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Construction and Building Materials 47 (2013) 14441450

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Construction and Building Materials


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/conbuildmat

Compressive strength, water absorption, sorptivity, abrasion resistance


and permeability of self-compacting concrete containing coal bottom
ash
Rafat Siddique
Department of Civil Engineering, Thapar University, Patiala, Punjab 147 004, India

h i g h l i g h t s
 Utilization of coal bottom ash in SCC.
 Fine aggregates replaced with 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% bottom ash.
 Compressive strength, abrasion resistance, permeability, water absorption and sorptivity properties investigated.

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:
Received 15 April 2013
Received in revised form 20 May 2013
Accepted 17 June 2013
Available online 17 July 2013
Keywords:
Abrasion resistance
Bottom ash
Compressive strength
Permeability
Self-compacting concrete
Sorptivity
Water absorption

a b s t r a c t
An experimental program was carried out to study the properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC) made
with coal bottom ash. The mixes were prepared with three percentages (0, 10, 20 and 30) of coal bottom
ash as partial replacement of ne aggregates. Properties investigated were; slump ow, J-ring, V-funnel,
L-box and U-box, compressive strength, abrasion resistance, rapid chloride permeability, water absorption, and sorptivity. Tests for compressive strength, abrasion resistance, chloride permeability were conducted up to the age of 365 days whereas water absorption and sorptivity tests were conducted up to the
age of 28 days.
Test results indicated that SCC mixes developed 28-day compressive strength between 25.8 and
35.2 MPa. SCC mixes made with bottom ash exhibited very low chloride permeability resistance
(between 381 and 800 C) at the age of 90 and 365 days respectively. Abrasion resistance, water absorption and sorptivity of SCC mixes increased with the increase in bottom ash content at a particular age,
however, it decreased with increase in age.
2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction
Self-compacting concrete (SCC) is considered as a concrete
which can be placed and compacted under its self weight with little or no vibration without segregation or bleeding. It is used to
facilitate and ensure proper lling and good structural performance of restricted areas and heavily reinforced structural members. It has gained signicant importance in recent years because
of the advantages it offers [16]. Such concrete requires a high
slump that can easily be achieved by superplasticizer addition to
a concrete mix and special attention has to be paid to mix
proportioning.
Use of mineral admixtures such as y ash and blast furnace slag
could increase the slump of the concrete mix without increasing its
cost, while reducing the dosage of superplasticizer needed to obtain similar slump ow compared to concrete made with Portland
Fax: +91 175 2393005/2364498.
E-mail addresses: rsiddique@thapar.edu, siddique_66@yahoo.com
0950-0618/$ - see front matter 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.06.081

cement only [7]. Also, the use of y ash improves rheological properties and reduces the cracking potential of concrete as it lowers
the heat of hydration of the cement [8]. Studies have shown that
y ash replacement up to 30% results in a signicant improvement
of the rheological properties of owing concretes [9,10]. The use of
y ash reduces the demand for cement, ne llers and sand [11],
which are required in high quantities in SCC.
Water absorption and sorptivity of concrete have been reported
by many [2131]. McCarter et al. [21] concluded that minimizing
sorptivity is important in order to reduce the ingress of chloridecontaining or sulfate-containing water into concrete, which can
cause serious damage. Sabir et al. [22] found that in water-cured
mortar in which the PC was partially replaced by ground clay brick
(GB), the sorptivity increased with increase in GB content. Khatib
and Mangat [23] have shown that sorptivity values determined
on concrete taken from the top surface of a concrete cube can be
several times greater than those for concrete taken from the bottom surface of the cube. Noble et al. [24] developed an automated
method for the measurement of surface water absorption into

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R. Siddique / Construction and Building Materials 47 (2013) 14441450


Table 1
Physical properties of Portland cement.
Physical property

Results
obtained

IS: 8112-1989
specications

Normal consistency, %
Initial setting time (min)
Final setting time (min)
Fineness (retained on 90-lm
sieve)
Soundness (mm)
Specic gravity
Compressive strength (MPa)
3-day
7-day
28-day

