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# TITLE: IMPACT OF JET EXPERIMENT

INTRODUCTION
Impact of jets apparatus enables experiments to be carried out on the reaction force
produced on vanes when a jet of water impacts on to the vane. The study of these reaction forces
is an essential step in the subject of mechanics of fluids which can be applied to hydraulic
machinery such as the Pelton wheel and the impulse turbine.
When a jet of water flowing with a steady velocity strikes a solid surface the water is
deflected to flow along the surface. If friction is neglected by assuming an inviscid fluid and it is
also assumed that there are no losses due to shocks then the magnitude of the water velocity is
unchanged. The pressure exerted by the water on the solid surface will everywhere be at right
angles to the surface.
Consider a jet of water which impacts on to a target surface causing the direction of the
jet to be changed through an angle. In the absence of friction the magnitude of the velocity across
the surface is equal to the incident velocity V. The impulse force exerted on the target will be
equal and opposite to the force which acts on the water to impart the change in direction.

ABSTRACT
The main purpose of this experiment is to determine the flow rate of the force of both
plate and vane. The form of deflect impact was observed and the shape was noted. This
experiment was used two different plate; flat vane and hemispherical vane. Besides, this
experiment help us to investigate the reaction force produced by the impact of a jet on different
vanes.
During this experiment, time taken and distance of the weights was noted every 5L of
water. The weights distance was adjusted to make sure the weight platform again floating in the
mid position. The velocity and the force was determined by using calculation.
Based on the result of graphs, it shows that force is directly proportional to the rate of
delivery momentum.
As a conclusion, this was successfully conducted and the objectives was determined.

OBJECTIVES
1. To determine the flow rate of the force of both plate and vane.
2. To investigate the reaction force produced by the impact of a jet of water on to various
target vanes.

APPARATUS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

## Impact Of Jet Apparatus

Hydraulic Bench
Stopwatch
Ruler
Flat Vane and Hemispherical Vane

PROCEDURE

1. The weight carrier was placed on the on the weight platform and weights was added until
the weights platforms was floating in mid position. Pointer then moved until it aligned
with the weight platform. The distance of weight was recorded.
2. The pump was started. The water flow was established by slowly opening the hydraulic
bench regulating valve.
3. The impact of the jet was observed as the vane deflected the water. The weights distance
was adjusted to make sure the weight platform again floating in the mid position. The
form of deflected jet was observed and the shape is noted. The volume of water was
observed.
4. Time taken and distance of the weights was recorded every 5L, 10L, 15L, 20L, 25L 30L,
35L, 40L of water.
5. The control valve was closed and the pump was switch off. The water in the hydraulic
bench was drained.
6. Step 1 to 5 was repeated twice to obtain good and accurate result. The average result was
calculated.
7. This experiment was repeated by replace the flat vane with hemispherical vane.

RESULT

Vane: Flat
Flow Rate
(L/s)

Mass Flow
Rate (kg/s)

Distance y
(m)

Velocity
u (m/s)

Velocity
uo (m/s)

0.058
0.215
0.441
0.889
1.667
2.143
3.684
5.333

0.058
0.215
0.441
0.889
1.667
2.143
3.684
5.333

0.035
0.100
0.140
0.180
0.290
0.380
0.500
0.620

0.74
2.74
5.63
11.34
21.27
27.34
47.01
68.05

-0.30
6.82
5.57
11.31
21.25
27.33
47.00
68.04

Rate Of
Delivery
Of
Momentu
m
(kg.m/s2)
-0.02
1.47
2.46
10.05
35.42
58.57
173.15
362.86

Force F
(N)

1.37
3.92
5.46
7.06
11.38
14.91
19.62
24.33

Vane: Hemispherical
Flow Rate
(L/s)

Mass Flow
Rate (kg/s)

Distance y
(m)

Velocity
u (m/s)

Velocity
uo (m/s)

0.064
0.313
0.536
1.081
1.471
2.143
3.684
4.706

0.064
0.313
0.536
1.081
1.471
2.143
3.684
4.706

0.020
0.105
0.170
0.260
0.355
0.510
0.730
0.905

0.82
3.99
6.84
13.79
18.77
27.34
47.01
60.05

-0.12
3.90
6.79
13.77
18.75
27.33
47.00
60.04

Rate Of
Delivery
Of
Momentu
m
(kg.m/s2)
-0.01
1.22
3.64
14.89
27.58
58.57
173.15
282.55

Force F
(N)

0.78
4.12
6.67
10.20
13.93
20.01
28.65
35.51

DISCUSSION

1. Based on the result of graphs, it shows that force is directly proportional to the rate of
delivery momentum.
2. There are two different vanes used in this experiment which is flat and hemispherical
shape.
3. Based on the result the force increase as the rate of delivery momentum increase.
4. Force exerted to withstand the weights for hemispherical vane (35.51N) higher than flat
vane (24.33N).
5. From the results, we assumed the errors occurred during the experiment. Then, some of
precautions should be taken, for example:
Avoid shaking the hydraulic bench, so that the water level is set to balance
position.
Prevent the zero error or systematic error during the experiment such as make
sure the weights at the correct position.
4 decimal point of value should be used for more accurate values.
Average readings of two or three readings should be applied for each data. An
extra cautious can be applied by having more than one person to record the
reading and carry out the experiment.

CONCLUSION

As a conclusion, the forces against vane is directly proportional to the rate of delivery
momentum. Therefore, the force increases as the rate of delivery momentum increases. Besides,
this experiment able to prove the theory that states the slope of force over rate of delivery
momentum for hemisphere vane is higher than the flat vane.
This experiment was successfully conducted and the objectives was determined.

REFERENCES

1. http://documents.mx/documents/impact-of-jet-558455e22a671.html
retrieved
in
November 2014.
2. http://www.slideshare.net/PAVANnri/impact-of-jet-on-a-fixed-curved-plate retrieved in
December 2015.