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Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ifset

A generalized approach on microwave processing for the lateral and radial irradiations
of various Groups of food materials
Tanmay Basak a,, Madhuchhanda Bhattacharya b,, Soumen Panda a
a
b

Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, India
C2-5-4C, Delhi Avenue, Indian Institute of Technology Madras Campus, Chennai 600036, India

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:
Received 27 June 2014
Received in revised form 16 November 2015
Accepted 24 November 2015
Available online xxxx
Keywords:
Microwave
Food processing
Lateral incidence
Radial incidence
Hot spot
Cylinder

a b s t r a c t
Numerical studies have been carried out for microwave heating of food samples. It has been shown that the food
materials can be divided into four groups based on the values of fp and fw and the microwave heating characteristics remain same for the materials in each group. The heating characteristics of each group of materials have
been presented based on the heating front, heating rate and heating nonuniformity (thermal runaway). These
characteristics are shown to be strongly dependent on sample size, which can be classied as thin (uniform
heating), intermediate (localized heating fronts driven be resonances of microwave power absorption) and
thick (exponential attenuation of heating rate from the exposed surface). The analysis shows that the localized
heating in intermediate and thick samples can lead to signicant thermal runaway, which can be efciently
avoided by selecting radial irradiation over lateral irradiation but at the expense of higher processing time.
2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction
Studies of the microwave food processing have gained attention
over the years due to its wide applications in food processing including
drying, pasteurization, sterilization, thawing, tempering, baking of food
materials etc. (Metaxas & Meredith, 1983; Baik, Marcotte, & Castigne,
2000; Guzmn, Dorantes, Hernndez, Hernndez, Ortiz, & Mora, 2002;
Vattem & Shetty, 2003; Gentry & Roberts, 2005; Knoerzer, Regier, &
Schubert, 2008; Souraki & Mowla, 2008; Picouet, Landl, Abadias,
Castellari, & Vias, 2009; Al-Muhtaseb, Hararah, Megahey, McMinn, &
Magee, 2010; Lombraa, Rodrguez, & Ruiz, 2010; Basak & Rao, 2011;
Ben-Lalli, Meot, Collignan, & Bohuon, 2011; Brody, 2012; Xia, Kong,
Liu, Diao, & Liu, 2012; Chandrasekaran, Ramanathan, & Basak, 2013;
Fazaeli, Youse, & Emam-Djomeh, 2013; Benlloch-Tinoco, Igual,
Rodrigo, & Martnez-Navarrete, 2013; Ruiz-Ojeda & Peas, 2013). Advantages of the microwave food processing include the volumetric
heating effect that leads to the faster heating rate, reduction in processing time, operational cost, product uniformity, ease of operation, low
maintenance, very less change of avor and nutritional change of food
and protection from the surface browning and crusting due to heating
from inside (Fakhouri & Ramaswamy, 1993; Guan, Zhang, Hui, Yin,

Qiu, & Liu, 2011; Litvin, Mannheim, & Miltz, 1998; Tajchakavit,
Ramaswamy, & Fustier, 1998; Taher & Farid, 2001; McMinn, 2004;
Basak & Meenakshi, 2006; Zhang, Tang, Mujumdar, & Wang, 2006;
Samanta & Basak, 2008; Durairaj & Basak, 2009; Vadivambal & Jayas,
2010; Benlloch-Tinoco, Igual, Rodrigo, & Martnez-Navarrete, 2013).
Microwave heating characteristics are largely dependent on material dielectric properties and sample dimension. Dielectric properties
( = ' + i) of a material are the combined effect of (i) dielectric constant (') and (ii) dielectric loss (). Dielectric constant (') determines
the ability of a material to store the electromagnetic energy, while dielectric loss () determines the ability to convert the stored energy to
heat. These two factors give rise to two characteristic length scales associated with the electromagnetic wave propagation within the sample.
The rst length scale is the wavelength (m),
p
c 2
m q
1=2 ;
0 2 2 0
f
and the second length scale is the penetration depth (Dp),
Dp

Corresponding authors.
E-mail addresses: tanmay@iitm.ac.in (T. Basak),
madhuchhanda_bhattacharya@yahoo.co.in (M. Bhattacharya),
soumenpanda709@gmail.com (S. Panda).

c
q
1=2 ;
p
2
0 2  0
2f

where c is the velocity of light and f is the frequency of incident radiation. The wavelength determines the number of waves which can be

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ifset.2015.11.009
1466-8564/ 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Please cite this article as: Basak, T., et al., A generalized approach on microwave processing for the lateral and radial irradiations of various Groups
of food materials, Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ifset.2015.11.009

