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Plastic Buckling of Tubes Under Axial Compression and Internal Pressure

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www.elsevier.com/locate/ijmecsci

J.A. Paquette, S. Kyriakides

Research Center for Mechanics of Solids, Structures & Materials, WRW 110, C0600, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA

Received 10 September 2005; received in revised form 22 February 2006; accepted 9 March 2006

Available online 11 May 2006

Abstract

The plastic buckling and collapse of long cylinders under combined internal pressure and axial compression was investigated through a

combination of experiments and analysis. Stainless-steel cylinders with diameter-to-thickness values of 28.3 and 39.8 were compressed to

failure at xed values of internal pressure up to values 75% of the yield pressure. The rst effect of internal pressure is a lowering of the

axial stressstrain response. In addition, at some plastic strain level, the cylinder develops uniform axisymmetric wrinkling. Under

continued compression, the wrinkles grow stably, gradually reducing the axial rigidity of the structure and eventually lead to a limit load

instability. All pressurized cylinders remained axisymmetric until the end of the test past the limit load.

The critical stress and wavelength were established using classical plastic bifurcation theory based on the deformation theory of

plasticity. The evolution of wrinkling, and the resultant limit state, were established by modeling a periodic domain that is one half of the

critical wavelength long. The domain was assigned an initial imperfection corresponding to the axisymmetric buckling mode calculated

through the bifurcation check. The inelastic material behavior was modeled through the ow theory of plasticity with isotropic

hardening. The variations of the axial response and of the limit strain with pressure observed in the experiments were reproduced well by

the model. Inclusion of Hill-type anisotropic yielding in all constitutive models was required for good agreement between predictions and

experiments.

r 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Circular tubes; Circular cylindrical shells; Combined axial compression-internal pressure; Plastic buckling; Collapse

1. Introduction

A pipeline in operation is under internal pressure. The

scenarios for developing axial compression, leading to

buckling and collapse outlined in Ref. [1], apply also to a

pressurized pipeline. The general features of plastic

buckling under axial compression and internal pressure

are similar to those of pure axial loading, outlined in Fig. 1.

The cylinder rst wrinkles at an increasing load. The

wrinkle amplitude grows, leading eventually to a limit load

instability. A pipeline will fail by localized collapse at this

strain, and as a result this constitutes a limit state. The

biaxial state of stress lowers the axial stress levels of the

various critical events described in Ref. [1] but, as will be

demonstrated, has a smaller effect on the corresponding

strains. In addition, the pressure has a stabilizing effect on

the axisymmetric mode, making a switch to non-axisymCorresponding author. Tel.: +1 512 4714 167; fax: +1 512 4715 500.

0020-7403/$ - see front matter r 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2006.03.003

will rst be illustrated experimentally. The formulation for

predicting the onset of plastic wrinkling is then developed,

followed by a study of how wrinkles grow, localize and lead

to collapse.

2. Experimental

Lee [2] reported results from buckling experiments on

cylindrical shells under combined internal pressure and

axial compression. The experiments were conducted on

tubes made of a soft aluminum alloy (Al-3003-0). The ends

of the tubes were clamped and, as a result, the onset of

wrinkling was masked and not reported. The stress at the

onset of collapse was measured for different loading paths.

Combined loading experiments on line pipe were

reported by Murray [3]. He used pipes of various lengthto-diameter ratios (L/D) with diameter-to-thickness ratios

(D/t) of 64.3 and 50.6. The majority of the tests involved

ARTICLE IN PRESS

J.A. Paquette, S. Kyriakides / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 48 (2006) 855867

856

Pressure

Transducer

Upper

Grip

Signal

Generator

Span

Set Point

Linear

Encoder

Test Specimen

Strain Gages

Set Point

Press.

Control

Extensometer

LVDT

Solid Insert

Locking Assembly

Rotating Stage

Volume

Control

Seals

Spacer

Span

Pressurizing

Fluid

Servovalve

Lower Grip

Pressure

Intensifier

LVDT

Volume

Feedback

tests were particularly aimed at understanding the behavior

of the pipe well past the onset of local collapse (see also

Ref. [4]).

Lees results did not allow for the establishment of the

onset of wrinkling and Murrays experiments dealt with

more complex loadings. A new set of experiments was

conducted involving SAF 2507 super-duplex tubes compressed to failure under xed levels of internal pressure.

