

2

dx

x dx

x

b(x)

points are defined as-

c(x)

.

x2

(10)

and

lim x2 Q(x) = f inite

Since,P (x) and Q(x) are non-analytical aboutx = 0, thus, checking the

c(x)

above condition shows that b(x)

x and x2 are functions which make x = 0 a

regular singular point.

Thus, the expression of y that we obtained as a solution:

y=

Cm x m

m=0

Frobenius Method allows us to calculate a series solution around a regular

singular point. Eq n (10) [whereb(x) and c(x) are analytic about x = 0], has

at least one solution1 given by:

y(x) = xr

C m xm

(11)

m=0

(C0 6= 0)

Fuchs Theorem1

The theorem asserts that, we can always obtain at least one power series

solution, provided we are expanding about a point which an ordinary point

or at worst, a regular singular point.

Indicial Equation

For the Differential Equationx2 y + xb(x)y 0 + c(x)y = 0

expanding b(x) and c(x) as a power series:

b(x) = b0 + b1 x + b2 x2 + b3 x3 .........

c(x) = c0 + c1 x + c2 x2 + c3 x3 .........

(12)

From Fuchs Theorem, we have one power series solution at least. The

power series solution proposed by Frobenius is:

y=

Cm xm+r

m=0

Differentiating w.r.t. x:

0

y =

(m + r)Cm xm+r1

m=0

y 00 =

m=0

m=0

x(b0 + b1 x + b2 x ....)

m=0

(c0 + c1 x + c2 x2 ....)

X

m=0

Cm xm+r = 0

(13)

(b0 + b1 x + b2 x2 ....)xr (rC0 + ....)+

(c0 + c1 x + c2 x2 ....)xr (C0 + C1 x....) = 0

Equation the coefficients of xr :

[r(r 1) + b0 r + c0 ]C0 = 0]

Since we assumed that C0 6= 0,

r(r 1) + b0 + c0 = 0

(14)

equation.

Since eq n (v) is a quadratic equation, it has two solutions for the value of r.

Only one solution will be of the form as given in eq n (ii). Other solutions

will depend on the roots of the indicial equation.

There can be a total of three cases:

1. The roots are real and distinct roots, NOT differing by an integer.

2. The roots are equal (double root).

3. The roots are real and distinct, differing by an integer.

CASE: I

(When the roots are real and distinct and DO NOT differ by an integer.)

In such a case, both the solutions can be directly obtained on the basis of

the roots of the indicial equation. If r1 and r2 are the two roots of the

indicial equation (r1 6= r2 ), then the solutions are given by:

y1 (x) =

Cm xm+r1

m=0

y2 (x) =

X

m=0

Dm xm+r2

CASE: II

(When both the roots are real and equal)

The indicial equation is given by:

r(r 1) + b0 r + c0 = 0

there can be a double root if:

(b0 1)2 4c0 = 0

If r1 and r2 are the two roots such that r1 = r2 = r0 , then from Fuchs

Theorem, one solution is given by:

y1 (x) = xr0 [C0 + C1 x + C2 x2 + C3 X 3 ........]

Let the second solution y2 (x) be given by,

y2 (x) = u(x)y1 (x),

such that y2 (x) is a solution to the differential equation.

Differentiating y2 (x) w.r.t. x, we have:

y20 (x) = uy10 + uy10

And

y200 (x) = u00 y1 + 2uy10 + uy100

Since y2 (x) is a solution :

x2 y200 (x) + xb(x)y20 + c(x)y = 0

x2 (u00 y1 + 2uy10 + uy100 ) + xb(x)(uy10 + uy10 ) + c(x)(uy1 ) = 0

x2 y1 u00 + 2x2 y1 u0 + b(x)y1 u0 = 0

(Since, x2 y100 + xb(x)uy10 + c(x)uy1 = 0)

Dividing both sides by x2 y1 y0

u00 + [2 y1 + bx0 + ......]u0 = 0

y10

xr1 [rC0 + (r + 1)C1 x + ........]

=

y1

xr [C0 + C1 x + ......]

=

[

]

x

C0 + C1 x + ......

=

Thus,

2y 0

u00 + [ y11 +

b0

x

r

+ ..........

x

+ ......]u0 = 0

0

u00 + [ 2r+b

+ ......]u0 = 0

x

u00

u0

1

x

+ ......