T. Basak et al. / Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies xxx (2015) xxxxxx

formed within a sample, while the penetration depth determines the


distance at which microwaves can penetrate without loosing more
than 35% (1/e times) of the incident energy. The penetration depth of
a material can vary between 0 to , while the wavelength for a given
frequency of radiation can vary from 0 to the free space wavelength
(0 = c/f). Instead, these two length scales can be grouped in the following manner
fp

m
m
;f
;
2Dp w 0

such that the resulting dimensionless numbers vary between 0 to 1


(Bhattacharya & Basak, 2006a). Here, fp measures the relative magnitude of the wavelength with respect to the penetration depth within
the material, while fw measures the magnitude of the wavelength
within the sample compared to that in the free space. Based on these
two parameters, entire food materials can be classied into four Groups
(i) low fp, low fw ( fp 0.1,fw 0.1), (ii) low fp, high fw ( fp 0.1 , fw 0.1),
(iii) high fp, low fw ( fp 0.1 , fw 0.1) and (iv) high fp, high fw
( fp 0.1, fw 0.1). Classications of food in the above four Groups are
shown in Tables 14, which list ', , m, Dp, fp and fw for those food
materials. Note that, ', and hence m, Dp, fp and fw are functions of
frequency, temperature and composition such as moisture and salt
content. Here, Tables 14 show the representative values of each material at room temperature and 2450 MHz frequency unless specied in
the tables. Tables 14 show that the most of the food materials belong
to Group 1, which were widely studied by earlier researchers (Ayappa,
Davis, Barringer, & Davis, 1997; Hossan, Byun, & Dutta, 2010).
Studies on the microwave heating of food materials have been conducted by various researchers and it has been shown that the heating
features, position of hot spots, non-uniformity etc. depend on the material size, shape and dielectric properties (Zhou, Puri, Anantheswaran, &
Yeh, 1995; Ryynanen & Ohlsson, 1996; Van Remmen, Ponne, Nijhuis,
Bartels, & Kerkhof, 1996; Ayappa, Davis, Barringer, & Davis, 1997;
Oliveira & Franca, 2002; Pandit & Prasad, 2003; Zhang & Datta, 2005;
Bhattacharya & Basak, 2006a; Basak, 2007; Bhattacharya & Basak,
2008; Basak, 2008; Samanta & Basak, 2009; Hossan, Byun, & Dutta,
2010). Ryynanen and Ohlsson (1996) found that the uniformity of the
microwave heating is a strong function of the arrangement and geometry of the component and type of the hay for various food materials such
as meat, sauce, mashed potato, and carrot. Ayappa, Davis, Barringer, and
Davis (1997) studied the microwave heating of the cylindrical and slab
shaped cooked beef, raw beef, carrot, potato, gravy etc. and studied the
position of the maximum power absorption of each food sample. They
found that the maxima can be characterized by the dimensionless position dened with respect to m. Hossan, Byun, and Dutta (2010) studied
the heating characteristics of beef samples and Basak (2007) studied the
heating characteristics of beef and oil cylinders. Hossan, Byun, and Dutta
(2010) observed that the variation of temperature largely depends on
the sample size and frequency and the heating efciency showed the
highest value due to the occurrence of resonances. Basak (2007) studied
the microwave heating behavior due to the lateral and radial irradiations and it was shown that the radial irradiation gives more uniform
heating than the lateral irradiation irrespective of materials.
Bhattacharya and Basak (2006a, 2008) studied the microwave processing for potato, marinated shrimp, beef, bread slabs and they found that
the heating rate and patterns largely depend on the material size. It was
also found that food samples with small length scales give uniform
heating and samples with large length scales give non-uniform heating
which can be characterized in terms of fp, fw and the dimensionless
length scale. Zhou, Puri, Anantheswaran, and Yeh (1995) and Pandit
and Prasad (2003) studied the microwave heating pattern of rectangular and cylindrical potato samples and it was found that, the hot spot occurs at corners whereas the cold spot occurs at the center for the
rectangular sample. On the other hand, the hot spot occurs at the center
and the cold spot occurs between the center and surface of the

cylindrical sample. Samanta and Basak (2009) studied the microwave


heating of oil water emulsions and they found that, the hot spot formation within a sample depends strongly on the lateral/radial irradiation
for various emulsion compositions.
The review of previous studies shows that the majority of materials
involving the microwave heating is conned in Group 1 (see Tables 1
4). Although a few studies exist on the power distribution for Group 2
[e.g. pizza (Ayappa, Davis, Crapiste, Davis, & Gordon, 1991)] and
Group 3 [e.g. ham (Zhang, Lyng, Brunton, Morgan, & McKenna, 2004)]
food materials, the power absorption characteristics within Group 4
materials are yet to appear in the literature. Moreover, the majority of
earlier studies considered only a few specic sample dimensions to
analyze the power absorption and temperature distribution. This
led to the main objective of this work to characterize the power absorption for all four Groups of materials over the entire range of sample
dimensions.
This work is aimed to present the analysis of the power absorption
within circular cross sections of few representative materials from
each Group. It may be noted that, although food materials occur with
different shapes, the majority of food materials can be well represented
by the circular cross-section (e.g. sh/meat rolls, vegetables, sandwiches, burgers, and bread). The power absorption characteristics
within circular cross sections have been analyzed based on two aspects
(i) the average power absorption (which determines the overall
processing rate of a material) and (ii) spatial distribution of the power
absorption (which determines the non-uniformity of the power absorption and probable hot spot formation). Both lateral and radial microwave radiations are considered based on the application in industrial
processing. It has been shown in an earlier work (Bhattacharya &
Basak, 2006a, b) that the entire range of the sample dimension can be
divided in three distinct classes with respect to the power absorption
characterization: thin (samples dimension wavelength of microwave
within sample), thick (samples dimension penetration depth) and intermediate (samples dimension in between thin and thick). Here, we
have presented the comparative analysis on the power absorption characteristics of the four Groups of materials for thin, intermediate and
thick regimes. The analysis also presents heating characteristics in
terms of the temperature distribution, hot spot formation, evaluation
of temperature non uniformity and heating rate with time.
2. Theory and governing equations
The heating congurations are shown schematically in Fig. 1a and b.
Fig. 1a illustrates that TMz polarized uniform plane microwaves (propagating along x-direction) of intensity I0 are laterally incident on the
semi-innite food cylinders of radius R, whose axis is aligned along
the direction of the electric eld (z-direction). Fig. 1b depicts that microwaves are assumed to be incident radially, which may be realized if the
sample of Fig. 1a rotates with the sufciently large speed (Kostoglou &
Karapantsios, 2006; Basak, 2007). The microwave power absorption
for both the cases of Fig. 1ab is given by the following expression:

1
0 Em Em ;
2

where, = 2f is angular velocity, 0 is the free space permittivity and


Em and Em are the induced electric eld within the sample and its complex conjugate, respectively. During the lateral incidence, the electric
eld within the medium, Em, can be obtained from the solution of the
following two-dimensional Helmholtz equation (Balanis, 1989) and
associated boundary conditions (Ayappa, 1997),
2 Em r; 2m Em r; 0;

Please cite this article as: Basak, T., et al., A generalized approach on microwave processing for the lateral and radial irradiations of various Groups
of food materials, Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ifset.2015.11.009

T. Basak et al. / Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies xxx (2015) xxxxxx

Table 1
Group 1: Low fp, low fw.
Material

'

m (m)

Dp (m)

fp

fw

Apple (Venkatesh & Raghavan, 2004)


Avocado (Venkatesh & Raghavan, 2004)
Banana (Venkatesh & Raghavan, 2004)
Cantaloupe (Venkatesh & Raghavan, 2004)
Carrot (Venkatesh & Raghavan, 2004)
Cucumber (Venkatesh & Raghavan, 2004)
Grape (Venkatesh & Raghavan, 2004)
Grapefruit (Venkatesh & Raghavan, 2004)
Honeydew (Venkatesh & Raghavan, 2004)
Kiwifruit (Venkatesh & Raghavan, 2004)
Lemon (Venkatesh & Raghavan, 2004)
Lime (Venkatesh & Raghavan, 2004)
Mango (Venkatesh & Raghavan, 2004)
Onion (Venkatesh & Raghavan, 2004)
Orange (Venkatesh & Raghavan, 2004)
Papaya (Venkatesh & Raghavan, 2004)
Peach (Venkatesh & Raghavan, 2004)
Pear (Venkatesh & Raghavan, 2004)
Potato (Venkatesh & Raghavan, 2004)
Radish (Venkatesh & Raghavan, 2004)
Squash (Venkatesh & Raghavan, 2004)
Strawberry (Venkatesh & Raghavan, 2004)
Sweet potato (Venkatesh & Raghavan, 2004)
Turnip (Venkatesh & Raghavan, 2004)
Beef (Sosa-Morales, Valerio-Junco, Lopez-Malo, & Garcia, 2010)
Lamb leg (Sosa-Morales, Valerio-Junco, Lopez-Malo, & Garcia, 2010)
Chicken breast (Sosa-Morales, Valerio-Junco, Lopez-Malo, & Garcia, 2010)
Shrimp (Oliveira & Franca, 2002)
Pork Luncheon Roll (Zhang, Lyng, Brunton, Morgan, & McKenna, 2004)
Cooked beef Juice (Ayappa, Davis, Crapiste, Davis, & Gordon, 1991)
Cooked beef (Ayappa, Davis, Crapiste, Davis, & Gordon, 1991)
Pineapple Syrup [2800 MHz] (Ayappa, Davis, Crapiste, Davis, & Gordon, 1991)
Skim milk [915 MHz] (Zhu, Kuznetsov, & Sandeep, 2007)
Apple juice (Zhu, Wenchuan, & Wu, 2012)
Pear juice (Zhu, Wenchuan, & Wu, 2012)
Orange juice (Zhu, Wenchuan, & Wu, 2012)
Grape juice (Zhu, Wenchuan, & Wu, 2012)
Pineapple juice (Zhu, Wenchuan, & Wu, 2012)
Chestnut our (Guo, Wu, Zhu, & Wang, 2011)
Chestnut weevil slurry (Guo, Wu, Zhu, & Wang, 2011)

54
45
60
66
56
69
65
73
69
66
71
70
61
64
69
67
67
64
57
67
62
71
52
61
43.7
49.4
49
61.4
35.9
62.6
30.5
67.8
64.6
74.8
73.8
74.8
72.1
73.4
12.9
34.3

10
12
18
13
15
12
17
15
17
17
14
15
14
14
16
14
14
13
17
15
13
14
14
12
13.7
15
16.1
31.4
18.03
21.90
9.60
11.6
20.03
12.9
13.8
14.8
15.1
15.0
4.78
11.4