The tests were designed to approximate this loading as

encountered in a long pipeline or shell free from end effects

or constraints.

2.1. Experimental setup

A schematic test of the experimental setup used is shown

in Fig. 1. The setup is similar to the one used in Ref. [1]

for their pure axial compression experiments (see Fig. 4,

Ref. [1]), but has been extended to include a pressurizing

system shown schematically in the gure. The cavity was

sealed with O-ring seals located on the solid end-plugs. In

addition, a solid metal insert was placed in the specimen

pressure was monitored by an electrical pressure transducer

and by mechanical dial gages. The cavity was lled with

hydraulic uid and pressurized by a stand-alone, closedloop control, pressure intensier. The intensier operates

on standard 3000 psi (207 bar) hydraulic power and has a

capacity of 10,000 psi (690 bar). In the present experiments

it was operated under pressure control (see Fig. 1).

The test specimens were machined out of SAF 2507

super-duplex (a type of stainless steel) stock following the

procedure outlined in Section 2 of Ref. [1]. Wrinkles

formed by compression in the presence of internal pressure

have a longer wavelength than those formed under pure

compression. For this reason, the test section of the

combined loading test specimens was 5 in (127 mmL/

RE4.65) long while their overall length was 12 in

(305 mm). The rest of the geometric characteristics were

similar to those described in Ref. [1].

In a typical experiment, the pressure was increased to the

required level and was held constant. The specimen was

then axially compressed at a displacement rate that

produced a strain rate of approximately 2 105 s1 in

ARTICLE IN PRESS

3.71

3.72

3.03

3.50

3.69

4.01

109.8 (757)

106.1 (732)

101.2 (698)

95.7 (660)

87.8 (606)

80.7 (557)

0.2800.363

0.3170.386

0.3820.446

0.4410.529

0.4550.584

0.5470.653

1.211.41

1.451.74

1.181.51

1.201.40

1.371.57

1.071.27

(664672)

(652668)

(621642)

(567581)

(519530)

(443456)

96.397.5

94.596.8

90.193.1

82.284.3

75.276.9

64.266.1

(69.7)

(138.5)

(207.6)

(275.9)

(327.2)

0

1011

2008

3010

4000

4744

(2.032.05)

(2.012.06)

(1.972.00)

(2.002.04)

(2.012.05)

(2.022.05)

0.07980.0807

0.07910.0810

0.07750.0787

0.07860.0803

0.07920.0806

0.07940.0808

28.13

28.16

28.82

28.28

28.21

28.15

eC (%)

sC ksi (MPa)

P psi (bar)

tmintmax in (mm)

D/t

t in (mm)

SAF4

SAF4

SAF4

SAF4

SAF4

SAF4

IPC5

IPC2

IPC1

IPC3

IPC4

IPC6

D in (mm)

Tube no.

Exp no.

Table 1

Specimen parameters and critical variables measured in axial buckling under internal pressure experiments (D/t 28.3)

Sy is the ratio of the yield stress in the circumferential

direction to that in the axial direction (soy/so), R is the

mid-surface radius of the tube and t is its wall thickness.

The properties of the tube stock used are listed in Table 2,

Ref. [1]. These include measures of the anisotropy

constants (Sr,Sy) established as dened in Section 4 of

Ref. [1].

A typical axial stress-shortening (sxdx/L) response for

a tube with D/t 28.3, tested at a xed pressure of

3010 psi (208 bar; P 0.439Po), is shown in Fig. 2a (dx and

L are, respectively the axial shortening and the length of

the test section). Fig. 2b shows a set of axial scans taken in

the course of the test at the positions marked on the

response with solid bullets. The response is similar to the

one presented in Fig. 5a, Ref. [1] for pure axial compression. The rst effect of pressure is that the material yields at

a lower axial stress, resulting in a lowering of the inelastic

part of the response. In the early scans, the test section

deformed nearly uniformly. Later scans revealed small

bulges forming at the two ends of the test section.