By integration, we get

u = lnx + k1 x + k2 x2 + .....

Finally, we know that:

y2 (x) = u(x)y1 (x)

y2 (x) = y1 (x)lnx + y1 (x)

K m xm

m=0

y2 (x) = y1 (x)ln|x| + x

X

m=0

Am xm

(15)

CASE: III

(When both roots are real and distinct and they differ by an integer)

The initial steps will be same as in CASE: II. Thus,

u00 + [

2r + b0

+ ......]u0 = 0

x

r(r 1) + b0 r + c0 = 0

if r1 and r2 are the roots of this indicial equation, such that:

r1 = r0

r2 = r0 N

b0 1 = (r1 r2 )

2r + b0 = N + 1

Thus,

N +1

u00

= [

+ ........]

0

u

x

Integrating both sides, we get,

lnu0 = (N + 1)lnx + C0 + C1 x + .....

expading the exponential:

u0 = xN1+1 +

Finally,

K1

xN

+ .... +

KN

x

+ KN +1 + KP +2 x + ......

u = KN ln|x| +

Ki xi

i=N

y2 (x) = KN y1 (x)ln|x| + xr2

Bk xk

(16)

Consider a Euler-Cauchy Differential Equation:

y 00 + P (x)y 0 + Q(x)y = 0

Let us assume that:

y=

(1)

Cm xm+r

(2)

m=0

C0 6= 0; |x| > 0

be a soluion to (1)

Assuming that x = x0 = 0 is a regular singular point; this means that

xP (x) and x2 Q(x) are analytic functions;

i.e.

xP (x) =

Pm xm

m=0

x2 Q(x) =

Qm xm

m=0

(m + r)Cm xm+r1

m=0

y 00 =

m=0

Now,

X

1 X

m

P (x)y = [

Pm x

(m + r)Cm xm+r1 ]

x

0

m=0

P (x)y 0 =

xr1

x

m=0

m

X

m=0 n=0

Similarly,

Q(x)y = xr2 [

m1

X

X

(

Cn Qmn + Q0 Cm )xm ]

m=0 n=0

10

(3)

Substituting the values of y 00 , P (x)y 0 and Q(x)y in (1), we get the equation

given below (after cancelling the common factor xr2 ):

m=0

m1

X

(4)

Cn ((n + r)Pmn + Qmn )]xm = 0

n=0

[(m + r)(m + r 1) + (m + r)P0 + Q0 ]Cm

X

+

Cn [(n + r)Pmn + Qm n] = 0

(5)

n=0

Thus,

C0 [r(r 1) + rP0 + Q0 ] = 0

Let,

F (r) = r(r 1) + rP0 + Q0

Thus,

C0 F (r) = 0

(6)

F (r) = 0

Thus,

r(r 1) + rP0 + Q0 = 0

which is the indicial equation.

Similarly we can show that the coefficient of x1 is zero.

(m = 1 and n = 0)

C1 [r(r + 1) + (r + 1)P0 + Q0 ] + C0 [rP1 + Q1 ] = 0

C1 F (r + 1) + C0 (rP1 + Q1 ) = 0

Similarly, the equating the coefficient of x2 to zero, we get:

C2 [(r + 1)(r + 2) + (r + 2)P0 + Q0 ]

+ C0 [rP2 + Q2 ] + C1 [(r + 1)P1 + Q1 ] = 0

C2 F (r + 2) + C0 (rP2 + Q2 ) + C1 ((r + 1)P1 + Q1 ) = 0

11

(7)

Cm F (m + r) + C0 [rPm + Qm ] + ......

...... + Cm1 [(m + r 1)P1 + Q1 ] = 0

(8)

From (6),(7) and (8), we can see that, the expressions for C1 ,C2 ......Cm can

be calculated in terms of C0

CASE I

(When the roots are real and distinct and DO NOT differ by an integer)

If the roots of the indicial equations are r1 and r2 such thatr1 r2 6= N

(where N is any integer), then the solutions of the differential equation (1)

are given by:

y1 (x) =

y2 (x) =

X

m=0

Cm (1)xm+r1

Cm (2)xm+r2

(9)

m=0

CASE II

(When the roots are real and equal)

If r1 and r2 are two solutions of the indicial equation such that

r1 = r2 = r0 , then according to F uch0 s T heorem, we can obtain one

solution as the following:

y1 (x) = x

r0

Cm x m

(10)

m=0

Since both roots are equal here(r0 ), we cannot obtain the second solution

directly as the first one.