0.0166
0.0181
0.0156
0.0150
0.0162
0.0147
0.0151
0.0143
0.0146
0.0150
0.0145
0.0146
0.0156
0.0152
0.0146
0.0149
0.0149
0.0152
0.0160
0.0149
0.0155
0.0145
0.0168
0.0156
0.0183
0.0172
0.0173
0.0152
0.0199
0.0152
0.0219
0.0130
0.0403
0.0141
0.0142
0.0141
0.0143
0.0142
0.0335
0.0206

0.0288
0.0220
0.0170
0.0245
0.0196
0.0271
0.0186
0.0223
0.0192
0.0188
0.0236
0.0219
0.0219
0.0224
0.0204
0.0229
0.0229
0.0241
0.0175
0.0214
0.0237
0.0236
0.0203
0.0255
0.0190
0.0185
0.0172
0.0100
0.0133
0.0143
0.0227
0.0243
0.0424
0.0262
0.0244
0.0229
0.0220
0.0224
0.0298
0.0203

0.0918
0.1310
0.1468
0.0975
0.1316
0.0863
0.1286
0.1017
0.1214
0.1267
0.0977
0.1059
0.1133
0.1081
0.1144
0.1034
0.1034
0.1005
0.1459
0.1106
0.1037
0.0977
0.1323
0.0974
0.1531
0.1485
0.1601
0.2409
0.2370
0.1699
0.1537
0.0849
0.1514
0.0856
0.0927
0.0980
0.1036
0.1011
0.1793
0.1618

0.1355
0.1478
0.1277
0.1225
0.1325
0.1199
0.1230
0.1164
0.1195
0.1221
0.1181
0.1189
0.1272
0.1243
0.1196
0.1215
0.1215
0.1244
0.1310
0.1214
0.1263
0.1181
0.1375
0.1274
0.1495
0.1407
0.1410
0.1239
0.1621
0.1246
0.1789
0.1210
0.1230
0.1152
0.1159
0.1151
0.1171
0.1161
0.2739
0.1685


Z

X
X
Em 

C n cosn
Dn

r rR n0
n0
where 2

1 d
d
r dr r dr

2
0



 

Em R; 0 cos n 0 d0 ;

d
r12 d
2 is the Laplacian operator in r - domain, m

and 0 are the propagation constants within the medium and free space,
respectively given by
m

2
1
2
i ; 0
;
m
Dp
0

and the coefcients, Cn and Dn are given by


"
C n n in 0 J 0 n 0 R  J n 0 R

and

#
0
H n1 0 R
;
H n1 0 R

Dn

n 0 H n1 0 R

2H n1 0 R

with

n

1;
2;

n0
otherwise

10

In the above expressions [Eqs. (8) and (9)], Jn and H(1)


n are the n-th order
Bessel function and Hankel function of the rst kind, respectively with
the prime denoting the rst derivative with respect the argument 0R.
For the radial irradiation, the Helmholtz equation and boundary condition take the following form

1d
dEm
r
2m Em r 0
r dr
dr

Table 2
Group 2: Low fp, high fw.
Material

'

Bread [2800 MHz] (Ayappa, Davis,


Crapiste, Davis, & Gordon, 1991)
Pizza [2800 MHz] (Ayappa, Davis,
Crapiste, Davis, & Gordon, 1991)
Potato freeze dried [3000 MHz]
(Ayappa, Davis, Crapiste, Davis, &
Gordon,1991)
Oil (Bhattacharya & Basak, 2006b)

4.6 0.6

m
(m)

Dp
(m)

fp

11

fw

0.0499 0.1222 0.0649 0.4653

@r R :

H 0 R
Em
2iE0
Em 
0 11
1
r
H 0 R
RH 0 R
0

4.6 0.6

0.0499 0.1222 0.0649 0.4653

7.5 2.5

0.0360 0.0353 0.1623 0.3603

2.8 0.15 0.0732 0.4350 0.0268 0.5974

12

It may be noted that Eq. (12) assumes that the intensity of the radial irradiation is 1/4th of the intensity of the lateral irradiation in order to
make them comparable [This can be veried via considering the limit,
R 0, where the electric eld becomes invariant of the position and

Please cite this article as: Basak, T., et al., A generalized approach on microwave processing for the lateral and radial irradiations of various Groups
of food materials, Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ifset.2015.11.009

T. Basak et al. / Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies xxx (2015) xxxxxx

Table 3
Group 3: High fp, low fw
Material

'

m (m)

Dp (m)

fp

fw

White Pudding (Zhang, Lyng, Brunton, Morgan, & McKenna, 2004)


Frankfurters [2800 MHz] (Ayappa, Davis, Crapiste, Davis, & Gordon, 1991)
Ham [2800 MHz] (Ayappa, Davis, Crapiste, Davis, & Gordon, 1991)
Tomato sauce [915 MHz] (Zhu, Kuznetsov, & Sandeep, 2007)
Whey protein [915 MHz] (Wang, Wig, Tang, & Hallberg, 2003)