Although the linear tapers next to the test section reduced

the stress concentrations at the discontinuities, they did not

eliminate them completely. Thus, at higher compression

strains, bulges formed at these locations. Wrinkles gradually began to appear in the rest of the test section. It was

determined that the onset of wrinkling (eC) occurred

between strains of 1.20% and 1.40% (points marked with

k on response). The stress corresponding to these strains

is designated as sC. A second major effect of internal

pressure is an increase in the wrinkle wavelength. For the

case shown in Fig. 2, the wavelength (2lC) was 1.5 times

the value at zero pressure (see Table 1).

As compression progressed, the wrinkle amplitude grew,

causing a reduction in the stiffness of the specimen. At

higher strains, the growth of the two end bulges

accelerated, resulting in a limit load at an average strain

of e L 3.50%. The test was terminated soon after the limit

lC =R

28.3 and 39.8, were compressed at different values of

internal pressure until a limit load instability developed.

The parameters of each set of tests and the main results are

summarized in Tables 1 and 2. Pressure is normalized by

the yield pressure dened as

t

Po S y so

,

(1)

R

(2.04)

(2.04)

(1.98)

(2.02)

(2.03)

(2.04)

0.0802

0.0801

0.0781

0.0797

0.0800

0.0801

sL ksi (MPa)

few seconds to perform axial scans. The scans were

subsequently used to identify the onset of wrinkling and

to establish the evolution of the wrinkles. Typically, one or

two of the wrinkles tended to localize, leading to a limit

load.

2.2555(57.29)

2.2549 (57.27)

2.2521 (57.20)

2.2552 (57.28)

2.2557 (57.29)

2.2556 (57.29)

eL (%)

857

ARTICLE IN PRESS

IPC3

105.1 (725)

97.5 (672)

93.9 (648)

86.8 (599)

72.0 (497)

68.2 (470)

100

x

(ksi) 80

600

60

Axial Scans

40

20

0.2410.306

0.3200.363

0.3900.449

0.4290.474

0.5870.660

0.5660.672

eL (%)

sL ksi (MPa)

lC =R

1.89

1.31

1.52

1.59

1.49

1.89

858

0.861.01

0.891.05

0.740.88

0.780.96

0.730.87

0.750.90

(672684)

(648658)

(599612)

(555568)

(456468)

(416425)

97.499.2

94.095.4

86.888.8

80.582.4

66.167.8

60.361.6

0

932 (64.3)

1852 (127.7)

2772 (191.2)

3543 (244.3)

3996 (275.6)

eC (%)

sC ksi (MPa)

P psi (bar)

D = 28.28 P = 0.439

Po

t

-3

2

4

x/R

(1.391.44)

(1.361.41)

(1.391.43)

(1.401.43)

(1.371.45)

(1.411.47)

Fig. 2. Typical results for a compression under internal pressure test: (a)

recorded axial stress-shortening response and (b) axial scans showing

evolution of wrinkles in test section.

120

800

SAF 4

D

= 28.3

t

x

(ksi)

x

(MPa)

600

80

39.84

40.62

39.82

39.65

39.85

39.01

0.05460.0567

0.05370.0553

0.05480.0564

0.05510.0564

0.05400.0572

0.05550.0579

(b)

(1.41)

(1.38)

(1.41)

(1.42)

(1.41)

(1.44)

0.0555

0.0544

0.0555

0.0558

0.0555

0.0567

(56.16)

(56.11)

(56.18)

(56.19)

(56.17)

(56.23)

SAF5

SAF5

SAF5

SAF5

SAF5

SAF5

IPC11

IPC10

IPC7

IPC8

IPC9

IPC12

SAF 4

2

-2

2.2112

2.2092

2.2117

2.2121

2.2114

2.2137

tmintmax in (mm)

D/t

t in (mm)

D in (mm)

4

x / L (%)

-1

40

Tube no.

x / L

IPC3

Exp no.

200

0

0

(a)

Table 2

Specimen parameters and critical variables measured in axial buckling under internal pressure experiments (D/t 39.8)

400

SAF 4

D

= 28.28

t

P

= 0.439

Po

2

w

R

(%) 1

x

(MPa)

P

Po

0

0.147

0.299

0.439

0.581

0.688

400

200

0

0

4

x / L (%)

internal pressure for tubes with D/t 28.3.

load. Interestingly, the wrinkling pattern remained axisymmetric throughout the test.

A total of six tests were performed for this D/t value.

