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CLASS 1

UNIT : A1

Present Simple or Present Continuous?


Introduction

The simple present tense is often confused with the present


continuous tense.
It is necessary to review when to use each one.

The simple present tense


The simple present tense is used for two main types of action:

Habits

Actions which happen regularly (every day,


every week, etc.)

States

Things which do not often change (opinions,


conditions, etc.)

Some examples will help to make this clearer:

Type of
action

Examples

Explanations

Habit

Christopher

"Every day" is a habit.

goes to class
every day.

State

It rains a lot in
Vancouver.

This means that it rains


often.

Santos always
talks about his
family.

"Always" means this is a


habit.

Jerry spends
Christmas with
his parents.

This implies that he


spends Christmas with
his parents every year.

Bianca lives in
Florida.

This is a state, because


it doesn't change.

Jean-Paul has
red hair.

Someone's hair colour


doesn't usually change.

Martin likes
chocolate.

When we like
something, usually we
will always like it.

Anna believes in
God.

Beliefs and opinions are


states. They don't often
change.

The present continuous tense


The present continuous tense is used for two main types of action:

A temporary
action happening
now

Something which is going on


right now (but it will stop in
the future)

A definite plan for


the future

Something we intend to do,


usually in the near future

Type of
action
Temporary
action
happening
right now

Examples

Explanations

John is
winning the
game.

Right now, John is


winning, but the
game isn't finished
yet.

It's raining
outside.

It's raining right now


(but it may stop
soon).

Soraya's
working in
the library.

She's working there


right now.

Sihol is
spending

He's spending
Christmas with his

Definite
plan for the
future

Christmas
with his
family.

family right now, this


year. (Maybe next
year he won't.)

I'm playing
soccer
tomorrow.

This plan is already


arranged and
definite.

Sarah's
leaving for
San Francisco
on Friday.

She has probably


already bought her
ticket.

The Olympics
are taking
place here
next year.

This is already
certain.

I'm having a
party next
week.

All the plans have


been made.

Affirmative Negative sentences formation.

https://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/presentprogressive/form/exercises?form02

Modals for Advice

Strong advice (less used than should)

had better

- Youd better do the washing up now.


-

ought to

Id better not go out tonight,


because I have to get up early
tomorrow.

Expectation (can use should)


If you like Picasso, you ought to enjoy the
exhibition.

Recommendation (can use should)


You ought to have more driving lessons
before you take the test.
Criticism (can use should)
You ought not to shout at your mother like
that.

should

Suggestion, advice, opinion (can use ought

to)
You should have more driving lessons before you
take the test.

English speakers use the modal verbs should, ought to and had
better to express that they think something is a good (or a bad) idea.
Should is the most common way to give advice.
Look at these examples:
Affirmative

Negative

Question

A: I failed my test.
B: Really? You
should study
harder.

Young children shouldn't


watch violent TV shows.

I have a problem.
Should I call my
parents or my
friend?

A: It's really cold


outside.
B: You ought to
wear a warm
jacket.

(ought to is not usually


used in the negative form)

(ought to is not
common in
question form)

A: You had better


slow down. You are
driving too fast!

You had better not forget


to pay your tuition. If you
do, the university will kick
you out!

(had better is not


usually used in
question form)

These examples have the same basic advice message, but had better is a
bit stronger. It includes the idea of a warning: something bad will happen if you
do not follow my advice. For example:
You had better not forget to pay your tuition. If you forget, the university will
kick you out

You had better do your homework. If you do not do your homework, the
teacher will give you a low mark.
Note: You had better... can be contracted to become You'd better.... This is
correct grammar, and very common in speaking. Some native speakers say,
You better ..., but this is incorrect. The had is necessary in good grammar.
Exercises

http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/courses/elc/studyzone/330/grammar/330-modalsadvice1.htm

- INFINITIVES WITH TOO AND ENOUGH

TOO
It is an adverb and is there followed by adjectives or adverbs: denotes a quality in excess:

Coffee is too hot, I can't drink it

It is usually continued through a 'to - infinitive':

Coffee is too hot to drink.

Actions in the infinitive can refer to a different subject from the first in the sentence:

Coffee is too hot FOR THE OLD MAN to drink.

Quite another different usage is that you may find when followed by nouns, in that case
MUCH and MANY are required.
They drink too much wine
They invite too many people to their parties.

ENOUGH
a. As an adjective
appears before nouns and expresses sufficiency :

They have enough books in the house, they don't have to buy any.

b. As an adverb
appears after adjectives or adverbs and also expresses a degree in sufficiency.

He is strong enough, he will cross the dessert.


The same as with 'too', a 'to-infinitive usually follows'
He is strong enough to cross the dessert.
Exercises
http://www.myenglishpages.com/site_php_files/grammar-exercise-too-enough.php
http://www.usingenglish.com/quizzes/239.html

UNIT A2
Grammar 1: Present Perfect for Indefinite Past
Present Perfect Tense
Present perfect tense describes an action that happened at an indefinite time in the past or
that began in the past and continues in the present. This tense is formed by using has/have

with the past participle of the verb. Most past participles end in -ed. Irregular verbs have
special past participles that must be memorized.
Example

Meaning

The researchers have traveled to many At an


countries in order to collect more
indefinite
significant data.
time
Women have voted in presidential
elections since 1921.

(TOP NOTCH CD 2

Continues in
the present

A-F)

http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/elc/studyzone/330/grammar/pr
perf1.htm