32.83
39.0
66.6
69.3
60.40

23.09
26.9
47.00
63.75
38.25

0.0203
0.0163
0.0125
0.0363
0.0404

0.0102
0.0083
0.0062
0.0148
0.0222

0.3164
0.3114
0.3173
0.3900
0.2900

0.1656
0.1522
0.1162
0.1106
0.1231

hence rotation of the sample. Eqs. (6) and (12) show that Em E0 occurs
for both the lateral and radial incidences in the limit of R 0. On the
other hand, Em |R 0 2E0 occurs for the radial incidence according to
the boundary condition considered by earlier researchers (Oliveira &
q
~m E , where E0 2I0 is the
Franca, 2000)]. Dening ~r r and E
R

E0

c0

incident electric eld for the lateral incidence, the dimensionless forms
of the governing equations and boundary conditions for the lateral
incidence can be written in terms of fp and fw [dened in Eq. (3)] as
h

i2
~m ~r ; Nw 1 i f
~m ~r ; 0
~ 2E
E

p

~m 
E

~r ~

X
X
~ n cosn
~n
D
C
n0

r 1

n0

2
0

13



 

~m 1; 0 cos n 0 d0
E

14

with
"

~ n n in ~ 0 J 0 ~ 0 
C
n

0
H1 ~ 0
J n ~ 0 n1
H n ~ 0

15

~ 1 ~
~ n n 0 H n 0 ;
D
2Hn1 ~ 0

16

where, ~ 0 is the dimensionless propagation constant given by ~ 0


0 R Nw f w . Similarly the dimensionless governing equation and
boundary condition for the radial incidence can be written as
~ ~r
1d
dE
~r m
~r d~r
d~r

~m 
E

~r ~

~ 0

r 1

h

i2
~m ~r 0
N w 1 i f p
E

17

1
H1 ~ 0 ~
2i
Em 
:
1
1
H 0 ~ 0
H0 ~ 0

18

The additional dimensionless number, Nw, in Eqs. (13) and (17) is the
dimensionless sample diameter dened as Nw = 2R/m and is commonly referred as the wave number (Basak & Kumaran, 2005). The sample
diameter can also be normalized with respect to the penetration
depth of the material (Dp) and the resulting dimensionless number is
termed as the penetration number, Np = 2R/Dp 2Nwfp.
In this work, we present the sample dimension via Nw and the material dielectric properties in terms of fp and fw. It has been shown that the
power absorption characteristics can be uniquely determined in terms
of these three dimensionless numbers (Bhattacharya & Basak, 2006a).
These dimensionless numbers especially Nw and fp also characterize

the occurrence and ranges of the thin, thick and intermediate regimes,
where parameter fw mainly inuences the resonating features of the
power absorption (Bhattacharya & Basak, 2006b). Resonances occur
due to the constructive interferences between the traveling waves,
which are formed due to the transmission and reection of microwaves
at the sample boundary (considered via the radiation boundary conditions, Eqs. (6) and (12)). The resonance leads to the local maximum of
the power absorption leading to the thermal hot spot during the
processing of materials in the presence of the microwave radiation.
The occurrence of the spatial resonances can be visualized from the
spatial properties of the absorbed power (q) which can be expressed
~m ) and fp and fw as
in terms of the dimensionless electric eld (E
q 4

I0 f p ~ ~
Em Em :
0 f 2
w

19

The factor determining the efciency of the microwave heating is


the overall heating rate, which is directly proportional to average
absorbed power, qavg, dened as
qavg

1
R2

0 0 rqr; dr d

20

1 2 1
~r q~r ; d~r d
0 0

21

The entire analysis is presented in terms of the variation of magnitude of


qavg and spatial proles of q for each Group of materials as the sample
dimension varies from thin to intermediate and thick regimes. The corresponding changes in the temperature history are obtained via solving
the energy balance equation as given below:
C p

T
k2 T q;
t

22

where, T is the temperature, t is the time, Cp is the specic heat per unit
volume and k is thermal conductivity. Eq. (22) assumes the constant
material properties, no phase change, negligible convection and no
shrinkage. In this work, it is assumed that the sample remains thermally
insulated and the corresponding boundary condition can be written as
@r R : n:T 0:

23

The electric eld and energy balance equations for the lateral and radial irradiations are solved by using the nite element based space
discretization technique and Crank Nicholson time integration scheme

Table 4
Group 4: High fp, high fw
Material

'

m (m)

Dp (m)

fp

fw

Peanut butter (2800) (Ayappa et al., 1991)


Almonds (915) (Sosa-Morales et al., 2010)
Walnut (915) (Sosa-Morales et al., 2010)

3.1
3.2
2.1

4.10
6.4
2.6

0.0528
0.1441
0.1988

0.0169
0.0371
0.0662

0.4976
0.6180
0.4778

0.4927
0.4395
0.6062

Please cite this article as: Basak, T., et al., A generalized approach on microwave processing for the lateral and radial irradiations of various Groups
of food materials, Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ifset.2015.11.009

T. Basak et al. / Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies xxx (2015) xxxxxx

(a)

(b)