The recorded stress-displacement responses are shown in

Fig. 3. The geometric variables and the critical parameters

of these tests appear in Table 1. Pressure lowers the

response and, as a consequence, the critical and limit

stresses are lowered also. This is demonstrated in Fig. 4a,

where the critical stress is plotted against pressure. By

ARTICLE IN PRESS

J.A. Paquette, S. Kyriakides / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 48 (2006) 855867

859

120

800

SAF 4

D

= 28.3

t

(ksi)

100

SAF 4

D

= 28.3

t

700

Experiments

Anisotropic

2

Anisotropic

Isotropic

600

1.5

80

500

Isotropic

60

Experiments

400

0.5

300

40

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0

0

0.8

P /Po

(a)

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

P /Po

(b)

1

C

SAF 4

D

= 28.3

t

0.8

Isotropic

Anisotropic

0.6

0.4

Experiments

0.2

0

0

0.2

(c)

0.4

0.6

0.8

P /Po

Fig. 4. Critical stress (a), strain (b) and (c) axial half-wavelength (onset of wrinkling) as a function of internal pressure for D/t 28.3. Experiments and

predictions.

unchanged in Fig. 4b. The corresponding wrinkle halfwavelengths are plotted against pressure in Fig. 4c. The

wavelength is seen to increase nearly linearly with pressure,

almost doubling in value when going from P 0 to

0.688P0. Fig. 5 shows photographs of two specimens at the

completion of the tests. One was tested at a relatively low

pressure (P 0.147Po), and the second at a relatively high

pressure (P 0.688Po). The wrinkles as well as the bulges

at the ends of the test sections can be seen in the

photographs. The difference in wrinkle wavelength between the two is striking.

Fig. 6a shows a plot of the limit stress against pressure.

sL decreases with pressure, and is somewhat higher than

the wrinkling stress. Fig. 6b shows a plot of the average

strain corresponding to limit stress (eL ) against pressure. eL

increases with pressure but only slightly. The corresponding eC values are included in the gure for comparison.

They are seen to be signicantly lower than eL . Finally, it is

noted that in the ve pressure experiments, the wrinkled

the pure compression experiment in the set buckled into a

non-axisymmetric mode (m 2).

The results from the tests for D/t 39.8 are broadly

similar. Fig. 7 shows stress-shortening responses recorded

at six different pressure levels. The main parameters are

listed in Table 2. The critical stresses, strains and halfwavelengths are plotted against pressure in Fig. 8. The

critical stress drops with pressure, whereas the critical

strain remains relatively unaffected. The wrinkle wavelength exhibits a similar increase with pressure as in the

previous set of results. The limit stress and strain are

plotted against pressure in Fig. 9. The stress drops as

pressure increases, whereas the strain remains relatively

unaffected. eL is signicantly higher than eC, but the

difference is smaller than for the lower D/t case. It is also

worth noting that both strains have much lower values

than the thicker tubes in Fig. 6. Some scatter observed in eL

is probably caused by initial imperfections. The pressurized tubes buckled axisymmetrically for this set also,

ARTICLE IN PRESS

J.A. Paquette, S. Kyriakides / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 48 (2006) 855867

860

Fig. 5. Wrinkled test specimens with D/t 28.3 tested at (a) P 0.147Po and (b) P 0.688Po.

whereas the one pure compression tube buckled in a nonaxisymmetric manner some time before the limit stress was

reached.

3. Analysis

3.1. Onset of axisymmetric wrinkling

The bifurcation into axially uniform wrinkling follows

along the same steps as those for pure axial compression

dex

dey

Es

given by

1=2

se s2x sx sy s2y

where

PR

and sx is the axial stress.

sy

3a

t

Here, R is the mid-surface radius of the tube and t is its

wall thickness. [Cab] are the instantaneous deformation

theory moduli which are derived from the inverse of the

following constitutive matrix:

1 q2sx bsy 2 ;

and lC can still be evaluated from

1=2

C 11 C 22 C 212

t

sC

and

R

3

"

#1=4

C 211

Rt1=2

lC p

12 C 11 C 22 C 212

solution through the equivalent stress, which in this case is

%(

dsx

dsy

)

,

(3b)

where

!