From (4), we have,

m=0

m1

X

n=0

12

X

[((m + r)(m + r 1) + (m + r)P0 + Q0 )Cm

m=1

m1

X

n=0

C0 F (r)x +

m=1

m1

X

n=0

In all the above equations L(y(x, r)) represents the differential equation

(1).

Since, the coefficients of xm+r be zero for m 1:

L(y(x, r)) = C0 F (r)xr

(11)

F (r) = (r r0 )2

Thus, equation (11) becomes L(y(x, r)) = C0 (r r0 )2 xr

(12)

We know,

L(y(x, r)) = y 00 + P (x)y 0 + Q(x)

= D2 y + P (x)Dy + Q(x)y

[D

From equations (12) and (13), we have:

[D2 + P (x) + Q(x)]y = C0 (r r0 )2 xr

13

d

]

dx

(13)

C0 (r r0 )2 xr

r

r

Since, differential operators are commutative, the above equation can also

be written as:

[D2 + P (x) + Q(x)]

r

(14)

Thus,

r

From the above equation, we can see that r y|r=r0 is also a solution to

differential equation (1).

We have,

y1 =

Cm xm+r

m=0

y1

|r=r0

r

X

y2 =

[

Cm xm+r ]

r

y2 =

(15)

m=0

Cm =

F (m + r)

(16)

We know,

F (r) = (r r0 )2

F (m + r) = (m + r r0 )2

Putting the values of F (r) and F (m + r) in equations (16) and further in

(15):

14

[

y2 =

r

= [x ln|x|

n=0

]r=r0

(m + r r0 )2

Cm xm ]r=r0

m=0

m1

X Cn ((n + r)Pmn + Qmn )

[x [ [

]]]r=r0 xm

x n=0

(m + r r0 )2

r

= y1 ln|x| + [xr

[Since, [xr [

Bk xk ]r = r0

k=0

m1

X

[

]]]r=r0 xm is analytical]

2

x n=0

(m + r r0 )

Finally we get,

y1 (x) =

Cm xm+r0

m=0

y2 (x) =

y

|r=r0

r

y2 (x) = y1 (x)ln|x| + x

r0

Ak xk

k=0

CASE III

(When the roots are real and distinct and they differ by an integer)

Let r1 = r0 and r2 = r0 N be the roots of the indicial equation

where (r1 > r2 ) and N > 0(an integer).

From F uch0 s T heorem, we know that we can obtain at least one of

the two solutions in terms of power series directly. But, to know

which root will give us the first solution, we must first analyze the

indicial equation and the recurrence relation.

From equation (6), we haveF (r) = 0

15

have:

(r r1 )(r r2 ) = F (r)

F (r) = (r r0 )(r r0 + N )

Thus,

F (m + r) = (m + r r0 )(m + r r0 + N )

(17)

Cm =

F (m + r)

equationCm =

(m + r r0 )(m + r r0 + N )

(m + r r0 )(m + r r0 + N ) = F (m + r)

Case A:

For r = r0 ,

F (m + r) = m(m + N ) which is always greater than 1

or

F (m + r)|r=r0 6= 0

Case B:

For r = r0 N

F (m + r) = m(m N )

The above term is non zero only for m 6= N .

For m = N ,

F(m+r)=0

Thus,

Cm |r=r0 N = undef ined

16

(18)

1. Since m and N are integers, (m N ) will always give an integer(including zero for m = N ). Therefore, although we obtain two distinct

roots, the integer difference between them makes a difference in the solution

and we CANNOT directly obtain the two linearly independent solutions.

2.For r = r0 [the larger root],F (m + r) always had a non zero value,

irrespective of the value of m. Thus, we obtain a finite value of Cm . However,

for r = r0 N [smaller root], F (m + r) = 0 for m = N . Thus, for m = N ,

the value of Cm blows up. Hence, we always obtain the first solution from

the larger root and NOT the smaller one.