Lateral

3. Results and discussion

Radial

3.1. Average power for Group 14 materials: identication of regimes and


resonances

Hy
x

In order to establish a generalized heating trend, a few test materials


have been selected from each Group. Fig. 2ad illustrates the distribution of the average power (qavg) vs the sample radius (R) or dimensionless sample thickness (Nw) for the specic food material in each group.
As variations of qavg for food materials in any Group are qualitatively
similar, one food material for each Group has been selected for the detailed analysis. Representative food materials from the four groups are
turnip, pizza baked dough, ham and almond corresponding to Group
1, Group 2, Group 3 and Group 4 materials, respectively. As mentioned
in earlier works (Bhattacharya & Basak, 2006a; Basak, 2007), Nw is an indicator to predict the spatial resonance within the samples. It is observed that resonances of the microwave power (maxima of average
power) occur at xed Nw values irrespective of food materials. Obviously, the average power values are found to be different for various food
materials depending on the food dielectric properties characterized
via fp and fw (Figures not shown). Similar to the earlier work
(Bhattacharya & Basak, 2006b), the multiple maxima in the absorbed
power (qavg) occur for materials corresponding to the low fp. It may be
noted that Group 3 materials with fp 0.3 show only one maximum
of qavg and Group 4 materials with fp N 0.5 do not show any resonating
peak of qavg. Fig. 2 shows that the average power absorption is larger
for the low fw materials (Group 1 and Group 3) which is in accord
with Eq. (19). It may be noted that Group 3 materials exhibit the highest

Ez

Fig. 1. Schematic illustration of (a) lateral irradiation; (b) radial irradiation on circular food
sample.

as illustrated by Basak (2008). The simulation starts from a uniform


temperature of T = 300 K across the sample and that continues till
the average temperature (T ) reaches to 340K. Note that, the average
 is calculated via the following relationship
temperature (T)
1
T

1
0

2
0

~r T ~r ; d~r d

24

The degree of the thermal runaway is measured via T which is the difference between the maximum and minimum temperature within the
sample.

Turnip
(Group 1)

qavg (W cm-3)

16

(a)

qavg (W cm-3)

Pizza
Baked Dough
(Group 2)

II (R = 0.577 cm, Nw = 0.74)

4
0

Thin (Nw < 0.1)

10 -1

qavg (W cm-3)
qavg (W cm-3)

Almond
(Group 4)

I (R = 0.549 cm, Nw = 0.22)


II (R = 1.722 cm, Nw = 0.69)

0.3

III (R = 2.794 cm, Nw = 1.12)

0.15
0

Thick (Np > 3)

0.45

Thin (Nw < 0.1)

Intermediate

10 1

30

Thick
(Np > 3)

I (R = 0.094 cm, Nw = 0.15)


II (R = 0.45 cm, Nw = 0.72)

20

III (R = 0.75 cm, NW = 1.2)

10
0

Thin (Nw < 0.1)

Intermediate

10 -2

(d)

Intermediate

40

Ham
(Group 3)

III (R = 0.952 cm, Nw = 1.22)

10 -1

(c)

I (R = 0.164 cm, Nw = 0.21)

10 -2

(b)

Lateral
Radial

12

1.2

10 -1

Thick (Np > 3)

I (R = 0.865 cm, Nw = 0.12)

0.8

II (R = 2.882 cm, Nw = 0.4)

0.4

Thin (Nw < 0.1)

10

10 -2

Intermediate

-1

10 -1

III (R = 5.044 cm, Nw = 0.7)

Thick (Np > 3)

10

Radius, R (cm)
Wave Number, Nw

1 01

Fig. 2. Identication of various regimes for Group 1Group 4 materials based on resonating peaks of qavg; (a) Group 1: Turnip, (b) Group 2: Pizza baked dough, (c) Group 3: Ham and
(4) Group 4: Almond for the lateral (-) and radial (.....) incidences.

Please cite this article as: Basak, T., et al., A generalized approach on microwave processing for the lateral and radial irradiations of various Groups
of food materials, Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ifset.2015.11.009

T. Basak et al. / Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies xxx (2015) xxxxxx

power absorption (qavg) due to high fp and low fw (see Fig. 2c). On the
other hand, Group 2 materials show the lowest average power (qavg)
due to low fp and high fw values (see Fig. 2b).
A few resonating sample dimensions are selected to study the spatial
resonating features of microwave power absorption in the intermediate
regime and these sample dimensions are shown in Fig. 2 as I, II and III.
These sample dimensions correspond to the rst three resonating
peaks of qavg for the lateral incidence. It may be noted that, resonances
do not occur for Group 4 materials due to the high fp and qavg is found
to decrease monotonically with the radius. In addition, the second and
third maxima of qavg for the lateral incidence occur only for Group 1
and Group 2 materials. Correspondingly, the representative sample dimensions for the Group 3 and Group 4 materials, where the spatial resonating features are analyzed in details, are selected between Nw N 0.1
and Np b 3, as shown in Fig. 2. It may be noted that the lateral and radial
incidences lead to almost same power absorption for all the food materials till regime I. However, a signicant difference between the
absorbed power for the lateral and radial incidences is observed in regime II and III for Group 1, Group 2 and Group 4 materials. Regime III
may be a representative end point for the intermediate regime for
Group 3 and Group 4 materials (with high fp values) as qavg approaches
the asymptotic value of the thick regime (Np N 3). The average power
absorption (qavg) and corresponding sample dimension (Nw and sample
radius) at each regime have been shown in Table 5 for all Groups of food
materials due to both the lateral and radial incidences. It may be noted
that, for all Groups of materials, the lateral and radial irradiations correspond to same average power at regime I but the lateral irradiation corresponds to higher average power in regimes II and III.
The power absorption proles for any material may be divided into 3
regimes as (a) thin regime (Nw 0.1): characterized by the uniform
power absorption, (b) intermediate regime (0.1 b Nw b 3/2fp): characterized by local maxima in the power absorption or peaks (resonances)
and (c) thick regime (2Nwfp 3): characterized by the exponential attenuation of the absorbed power within samples. Although, the limits
for thin and thick regimes occur at different sample dimensions for various food materials, it is interesting to note that for all Groups of food
materials, Nw 0.1 corresponds to thin regime and Np 3 corresponds
to thick regime. Note that, Nw and Np are representations of dimensionless sample sizes which are obtained based on the m and Dp values (see
Tables 14). It may be noted that the power absorption characteristics
within thin regime are invariant with the incidence types. However,
the position of maxima in intermediate regimes changes with materials
and types of the irradiation. The detailed analysis of the spatial power
and temperature distributions have been reported next at thin (Nw =
0.01), intermediate (regimes I, II and III) and thick (Np =4) regimes for
four Groups of materials exposed to the lateral and radial irradiations.
3.2. Microwave power and temperature characteristics, degree of thermal