1

1

1

a 2; b 1 2 2 ,

Sy

Sy Sr

1 E s se

b Es

b

1 and n^ s

n

.

q 2

4se E t se

2 E

2

Sy soy =so , Sr sor =so and fso ; sor ; soy g are the yield

stresses in the principal polar directions (x,r,y). Et and Es

are, respectively the tangent and secant moduli.

By contrast, the prebuckling deformation of the cylinder

depends on the path followed in the (sxsy) plane and, as a

J.A. Paquette, S. Kyriakides / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 48 (2006) 855867

ow theory given by

(

dex

dey

various values of internal pressures for a D/t 28.3 tube

1 Q2sx bsy 2 ;

1 Q2asy bsx 2

where

1

E

1 .

Q 2

4se E t se

Thus, eC is the axial strain corresponding to sC and P in

such an incremental calculation that follows the stress

history.

120

SAF 4

Experiments

L

(ksi)

800

L

700

100

(MPa)

600

Analysis

80

500

60

o = 0.5%

S = 1.15

400

D

= 28.3

t

Sr = 0.85

300

40

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

P / Po

(a)

861

%(

dsx

)

(4)

dsy

was used along with the properties of SAF4 in Table 2,

Ref. [1]. Pressure reduces the yield stress in the axial

direction. Therefore, as the pressure increases, the response

traces progressively lower axial stress. The point at which

the structure bifurcates into axial wrinkling is marked on

each response with the symbol

. The bifurcation

stresses were evaluated from Eq. (2) using the anisotropic

incremental deformation theory equations (3). Once sC is

established, the corresponding strain is evaluated from the

ow theory by rst internally pressurizing and then

incrementing the axial stress to this value.

Similar calculations were also conducted for the corresponding isotropic material (Sr Sy 1). The critical states

{sC, eC, lC} calculated for D/t 28.3 are compared to the

experimental results in Fig. 4. The anisotropic material

tracks the experimental stresses, strains and wrinkle

wavelengths quite well. The critical stress decreases with

pressure, the critical strain remains relatively unaffected and

lC increases with pressure. The predictions from the isotopic

material are seen to deviate from the experimental values for

all three variables. For this biaxial loading the anisotropy

affects the whole response, not just the onset of wrinkling.

Critical state predictions for the tubes with D/t 39.8 are

included in Fig. 8. The anisotropic material results are in

good agreement with the measured variables, while the

isotropic material results are not.

3.2. Evolution of wrinkling

5

SAF 4

(%)

Experiments

4

The evolution of wrinkling and the onset of axisymmetric collapse can be established by axially compressing a

120

3

x

Analysis

800

SAF 5

D = 39.8

t

(ksi)

x

600

80

2

C

1

P

Po

40

S = 1.15

Sr = 0.85

o = 0.5%

D

= 28 .3

t

0

0

(b)

(MPa)

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

P / Po

Fig. 6. Limit stress (a) and strain (b) as a function of internal pressure for

D/t 28.3. Experiments and predictions.

0

0.184

0.359

0.535

0.687

0.759

400

200

0

0

0.5

1.5

2

x / L (%)

internal pressure for tubes with D/t 39.8.

J.A. Paquette, S. Kyriakides / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 48 (2006) 855867

862

120

800

SAF 5

D = 39.8

t

(ksi)

700

100

SAF 5

Isotropic

D = 39.8

t

(%)

1.5

(MPa)

Experiments

Anisotropic

600

Anisotropic

80

Isotropic

500

60

300

40

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0

0

0.8

P / Po

(a)

Experiments

0.5

400

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

P / Po

(b)

C

R

SAF 5

D

0.8

Isotropic

= 39.8

t

0.6

Anisotropic

0.4

Experiments

0.2

0

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

P / Po

(c)

Fig. 8. Critical stress (a), strain (b) and (c) half-wavelength (onset of wrinkling) as a function of internal pressure for D/t 39.8. Experiments and

predictions.

pressure. This can be achieved by a simple extension of the

formulation presented in Section 3 of Ref. [5]. The cylinder

is assigned a small initial axisymmetric imperfection, given

by

px

w

(5)

too cos

lC

where lC is the critical half-wavelength of axisymmetric

wrinkles yielded by Eq. (2). An external pressure work term

is added to the PVW so that it becomes

Z lC

2pR

N xx deoxx N yy deoyy M xx dkxx dx

0

w a0

dw dx

periodicity of the geometry. (Only linear terms in w are

ai cos

Nu

X

ipx

ipx

bi sin

and u b0 x

.