Thus, the first solution is given by:

y1 (x) =

Cm xm+r0

(19)

m=0

y(x) =

X

m=0

(m + r r0 )(m + r r0 + N )

L(y(x, r)) = C0 F (r)xr

L(y(x, r)) = C0 (r r0 )(r r0 + N )

We know that,

L(y(x, r)) = [D2 + P (x)D + Q(x)]y

[D2 + P (x)D + Q(x)]y = C0 (r r0 )(r r0 + N )2

[D2 + P (x)D + Q(x)](r r0 + N )y = C0 (r r0 )(r r0 + N )2

(20)

r

= C0 [xr (r r0 )(r r0 + N 2 )ln|x|

+ xr [2(r r0 )(r r0 + N ) + (r r0 + N 2 ]]

(21)

17

(r r0 + N )y

r

= C0 [xr (r r0 )(r r0 + N 2 )ln|x|

+ xr [2(r r0 )(r r0 + N ) + (r r0 + N 2 ]]

The RHS of the previous equatin becomes zero for r = r0 N , Thus,

[D2 + P (x)D + Q(x)]

Hence it shows that

equation L(y(x,r)).

r (r

(r r0 + N )y|r=r0 N = 0

r

Now we have,

y(x) = xr

Cm x m

m=0

(r r2 )y(x) = (r r2 )xr

Cm x m

m=0

Thus,

X

y(x) = xr

Cm x m

m=0

(r r0 + N )y(x) = xr

(r r0 + N )Cm (r)xm

m=0

Let,

(r r0 + N )Cm (r) = Km (r)

(r r0 + N )y(x) = xr

Km (r)xm

m=0

X

X

0

(r r0 + N )y(x) = xr ln|x|

Km (r)xm + xr

Km

(r)xm

r

m=0

18

m=0

Now, for r = r0 N ,

X

X

r0 N

m

r0 N

0

(rr0 +N )y(x) = x

ln|x|

Km (r0 N )x +x

Km

(r0 N )xm

r

m=0

m=0

solution to the differential equation L(y(x, r)).

It can be found that:

xr0 N

Km (r0 N )xm = K

m=0

Cm xm

m=0

The above equation shows that both the solutions are linearly dependent.

If y1 (x) = xr0

m=0 Cm x

m,

then,

r0 N

X

k=0

the

19

Ak xk

While solving a differential equations for power series solution, in the case

of integer difference of roots, we actually obtain three solutions. But

among the three, two are linearly dependent.

The three solutions are:

y1 (x) = x

Cm x m

m=0

y2 (x) = (r r0 + N )x

Cm x m

m=0

r

y3 (x) =

(r r0 + N )x

Cm x m

r

m=0

Among these three, y1 (x) and y2 (x) are linearly dependent on each other.

PROOF:

Let 1 , 2 .....N ..... be the constants of the summations when shown in

terms of C0 . Thus,

y(x) = C0 [xr +

N xr0 +N

1 xr+1

......

+......]

(r + 1 r)(r + 1 r + N )

(r + N r0 )(r + N r0 + N )

Put r = r0

y1 (x) = C0 [xr0 +

(2 xr0 +2 )

N xr0 +N

1 xr0 +1

+

+ ...... +

+ ......]

1(1 + N )

2(2 + N )

N (2N )

Similarly,

y2 (x) = C0 [xr +

1 (r r0 + N )xr+1

N (r r0 + N )xr

+......

+......]

(r + 1 r0 )(r + 1 r0 + N )

(r r0 + N )(r r0 + 2N )

Putting r = r0 + N :

y2 (x) = C0

20

N xr0

N

y1 (x) = C0 [xr0 +

1 xr0 +1

(2 xr0 +2 )

N xr0 +N

+

+ ...... +

+ ......]

1(1 + N )

2(2 + N )

N (2N )

N xr0

N

To show their Linear dependency we must find their Wronskian.

Wronskian of y1 (x) and y2 (x) is defined as:

y2 (x) = C0

(r0 + N )N xr0 +N 1

+ ....... +

+ ......]

1(1 + N )

N (2N )

y20 =

C0 r0 N xr0 +1

N

Thus,

W =

22 x2r0

C0 2 N 1 x2r0

[

+

+ .......]

N

1(N + 1) 1(1 + N )

From the Theorem of Wronskian we know that:

If the Wronskian of the solution of a second order differential equation is

zero for any point in the domain, then, it is zero for the whole domain of

the solutions

Since the Wronskian of y1 and y2 ,W (y1 , y2 ) is zero, thus, it is proved that,

y1 and y2 are linearly dependent.

Hence,

x

r0 N

Km (r0 N )x

m=0

=K

X

m=0

holds good.

21

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