28
75
215
8.00

30 (min)
600 (max)
10 mm

2.50
3.15

10 (max)

24.20
36.40
45.00

23.0 (min)
33.0 (min)
43.0 (min)

Table 2
Physical properties of y ash and bottom ash.
Physical properties

Color
Specic gravity
Fineness modulus

Test results
Fly ash

Bottom ash

Grey (blackish)
2.13
1.42

Blackish
1.93
1.60

of concrete decreases as the compressive strength of concrete increases. Razak et al. [31] reported that metakaolin and silica fume
was found to enhance the overall near surface characteristics of the
concrete.
Abrasion resistance of concrete has been reported by authors
[3241]. Types of curing and surface nish inuence the abrasion
resistance of concrete [3240]. Liu [36] concluded that abrasion
of concrete with or without y ash was similar up to 36 h of abrasion testing, but after 72 h of testing, the y ash concrete lost about
25% more weight than the concrete without y ash. Nanni [37,38]
reported that abrasion resistance of concrete was strongly inuenced by the relative abrasion of its constituents materials, such
as coarse aggregates and mortar. Tikalsky et al. [39] concluded that
concrete containing Class C y ash possessed superior abrasion
resistance compared to either ordinary Portland cement concrete
or concrete containing Class F y ash. Ghafoori and Diawara [40]
concluded that the resistance to wear of concrete containing silica
fume as a ne aggregate replacement was consistently better with
increasing amounts of silica fume up to 10%. Naik et al. [41]
showed that abrasion resistance of concrete having cement
replacement up to 30% was comparable to the reference concrete
without y ash, but beyond 30% cement replacement, y ash concrete exhibited slightly lower resistance to abrasion relative to
non-y ash concrete.
2. Experimental program
2.1. Materials

Table 3
Chemical composition of properties of y ash and bottom ash (IS: 3812-2003).
Constituents

Silica (SiO2)
Iron oxide (Fe2O3)
Alumina (Al2O3)
Calcium oxide (CaO)
Magnesium oxide (MgO)
Total sulfur (SO3)
Loss on ignition
Alkalies (a) sodium oxide (Na2O)
(b) Potassium oxide (K2O)

Percent by weight
Fly ash

Bottom ash

58.55
3.44
28.20
2.23
0.32
0.07
4.17
0.58
1.26

57.76
8.56
21.58
1.58
1.19
0.02
5.80
0.14
1.08

permeable materials, and presented results for a range of permeable surfaces including concrete, treated concrete and calcium silicate bricks. The apparatus could reliably measure absorption rates
over the range 0.550 000 ml m2 h1. Claisse et al. [25] compared
absorption characteristics and sorptivity of cover concrete obtained by the initial surface absorption test (ISAT), the covercrete
absorption test (CAT), and the sorptivity test. The laboratory work
showed close agreement between the ISAT and sorption results but
the CAT yielded higher results. Chan and Ji [26] have found that
increasing the water curing period resulted in signicant increase
in strength and decrease in water sorptivity and chloride diffusivity, particularly for concretes with a high replacement level.
Basheer and Nolan [27] indicated that moisture distributions in
the near surface concrete within 10 mm of the exposed face are
highly susceptible to changes in exposure conditions. Hanzic and
Ilic [28] concluded that the ratio between the capillarity coefcient
and sorptivity depends upon the combination of liquid and solid
phases. For water, this value was found to be 5.5 0.6, 5.8 0.6
and 7.1 0.7 in concrete without additives, concrete with an airentraining agent and concrete with a plasticizer, respectively. For
fuel oil, the value is about 50% higher than that for water. Khatib
and Clay [29] showed that there was a systematic reduction in
absorption by capillary action with the increase in MK content in
concrete. Tasdemir [30] indicated that the sorptivity coefcient