lC

lC

i1

(7)

Nw

X

i1

lC

2pRP

the rest of the formulation. This has an insignicant effect

on the results as the radial deformations remain small in

this problem). The problem is discretized by adopting the

following admissible expansions for the radial and axial

displacements as follows:

lC h

Z

dxdqi

lC

0

ARTICLE IN PRESS

J.A. Paquette, S. Kyriakides / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 48 (2006) 855867

120

800

C

SAF 5

;i

700

100

80

Analysis

500

60

400

o = 1.2%

D

= 39.80

t

S = 1.11

Sr = 0.87

300

40

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

P / Po

(a)

3

D

= 39.8

t

(%)

SAF 5

o = 1.2%

Analysis

T

@:

and q a0 ; a1 ; . . . ; aN w ; b1 ; b2 ; :::::bN u

@qi

prescribed incrementally. The anisotropic ow theory

constitutive equations (4) are adopted. The incremental

solution procedure proceeds as described in Ref. [4].

A sample of results corresponding to one of the tests

with D/t of 28.15 is shown in Fig. 11a. The pressure is

P 0.69Po, while the material model includes the anisotropy parameters for SAF4 in Table 2, Ref. [1]. Results for

three imperfection amplitudes oo {0.05, 0.1, 0.2}% are

shown. The homogeneous deformation response, drawn

with a dashed line, is also included. As mentioned above,

internal pressure lowers the response, and the imperfection

causes a limit load instability. Increasing the imperfection

amplitude reduces the limit strain. Fig. 11b shows a direct

comparison of the experimental response and a calculated

response corresponding to oo 0.1%. They are seen to be

in good agreement. The predicted limit strain also agrees

very well with the experimental value. It is noteworthy that

the amplitude of oo required for this matching is rather

small.

600

where

(MPa)

Experiments

(ksi)

863

Experiments

1

80

x

(ksi)

S = 1.11

Material Response

SAF 4

60

40

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

= 0.69

Po

D

= 28.15

t

20

4

5

x / C (%)

(a)

80

x

(ksi)

SAF 4

D = 28.3

t

600

SAF 4

500

Experiment

60

40

P

Po

20

0.5

1.5

x (%)

400

-3

300

= 0.600

200

20

= 0.69

Po

D

200

100

= 28.15

0

0

compressed at different pressure levels.

400 (MPa)

40

0

0.147

0.299

0.439

0.581

0.688

Analysis

o = 1.0x 10

(MPa)

60

100

0

0

0

x

(ksi) 80

300

200

Fig. 9. Limit stress (a) and strain (b) as a function of internal pressure for

D/t 39.8. Experiments and predictions.

100

= 0.600

400 (MPa)

P / Po

(b)

1.0 x10

500

-3

2.0 x10-3

Sr = 0.87

0

0.5 x10-3

(b)

5

x / C (%)

axisymmetric imperfections of different amplitudes for P 0.69Po. (b)

Comparison of an axisymmetric wrinkling response with corresponding

experimental response.

J.A. Paquette, S. Kyriakides / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 48 (2006) 855867

864

imperfection is a parameter that encompasses several of the

factors that affect the experimental limit strain. These

include the niteness of the tube tested, the effect of the

discontinuity at the ends (albeit reduced), small load

eccentricities, small thickness variations, etc. For this

reason, and for the purpose of comparing experiments

with predictions, the imperfection amplitude of each of the

two sets of experiments was selected based on best overall

performance. Thus, for the D/t 28.3 experiments, oo was

chosen to be 0.5%. The axial stressaxial shortening

responses calculated with this imperfection for the six test

pressures are shown in Fig. 12a. The imperfection

wavelength used in each case is the one yielded by the

bifurcation check algorithm. Pressure lowers the response

but simultaneously causes the limit stress to occur at

progressively higher strain. The limit stresses and strains

are compared to the experimental values in Fig. 6. The

predicted limit stresses are seen to be in good agreement

with the measured values. The trend of the corresponding

average strains is in agreement with the experiments for

higher values of pressure. For P 0 and 0.147Po the

predictions are lower than the measured values. The reader

is reminded that for P 0, the cylinder failed in a nonaxisymmetric buckling mode not captured by the present

analysis.