runaway (T) and average temperature (T)
The power and temperature proles have been computed to analyze
the detailed spatial heating features within materials. The heating

efciency has been quantied via ddtT corresponding to the rate of heating
and T(t) = Tmax(t) Tmin(t) representing the degree of thermal runaway based on the non-uniform heating of the food materials with
Tmax and Tmin denoting the maximum and minimum temperature within the sample, respectively. The average temperature rise within the
 f  T0

40 K, where tf is the
materials is set to be 40 K [T f Tt

processing time and T0
T0; ~r ; 300 K]. The time required for
achieving T f within a food material is calculated based on the following
expression:

tf

C p T f
;
qavg

25

which is obtained by integrating Eq. (22) over the sample area. Note
that, the spatial distributions of isotherms are reported at tf. The thermal
properties of various materials used for the simulations are reported in
Table 6. Due to the non-availability of the data, the thermal conductivity
of almond (Group 4) is assumed to be identical to that of cashew. It may
be noted that the above assumption may not affect the present analysis,
as the power absorption features are governed only by dielectric properties and the order of magnitudes of thermal conductivities of Group
4 food materials are nearly similar (Bart-Plange, Addo, Kumi, & Piegu,
2012).
3.2.1. Thin sample
The power and temperature are in general spatially uniform in the
thin samples for both lateral and radial incidences (gures not
shown). The power absorption and heating proles are also independent of the irradiation type in the thin regime. It is observed that
the power absorption for Group 1 material (turnip) is around 6.196
6.198 W cm 3 while for Group 2 (pizza baked dough), Group 3
(ham), Group 4 (almond) materials, power deposition is around
0.353, 27.71 and 1.227 W cm3, respectively for both the lateral and radial incidences. Similar to the spatial power, the uniform temperature
distribution (340 K) is observed in the thin regime for all Groups of
food materials during both the lateral and radial incidences. The largest
processing time corresponds to Group 2 materials due to the lowest
power absorption at the low fp and high fw and the lowest processing
time occurs for Group 3 materials due to the highest average power at
the high fp and low fw (see Fig. 2). Note that, the processing times for
Group 1 and Group 3 materials in thin regime are 0.41 and 0.078 min,
respectively, while the processing times for Group 2 and Group 4 materials are around 4.31 and 0.675 min, respectively. It is interesting to note
the identical processing times for both the irradiations for all Groups of
materials involving thin samples.
In the thin regime, the variation of T with time is found to be linear
for all Groups of food materials for both the lateral and radial incidences.
As expected, the higher slope/heating rate is achieved by Group 1 and
Group 3 materials while the lower slope/heating rate is achieved by
Group 2 and Group 4 materials. Based on the lump parameter model

Table 5
Average power and corresponding sample dimension
Group

1 (Turnip)
2 (Pizza baked dough)
3 (Ham)
4 (Almond)

Incidence

Lateral
Radial
Lateral
Radial
Lateral
Radial
Lateral
Radial

Thin

Regime I

Regime II

Regime III

Thick

qavg
(W cm3)

R
(cm)

Nw

qavg
(W cm3)

R
(cm)

Nw

qavg
(W cm3)

R
(cm)

Nw

qavg
(W cm3)

R
(cm)

Np

qavg
(W cm3)

R
(cm)