Ordinary Portland cement was used. Its physical properties are given in Table 1.
Class F Fly ash and bottom ash were obtained from Panipat Thermal Power Station,
Panipat, Haryana. The physical and chemical properties are given in Tables 2 and 3,
respectively. A polycarboxylic ether based superplasticizer complying with ASTM C494 type F, with density approximately 1.10 and pH approximately 5.0 was used.
Locally available natural sand with 4.75 mm maximum size was used as ne
aggregate, and crushed stone as coarse aggregate with 16 mm maximum size. Both
ne aggregate and coarse aggregate conformed to Indian Standard Specications IS:
383-1970 [42]. The coarse and ne aggregates had a specic gravity of 2.67, and
water absorptions of 0.95% and 0.90%, respectively. Physical properties of the coarse
and ne aggregates are given in Table 4.
2.2. Mix proportions
Four self-compacting concrete mixes were made, which had total powder content (cement + y ash) of 550 kg/m3. All the four mixes (SCC1, SCC2, SCC3 and SCC4)
contained y ash to the tune of 15% of the total powder content; 460 kg of cement
and 90 kg y ash. In SCC2, SCC3 and SCC4, ne aggregates were also replaced with
10%, 20% and 30% coal bottom ash. Coarse aggregate content was maintained at 39%
by volume (590 kg/m3) of concrete and ne aggregate content at 45% by volume of
mortar in concrete (910 kg/m3), the w/p ratio was kept at 0.41 to 0.44 by weight
with air-content being assumed to be 2%. Mix proportions are given in Table 5.
2.3. Preparation and casting of test specimens
For these mix proportions, required quantities of materials were weighed. Mixing of cement and y ash in dry state, and that of coarse and ne aggregates were
mixed dry separately and then together in a mixer to obtain homogeneous mix,
after adding water. The casting immediately followed mixing, after carrying out
the tests for fresh properties. The top surface of the specimens was scraped to remove excess material and achieve smooth nish. The specimens were removed
from moulds after 24 h and cured in water till testing or as per requirement of
the test. The cubes of size 150 mm were cast for determination of compressive

Table 4
Physical properties of ne and coarse aggregates.
Properties

Fine aggregates

Coarse aggregates

Bulk density (loose), kg/m3


Bulk density (compacted), kg/m3
Specic gravity
Water absorption, %
Fineness modulus

1590
1780
2.67
0.95
6.86

1460
1650
2.67
0.90
2.32

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R. Siddique / Construction and Building Materials 47 (2013) 14441450

Table 5
Mix proportions of SCC mixes.
Mix

Cement (kg/m3)

Fly ash (kg/m3)

C.A. (kg/m3)

F.A. (kg/m3)

B.A. (kg/m3)

Water (kg/m3)

S.P. (kg/m3)

S.P. (%)

w/p

w/c

Room temp.

Conc.
temp.

SCC1
SCC2
SCC3
SCC4

460
460
460
460

90
90
90
90

589
589
589
589

913
821
730
639

91
183
274

228.6
260.9
281.4
300.5

11.01
10.19
10.46
10.34

2.00
1.85
1.90
1.88

0.41
0.47
0.51
0.55

0.52
0.57
0.61
0.65

32
29.5
34
34

29
27
28
28

Table 6
Chloride ion penetrability based on charge passed (ASTM 1202-97).
Charge passed (Coulomb)