120

800

SAF 4

x

(ksi)

D

= 28.3

t

adopted, along with the lC predicted for each case. The

calculated sxdx responses for the six test pressures are

shown in Fig. 12b. The trend is similar to that of the

thicker tubes but the limit point occurs at much lower

strain levels. The predicted values of sL and eL are

compared to the measured values in Fig. 9. The limit

stress follows the experimental trend quite well. eL is also in

good agreement with the experiments, except in the case of

P 0. In this test the cylinder again failed by nonaxisymmetric buckling not captured by the present

analysis.

In summary, the inelastic response and limit state of

relatively thick cylinders, compressed axially in the

presence of internal pressure, are reproduced well by an

axisymmetric model. For the present experiments, correct

representation of the plastic anisotropy in the tubes played

an important role in this successful performance of the

model.

4. Parametric study

The parametric study of the critical and limit states

conducted in Ref. [5] is extended to the problem of

combined compression and internal pressure. The material

is assumed to yield isotropically and is assigned the three

RambergOsgood stressstrain responses (Fig. 13) with the

properties listed in Table 3.

x

120

(MPa)

80

40

Po

400

40

200

x / C (%)

(a)

100

40

Po

20

0

0.184

0.359

0.535

0.687

0.759

200

0

0.5

1.5

performed.

400

o = 1.2%

4

(%)

(MPa)

600

80

SAF 5

D

= 39.8

t

60

(b)

600

30

400

0

2

15

200

o = 0.5%

80

0

0

(MPa)

(ksi)

0

0.147

0.299

0.439

0.581

0.688

x

(ksi)

800

600

2

x / C (%)

various pressures. D/t (a) 28.3 and (b) 39.8.

Table 3

Three stressstrain responses adopted in parametric study

E Msi (GPa)

sy ksi (MPa)

28.2 (194.5)

28.2 (194.5)

28.2 (194.5)

80.0 (552)

85.0 (586)

88.0 (607)

76.95 (530.7)

82.70 (570.3)

86.70 (597.9)

9

15

30

J.A. Paquette, S. Kyriakides / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 48 (2006) 855867

analyzed. The tubes were compressed to failure at pressure

levels of 0, 0.5Po and 0.7Po. The critical values {sC, eC, lC}

are plotted against D/t in Figs. 14ac. Nine sets of results

are presented in each plot corresponding to the three values

of n and the three pressure levels. Internal pressure lowers

the material response and results in a corresponding

reduction in sC in the same manner as seen in the

experiments (e.g., Fig. 4a). sC is highest for n 9 and

lowest for n 30. Because of the nature of the stressstrain

865

relationships with D/t and appear as linear in the loglog

plot in Fig. 14b. In concert with the experimental

observations, internal pressure tends to increase eC. Even

more importantly, the results illustrate the strong inuence

of the hardening exponent on eC. The results for n 30 are

signicantly lower than the corresponding ones for n 9.

Fig. 14c shows the corresponding lC vs. D/t plots. Once

again, the results illustrate that pressure increases lC. At

the same time, increasing n results in an increase in lC.

110

n

15

3

C

(MPa)

(%)

30

(ksi)

700

0.7

0.5

Po

90

600

15

500

15

70

30

15

400

0.9

30

50

30

0.8

0.7

0.5

0

30

20

30

0.7

300

P

Po

0.6

40

50

0.5

20

60

D/ t

(a)

30

40

50

D/ t

(b)

1.2

0.7

0.5

0

C

R

1

P

Po

0.8

0.6

15

30

0.4

0.2

20

(c)

30

40

50

60

D/ t

Fig. 14. (a) Effect of hardening parameter n on the critical stress for three pressure levels, (b) effect of hardening parameter n on the critical strain for three

pressure levels, and (c) effect of hardening parameter n on the wrinkle wavelength for three pressure levels.

