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Earth is an example of gyroscope turning from east to west.

Here are your Keywords.


Gyroscopic Inertia Maintain Orientation
Gyroscopic Precession Change direction at right angle.
Phantom support gyroscope.

Gyro Compass Error


Speed Error Seek at setting position
Quadrantal Error Swing from side to side.
Gimbaling Error Tilt, Gimbals

Around the equator there is a belt of relatively low pressure known as the doldrums, where the
heated air is expanding and rising; at about lat. 30N and S there are belts of high pressure
known as the horse latitudes, regions of descending air; farther poleward, near lat. 60N and S,
are belts of low pressure, where the polar front is located and cyclonic activity is at a maximum;
finally there are the polar caps of high pressure.
The prevailing wind systems of the earth blow from the several belts of high pressure toward
adjacent low-pressure belts. Because of the earth's rotation (see Coriolis effect), the winds do
not blow directly northward or southward to the area of lower pressure, but are deflected to the

right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere. The wind systems
comprise the trade winds; the prevailing westerlies, moving outward from the poleward sides of
the horse-latitude belts toward the 60 latitude belts of low pressure (from the southwest in the
Northern Hemisphere and from the northwest in the Southern Hemisphere); and the polar
easterlies, blowing outward from the polar caps of high pressure and toward the 60 latitude
belts of low pressure.

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Doldrums (5N to 5S)
Diurnal pressure variation is most noticeable. Low Pressure belt near the Equator.
Trade Winds (5 - 30 N/S)
Greatest Effect on set, drift, depth of equatorial currents. Fine clear Weather.
Horse Latitudes (30 - 35 N/S)
Diurnal pressure variation is commonly observe. Region of high pressure extending around
earth 35. Pole side of trade winds belt area of high pressure.

Types Of Clouds

Cloud Types
Most clouds are associated with weather. These clouds can be divided into groups mainly
based on the height of the cloud's base above the Earth's surface. The following table provides
information about cloud groups and any cloud classes associated with them. In addition, some
clouds don't fall into the categories by height. These additional cloud groups are listed below the
high, middle, and low cloud groups.

High-Level Clouds High-level clouds form above 20,000 feet (6,000 meters) and since the
temperatures are so cold at such high elevations, these clouds are primarily composed of ice
crystals. High-level clouds are typically thin and white in appearance, but can appear in a
magnificent array of colors when the sun is low on the horizon.

Cirrus
Cirrus clouds are the most common of the High Cloud (5000-13000m) group. They are
composed entirely of ice and consist of long, thin, wispy streamers. They are commonly known

as "mare's tails" because of their appearance.


Cirrus clouds are usually white and predict fair weather.

Cirrocumulus
Cirrocumulus clouds belong to the High Cloud group (5000-13000m). They are small rounded
puffs that usually appear in long rows. Cirrocumulus are usually white, but sometimes appear
gray. Cirrocumulus clouds are the same size or smaller than the width of your littlest finger when
you hold up your hand at arm's length.
If these clouds cover a lot of the sky, it is called a "mackerel sky" because the sky looks like the
scales of a fish. Cirrocumulus are usually seen in the winter time and indicate fair, but cold
weather.

Cirrostratus
Cirrostratus clouds belong to the High Cloud (5000-13000m) group. They are sheet like thin
clouds that usually cover the entire sky.
The sun or moon can shine through cirrostratus clouds . Sometimes, the sun or moon will
appear to have a halo around it when in the presence of cirrostratus. The ice crystals from the
cloud refracts the light from the sun or moon, creating a halo. This halo is the width of your hand
when you hold it out at arm's length.
Cirrostratus clouds usually come 12-24 hours before a rain or snow storm. This is especially
true if Middle group clouds are associated with it.

Mid-Level Clouds The bases of mid-level clouds typically appear between 6,500 to 20,000
feet (2,000 to 6,000 meters). Because of their lower altitudes, they are composed primarily of
water droplets, however, they can also be composed of ice crystals when temperatures are cold
enough.

Altocumulus
Altocumulus clouds are part of the Middle Cloud group (2000-7000m up). They are grayishwhite with one part of the cloud darker than the other. Altocumulus clouds usually form in groups
and are about 1 km thick.
Altocumulus clouds are about as wide as your thumb when you hold up your hand at arm's
length to look at the cloud.
If you see altocumulus clouds on a warm humid morning, then expect thunderstorms by late
afternoon.

Altostratus
Altostratus belong to the Middle Cloud group (2000-7000m up). An altostratus cloud usually
covers the whole sky and has a gray or blue-gray appearance. The sun or moon may shine
through an altostratus cloud, but will appear watery or fuzzy.
An altostratus cloud usually forms ahead of storms with continuous rain or snow. Occasionally,
rain will fall from an altostratus cloud. If the rain hits the ground, then the cloud becomes
classified as a nimbostratus cloud.

Low-level Clouds Low clouds are of mostly composed of water droplets since their bases
generally lie below 6,500 feet (2,000 meters). However, when temperatures are cold enough,
these clouds may also contain ice particles and snow.

Stratus
Stratus clouds belong to the Low Cloud (surface-2000m up) group. They are uniform gray in
color and can cover most or all of the sky. Stratus clouds can look like a fog that doesn't reach
the ground.
Light mist or drizzle is sometimes associated with stratus clouds.

Stratocumulus
Stratocumulus clouds belong to the Low Cloud (surface-2000m) group. These clouds are low,
lumpy, and gray. These clouds can look like cells under a microscope - sometimes they line up
in rows and other times they spread out.
Only light precipitation, generally in the form of drizzle, occurs with stratocumulus clouds. To
distinguish between a stratocumulus and an altocumulus cloud, point your hand toward the
cloud. If the cloud is about the size of your fist, then it is stratocumulus.

Nimbostratus
Nimbostratus clouds belong to the Low Cloud (surface to 2000m up) group. They are dark gray
with a ragged base. Nimbostratus clouds are associated with continuous rain or
snow. Sometimes they cover the whole sky and you can't see the edges of the cloud.

Cumulonimbus
Cumulonimbus clouds belong to the Clouds with Vertical Growth group. They are generally
known as thunderstorm clouds. A cumulonimbus cloud can grow up to 10km high. At this height,
high winds will flatten the top of the cloud out into an anvil-like shape. Cumulonimbus clouds
are associated with heavy rain, snow, hail, lightning, and tornadoes.

Cumulus
Cumulus clouds belong to the Clouds with Vertical Growth group. They are puffy white or light
gray clouds that look like floating cotton balls. Cumulus clouds have sharp outlines and a flat
base. Cumulus clouds generally have a base height of 1000m and a width of 1km.
Cumulus clouds can be associated with good or bad weather. Cumulus humilis clouds are
associated with fair weather. Cumulus congestus clouds are usually associated with bad
weather. Their tops look like cauliflower heads and mean that light to heavy showers can occur.
Here's a tip on how to know if you see a cumulus cloud in the sky. Cumulus cloud cells (the
individual puffs of clouds) are about the size of your fist or larger when you hold up your hand at
arm's length to look at the cloud.