Chloride ion penetrability

>4000
20004000
10002000
1001000
<100

High
Moderate
Low
Very low
Negligible

strength [43], 65  65  60 mm for abrasion resistance [44], and 100  50 mm


cylindrical specimens for rapid chloride penetration test as per ASTM 1202 C
[45]. All test measurements were taken as the average of three readings. For sorptivity, 100  200 mm cylinders were made whereas, for water absorption, 70.5 mm
cubes were cast.
2.4. Testing of the specimens
2.4.1. Properties of fresh concrete
For determining the self-compactability properties; slump ow, T50cm time, JRing ow, V-funnel ow times, L-box blocking ratio, U-box difference in height tests
were performed. In order to reduce the effect of workability loss on variability of
test results, fresh state properties of mixes were determined within a period of
30 min after mixing. The order of testing was as below, respectively.
1. Slump ow test and measurement of T50cm time.
2. J-Ring ow test and measurement of difference in height of concrete inside and
outside the J-Ring.
3. V-funnel ow tests at 10 s T10s and 5 min T5min.
4. L-box test.
5. U-box test.
The slump ow represents the mean diameter of the mass of concrete after release of a standard slump cone; the diameter is measured in two perpendicular
directions. According to Khayat et al. [18], a slump ow ranging from 500 to
700 mm is considered as the slump required for a concrete to be self-compacted.
At more than 700 mm the concrete might segregate, and at less than 500 mm the
concrete is considered to have insufcient ow to pass through highly congested
reinforcement. The stability of SCC mixes was evaluated through the V-shaped funnel test. According to Khayat and Manai [19], a funnel test ow time less than 6 s is
recommended for a concrete to qualify for an SCC.
2.4.2. Compressive strength
Compressive strength was determined at ages of 7, 28, 90, and 365 days as per
Bureau of Indian Standards 516:1959 [43].
2.4.3. Abrasion resistance
For abrasion testing, specimens were weighed accurately on a digital balance.
After initial drying at room temperature for about 12 h and weighing, the thickness of the specimens was measured at ve points (i.e. one at the center and four
corners). The grinding path of the disc of the abrasion-testing machine was evenly
distributed with 20-g of abrasive (aluminum) powder. The specimens were xed in
the holding device of the abrasion machine, and a load of 300 N was applied. The
grinding machine was then put in motion at a speed of 30 rpm, and the abrasive
powder was continuously fed back into the grinding path so that it remained uniformly distributed in the track corresponding to the width of the test specimen. The
thickness and weight of specimens were taken every 10 min interval until the end
of the test (60 min). The extent of abrasion was determined from the difference in
values of thickness measured before and after the abrasion test. Loss in thickness of
specimens was also conrmed by the calculation of average loss in thickness of the
specimens using the following formula:

where T is average loss in thickness in mm; W1 is the initial weight of the specimen
in gram; W2 is the mass of the specimen after abrasion in gram; V1 is the initial volume of the specimens in mm3; A is the surface area of the specimens in mm2.
2.4.4. Rapid chloride permeability
Rapid chloride penetrability test (RCPT) was conducted as per ASTM C 1202-97
(Table 6) [45].
2.4.5. Sorptivity
The sorptivity is a material property that characterizes the tendency of a material to absorb and transmit water by capillarity. Lower the value of sorptivity, the
higher the resistance of concrete towards water absorption. The schematic arrangement of the sorptivity test is shown in Fig. 1. Cylindrical specimens were placed in
tray such that their bottom surface up to a height of 35 mm is in contact with
water. In order to maintain accuracy of the results, the lower parts of the sides of
the specimens adjoining the inow face were sealed with an adhesive tape up to
the height of 3540 mm from the bottom of the cylinder. This procedure was considered to allow free water movement through the bottom surface. The total surface
area of water within the tray should not be less than 10 times that of the specimen
cross sectional area. Specimens were removed from the tray and weighed at intervals of 5, 10, 30, 60, 120, and 180 min. The volume of water absorbed per unit cross
sectional area at each time interval was evaluated and the sorptivity determined
from the slope of the graph of the water absorbed against the square root of time.
It was conducted at the age of 7 and 28 days after initial curing of 28 days.
2.4.6. Water absorption
Water absorption is used to determine the amount of water absorbed under
specied conditions which indicates the degree of porosity of a material. The water
absorption test was conducted by completely immersing dried cube specimens in
water at 25 C for 96 h and noting the amount of water absorbed per unit initial
mass in percentage. This gives percentage water absorbed. It was conducted at
the age of 7 and 28 days after initial curing of 28 days.

3. Results and discussion


3.1. Properties of fresh concrete
The results of various fresh properties tested by slump ow test
(slump ow diameter and T50cm), J-Ring test (ow diameter and
difference in concrete height inside and outside J-Ring (h2-h1));
L-box test (time taken to reach 400 mm distance T400mm, time taken to reach 600 mm distance T600mm, and time taken to reach

Concrete specimen

Sealed
with
adhesive tape to
this point (30-35
mm from bottom
of the cylinder)

Water level

W1  W2 V1

W1
A
Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of sorptivity test.