J.A. Paquette, S. Kyriakides / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 48 (2006) 855867

866

0.7

0.5

L

(%) 5

P

Po

3

9

15

n

30

2

1

0.9

o = 0.2%

0.8

0.7

20

30

40

50

D/ t

Fig. 15. Effect of hardening parameter n on the average limit strains for

three pressure levels.

considering strictly axisymmetric imperfections. The halfwavelength adopted in each case corresponds to the critical

value lC. The amplitude of the imperfection used had a

constant value of oo 0.2%. The calculated values of eL

are plotted against D/t in Fig. 15 in loglog scales. As

expected, for each pressure level e L is signicantly higher

than the corresponding eC in Fig. 14b. In addition, pressure

has the effect of increasing eL for all three materials. Even

more importantly, as was the case for eC, reduction in the

hardening of the material (increase in n) reduces eL . The

limit strain is also inuenced by the material yield stress.

However, its effect is relatively secondary. Thus, for a xed

D/t and loading, material hardening is an important

variable for eL .

5. Summary and conclusions

The plastic buckling and collapse of long cylinders under

combined internal pressure and axial compression has been

investigated experimentally. The experiments involved

SAF2507 stainless-steel cylinders with D/t values of 28.3

and 39.8. The cylinders were compressed to failure at xed

values of internal pressure, in the range of 0pPo0.75Po.

Internal pressure interacts plastically with axial compression. The interaction results in a lowering of the axial

stressstrain response. J2-type plasticity with isotropic

hardening or its anisotropic counterpart can adequately

capture this interaction.

At some plastic strain level, the cylinder develops

uniform axisymmetric wrinkling. Under continued compression, the wrinkles grow stably, gradually reducing the

axial rigidity of the structure. This reduction in axial

rigidity eventually leads to a limit load instability. Beyond

the limit load, deformation localizes. Thus, the limit load

can be considered as the failure load of the structure. All

pressurized cylinders remained axisymmetric to the end of

the test past the limit load. By contrast, the pure

compression tests developed non-axisymmetric buckling

modes in concert with the observations of Ref. [1].

The stress at the onset of wrinkling was found to

decrease with internal pressure, whereas the critical strain

remained relatively unaffected. The wrinkle wavelength

increased rather signicantly with pressure. The critical

stress and wavelength were established using classical

plastic bifurcation theory based on deformation theory of

plasticity. By contrast, the corresponding strain was

evaluated using the ow theory of plasticity, due to the

non-proportionality of the stress history followed. Measured anisotropy was introduced in both models using

Hills quadratic anisotropic yield criterion. Inclusion of the

anisotropy was required for good agreement between

measured and calculated values of {sC, eC, lC}.

The evolution of wrinkling, and the resultant limit state,

were established by modeling a lC long periodic domain

assigned an initial imperfection corresponding to the

axisymmetric buckling mode calculated through the

bifurcation check. The model developed was discretized

by adopting kinematically admissible displacement functions. The inelastic material behavior was modeled through

the anisotropic ow theory of plasticity with isotropic

hardening. The variation of the limit strains with pressure

calculated for the two sets of experiments were found to be

in very good agreement with the measurements.

The limit strain is the design limit state of long cylinders

thick enough to buckle inelastically. The limit strain was

found to be strongly inuenced by the hardening of the

material, as higher hardening delays the development of

the limit load instability.

Acknowledgements

The work reported was conducted with nancial support

from a consortium of industrial sponsors. This support is

acknowledged with thanks.

References

[1] Bardi FC, Kyriakides S. Plastic buckling of tubes under axial

compressionPart I: Experiments. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 2006; accepted for publication.

ARTICLE IN PRESS

J.A. Paquette, S. Kyriakides / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 48 (2006) 855867

[2] Lee LHN. Inelastic buckling of cylindrical shells under axial

compression and internal pressure. Developments in Mechanics, In:

Proceedings of the Seventh Midwestern Mechanics Conference, vol. 1.

New York: Plenum Press; 1961; p. 190202.

[3] Murray DW. Local buckling, strain localization, wrinkling and

postbuckling response of a line pipe. Engineering Structures 1997;

19: 360371.

867

[4] Das S, Cheng RJJ, Murray DW, Wilkie SA, Zhou ZJ. Laboratory study

of local buckling, wrinkle development, and strains for NPS12 linepipe.

In: Proceedings of the ASME International Pipeline Conference, vol. 2.

Calgary, Alberta, Canada, October 15, 2000; p. 909915.

[5] Bardi FC, Kyriakides S, Yun HD. Plastic buckling of tubes under

axial compressionPart II: Analysis. International Journal of

Mechanical Sciences, 2006; accepted for publication.

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