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R. Siddique / Construction and Building Materials 47 (2013) 14441450

3.2. Compressive strength


The compressive strength tests results of SCC mixes are given in
Table 8 and shown in Fig. 2. SCC1 (0% bottom ash) developed compressive strength of 29.6, 35.2, 59.0, and 61.2 MPa at the age of 7,
28, 91 and 365 days. SCC mixes with coal bottom ash attained
strength between 25.8 and 20.8 MPa at 7-day; between 35.1 and

70
60

Compressive Strength (MPa

800 mm distance TL, ratio of heights at the two edges of L-box (H2/
H1)); V-funnel test (time taken by concrete to ow through V-funnel after 10 s T10s, time taken by concrete to ow through V-funnel
after 5 min T5min), U-box test (difference in height of concrete in
two chambers (H2-H1)) for various mix compositions are given
in Table 7.
Nagataki and Fujiwara [12] suggested a slump ow value ranging from 500 to 700 mm for a concrete to be self-compacting. At
slump ow >700 mm, the concrete might segregate, and at
<500 mm, the concrete might have insufcient ow to pass
through highly congested reinforcement. All the mixes in the study
conform to the above range. The slump ow diameters of all mixes
were in the range of 570700 mm. All mixes could be designated as
SCC mixes.
The slump ow time for the concrete to reach diameter of
500 mm for most of the mixes was between 2.4 and 4.5 s and for
all the mixes less than 6 s. The J-Ring diameter and difference in
concrete height inside and outside J-Ring were in the range of
527627 mm and the difference in height was less than 40 mm.
In addition to the slump ow test, V-funnel test was also performed to assess the owability and stability of the SCC. V-funnel
ow time is the elapsed time in seconds between the opening of
the bottom outlet depending upon the time after which opened
(T10s and T5min) and the time when the light becomes visible from
the bottom, when observed from the top.
V-funnel time, which is less than 6 s, is recommended for concrete to qualify as a SCC [13,14]. However, as per EFNARC [15], time
ranging from 6 to 12 s is considered adequate for a SCC. The V-funnel ow times were in the range of 47.5 s. Test results of this
investigation indicated that all SCC mixes meet the requirements
of allowable ow time. Maximum size of coarse aggregate was
kept as 16 mm in order to avoid blocking effect in the L-box. The
gap between rebars in L-box test was 35 mm. The L-box ratio
H2/H1 for the mixes was above 0.8 which is as per EFNARC standards. U-box difference in height of concrete in two compartments
was in the range of 540 mm.

30% Bottom Ash


20% Bottom Ash

50

10% Botom Ash


0% Bottom Ash

40
30
20
10
0
7

28

90

365

Age (Days)
Fig. 2. Compressive strength of SCC mixes at various ages.

25.8 at 28-day; between 46.5 and 36.2 at 90-day; and between


48.8 and 41.8 MPa at 365-day. The compressive strength decreased
with the increase in coal bottom ash content at all ages. However,
for each of the bottom ash content, strength increased with age.
SCC2 attained 25.8 MPa, 35.1 MPa, 46.5 MPa and 48.8 MPa at 7,
28, 90 and 365 days respectively. SCC3 attained strength of
22.7 MPa, 28.9 MPa, 39.5 MPa and 45.3 MPa at 7, 28, 90 and
365 days respectively whereas SCC4 could attain strength of
20.8 MPa, 25.8 MPa, 36.2 MPa and 41.8 MPa.
The strength values at 7 days of SCC3 (20% bottom ash) are
comparable with the results reported by Lachemi et al. [16]. But
strength at 28 days was found to be lower since no VMA and
AEA was added to the SCC mixes. It was observed that the strength
gain at 90 days and 365 days was within the limits corresponding
to the amount of cement content used in the SCC mixes. For the
same mix, the strength values corresponded to those reported by
Xie et al. [17] at 28 days age of curing. For the SCC2 (10% bottom
ash) mix, the strength values were comparable with those observed by Khatib and Clay [29] at 19% cement replacement by y
ash in total powder content. The strength of SCC2 (20% bottom
ash) in the study at 28 days was 35.1 MPa whereas at 90 days
was 46.5 MPa which was much higher than that reported by Khayat et al. [18], due to the higher cement content in the mix.

Table 7
Fresh properties of SCC mixes.
Mix

SCC1
SCC2
SCC3
SCC4

Slump ow

J-Ring

V-funnel

L-box

U-box

Dia. (mm)

T50cm (s)

Dia (mm)

h2h1 (mm)

T10s (s)

T5min (s)

T400mm (s)

T600mm (s)

TL (s)

H2/H1

H1H2 (mm)

673
673
591
627

4.50
3.50
5.90
2.40

587
627
537
527

2.3
4.6
4.7
11.6

7.50
6.60
6.20
4.00

15.00
12.60
8.80
6.50

3.50
2.70
2.20
1.30

8.30
4.70
3.90
3.30

11.90
8.10
6.40
5.20

0.89
0.80
0.95
0.82

20.00
25.00
30.00
30.00

Table 8
Compressive strength of SCC mixes.
Mix

SCC1
SCC2
SCC3
SCC4

Compressive strength (MPa)

Splitting tensile strength (MPa)

7-day

28-day

90-day

365-day

28-day

90-day

365-day

29.6
25.8
22.7
20.8

35.2
35.1
28.9
25.8

59.0
46.5
39.5
36.2

61.2
48.8
45.3
41.8

2.40
2.26
2.12
1.90

2.68
2.40
2.26
2.05

2.96
2.82
2.54
2.26

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R. Siddique / Construction and Building Materials 47 (2013) 14441450

Table 9
Charge passed and rating for SCC mixes.
Mix

90-day

SCC1
SCC2
SCC3
SCC4

Charge Passed (Coulombs)

900

365-day

Charge passed in Coulomb C

Chloride ion penetrability

Charge passed in Coulomb C

Chloride ion penetrability

662
710
748
830

Very
Very
Very
Very

381
445
509
573

Very
Very
Very
Very

365 days

low
low
low
low

90 days

700

500

300

100
0

10

20

30

Bottom Ash (% )
Fig. 3. Chloride penetration for SCC mixes at various bottom ash content.

low
low
low
low

Rapid chloride permeability test results of SCC mixes are given


in Table 9 and shown in Fig. 3. It is clear from these results that all
SCC mixes had rapid chloride ion penetrability to the very low
range (less than 400 and 830 C) at the age of 90 and 365 days
respectively.
The charge passed through SCC1 (0% bottom ash) was 662 C at
90 days and 381 at the age of 365 days. The reduction in the coulombs charge from 90 days to 365 days indicates microstructure
becoming denser, which is also evident from increased compressive strength. However, for SCC mixes with bottom ash, coulomb
charge increased with the increase in bottom ash content, but chloride penetrability still remained very low (less than 1000). Patel
et al. [19] reported rapid chloride penetration range between 772
and 1379 C when the y ash percentages were between 30% and
60%. Also, Nehdi et al. [20] have reported that the presence of y
ash reduced the penetrability from approximately 3000 C to less
than 1000 C. In no case the value of the charges passed was greater
than 700 C implying dense SCC mix structure. The signicant
reduction in chloride ion penetration may be due to incorporation
of y ash and bottom ash whose spherical particles could improve
particle-packing density in the matrix.

3.5

28 days

Depth of wear (mm)

91 days

365 days

3.4. Abrasion resistance


The abrasion resistance of SCC mixes was determined at the
ages of 28, 91, and 365 days. It was measured in term of depth of
wear. It was observed that depth of wear increased with increase
in abrasion time for all mixes at all ages. Fig. 4 shows the variation
of depth of wear versus percentage of coal bottom ash content, at
60 min of abrasion time. It is evident from Fig. 4 that with the increase in percentage of bottom ash, depth of wear increased, which
indicated that the abrasion resistance of concrete decreased with
the increase in bottom ash content.

2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5

0
0

10

20

30

3.3. Chloride penetration resistance


The ability of concrete to resist the penetration of chloride ions
is a critical parameter in determining the service life of steel-reinforced concrete structures exposed to deicing salts or marine environments. The measurement concerns the chloride ions that come
into concrete and also those owing through the samples. It was
reported that the use of y ash decreased the rapid chloride penetration Coulomb value of concrete and the presence of y ash [18]
could improve the permeability of concrete due to its capability of
transforming large pores of concrete into small pores and reducing
micro cracking in the transition zone.

Water absorption (%)

Fig. 4. Depth of wear at 60 min of abrasion.

7 days

Bottom Ash (%)

28 days

6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0

10

20

30

Bottom ash (%)


Fig. 5. Effect of bottom ash on water absorption of SCC mixes.

R. Siddique / Construction and Building Materials 47 (2013) 14441450

resistance of concrete was strongly inuenced by its compressive strength, irrespective of bottom ash content. In general,
concrete abrasion resistance was proportional to the compressive strength; i.e., abrasion resistance increased with increase
in compressive strength.
5. Water absorption and sorptivity of SCC mixes increased with
increase in bottom ash content. Water absorption varied
between 5.8% and 7.1%, whereas sorptivity varied between
0.055 and 0.145 mm3/mm2/min0.5.

Sorptivity (mm3/mm2/min0.5

0.18
7 days

0.15

1449

28 days

0.12
0.09
0.06

References

0.03
0
0

10

20

30

Bottom ash (%)


Fig. 6. Effect of bottom ash on the sorptivity of SCC mixes.

After 60 min of abrasion, depth of wear for SCC1 (0% bottom


ash) was 2.38 mm at 28 days, 2.05 mm at 91 days, and 1.80 mm
at 365 days, whereas depth of wear was 2.60 mm at 28 days,
2.31 mm at 91 days, and 2.06 mm at 365 days for SSC2 (10% bottom ash), 2.7 mm at 28 days, 2.50 mm at 91 days, and 2.27 mm
at 365 days for SCC3 (20% bottom ash), 2.94 mm at 28 days,
2.70 mm at 91 days, and 2.42 mm at 365 days for SCC3 (30% bottom ash). This indicates that for a particular percentage of bottom
ash, depth of wear decreased with increase in age, which means
that abrasion resistance increased with age. This could be primarily
attributed to the increase in compressive strength resulting from
increased maturity of concrete with age.
3.5. Water absorption and sorptivity
Effect of bottom ash on the water absorption and sorptivity of
SCC mixes are shown in Figs. 5 and 6 respectively. The effect of bottom ash on water absorption of SCC mixes concrete, at age of 7 and
28 days is shown in Fig. 5. It was observed that the water absorption varied between 5.8% and 7.1%. It is noticeable that all SCC
mixes mixtures had low absorption characteristic (less than 10%).
This is in agreement with the results reported by Razak et al.
[31]. Fig. 6 shows the effect of bottom ash on the sorptivity of
SCC mixes. It can be seen the sorptivity increased with the increase
in bottom ash content. These results are in line with that of water
absorption results.
4. Conclusions
Following conclusions can be drawn from this investigation.
1. SCC mixes have a slump ow in the range of 627673 mm, a
ow time less than 6 s, V-funnel time in the range of 47.5 s,
L-box ratio was greater than 0.8 for all mixes and difference
in height of concrete in two compartments in U-box in the
range of 540 mm.
2. SCC mixes developed compressive strengths ranging from 20.8
to 29.6 MPa, from 25.8 to 35.2 MPa, from 36.2 to 59 MPa and
from 41.8 to 61.2 MPa at 7, 28, 90 and 365 days respectively.
The compressive strength decreased with the increase in bottom ash content.
3. SCC mixes made with y ash reduced the rapid chloride ion
penetrability to the very low range (between 381 and 830) at
the age of 90 and 365 days respectively.
4. Abrasion resistance was found to decrease with increase in bottom ash content. Further, abrasion resistance was found to
increase with the increase in age for all mixtures. Abrasion

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