Np

6.197
6.197
0.3533
0.3533
27.706
27.706
1.2277
1.2277

0.0078
0.0078
0.0249
0.0249
0.0063
0.0063
0.0721
0.0721

0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01

14.648
14.635
0.4923
0.482
35.796
35.774
1.0201
1.0115

0.164
0.164
0.549
0.549
0.094
0.094
0.865
0.865

0.21
0.21
0.22
0.22
0.15
0.15
0.12
0.12

2.495
0.2656
0.318
0.05
1.951
0.853
0.2703
0.1816

0.577
0.577
1.722
1.722
0.45
0.45
2.882
2.882

0.74
0.74
0.69
0.69
0.72
0.72
0.4
0.4

0.7495
0.54
0.2319
0.0448
0.7865
0.4403
0.1422
0.047

0.952
0.952
2.794
2.794
0.75
0.75
5.044
5.044

1.22
1.22
1.12
1.12
1.2
1.2
0.7
0.7

0.05596
0.0095
0.02007
0.00069
0.3381
0.1306
0.0843
0.0219

5.1
5.1
24.44
24.44
1.24
1.24
7.42
7.42

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

Please cite this article as: Basak, T., et al., A generalized approach on microwave processing for the lateral and radial irradiations of various Groups
of food materials, Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ifset.2015.11.009

T. Basak et al. / Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies xxx (2015) xxxxxx

Table 6
Thermal properties of selected materials
Material (kgm 3)

Cp (J kg1 K1)

k (W m1 K1)

Turnip

3890 (Polley, Snyder, & Kotnour, 1980)

0.5625 (Polley et al., 1980)

2850 (Ayappa, Davis, Crapiste, Davis, & Gordon,


1991)
3160 (ASHRAE, 2006)
2200 (ASHRAE, 2006)

0.45 (Ayappa, Davis, Crapiste, Davis, & Gordon,


1991)
0.48 (ASHRAE, 2006)
0.23 (Bart-Plange, Addo, Kumi, & Piegu, 2012)

Pizza
Ham
Almond

975 (Boukouvalas, Krokida, Maroulis, & Marinos-Kouris,


2006)
800 (Ayappa, Davis, Crapiste, Davis, & Gordon, 1991)
1030 (ASHRAE, 2006)
565 (Boukouvalas, Krokida, Maroulis, & Marinos-Kouris,
2006)

Tt f T0

tf

[Eq. (25)], the heating rate

incident foods (see the rst column of Figs. 3 and 4). As expected, Group
1 and Group 3 materials correspond to the larger values of the power
maxima corresponding to the lower fw values, whereas Group 2 and
Group 4 materials show the lower values of the power maxima with
the higher fw values. Based on the occurrence of the maximum of the
power absorption, the maximum temperature occurs near the opposite
face for the lateral incidence and at the center for the radial incidence
(see the second column of Figs. 3 and 4). Similar to thin samples,
Group 2 and Group 4 materials correspond to the high processing
time due to the low average power absorption at the high fw and
Group 1 and Group 3 materials correspond to the low processing time
due to the high average power absorption at the low fw for both the lateral and radial incidences (see Fig. 2). All Groups of materials show a
small temperature variation within the sample due to the small sample
dimension. It is also found that, the time required (tf) to reach the
average temperature from 300 K to 340 K is 0.173 min for the lateral incidence and 0.175 min for the radial incidence involving Group 1 materials. The processing time (tf) for Group 2 materials to reach the average
temperature 340 K is 3.093 min for the lateral incidence and 3.16 min

is proportional to the average

power absorption which is a function of fp and fw. Thus, the higher or


lower heating rates for various Groups of food materials are in accord
with the power absorption. In thin regime, either the lateral or radial ir

radiation may be used based on the same rate of heating ddtT and T = 0
occurs for all Groups of food materials.
3.2.2. Intermediate regime: regime I
Figs. 3 (lateral incidence) and 4 (radial incidence) show the power
(rst column) and temperature (second column) distributions and
variations of T and T with time (third column) corresponding to
regime I. Regime I is characterized by the occurrence of a single
maximum in the power absorption which occurs near the opposite
face for the laterally incident sample (Fig. 3) and near the center for
the radially incident sample (Fig. 4) for all Groups of food materials.
Note that, the maximum in spatial power is due to the constructive
interference of propagating waves within food samples. Similar magnitudes of the maxima in power are observed for the laterally and radially

T and T vs t

339.

350

341
300
2
1
0

t = 0.173 min

13

Temperature (K)

34

Group 1

15 16

14

R = 0.164 cm

Power (W cm3 )

0.05

0.02

0.1

0.15

339
340
341

t = 3.093 min

5
0.

0.4

Group 2

0.56

0.44

R = 0.549 cm

350

300
2
0

339.6
340

t = 0.061 min

34

Group 3

37.5

36

R = 0.094 cm

350

0.

34

300
1
0.5
0

0.04

0.06

341

339
340

t = 0.813 min

1.0
6

0.98

Group 4

1.02

1.0

R = 0.865 cm

350

300
2
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Time, t (min)
 and degree of thermal runaway (T = Tmax -Tmin) with time (t) for the laterally
Fig. 3. Spatial power and temperature distributions at t = tf and evolution of average temperature (T)
irradiated food materials in the intermediate regime corresponding to regime I [Group 1 (Turnip; Nw = 0.21), Group 2 (Pizza baked dough; Nw = 0.22), Group 3 (Ham; Nw = 0.15)
and Group 4 (Almond; Nw = 0.12)].

Please cite this article as: Basak, T., et al., A generalized approach on microwave processing for the lateral and radial irradiations of various Groups
of food materials, Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ifset.2015.11.009

Temperature (K)

14

339.9

16
15

0.47
0.53
0.5

t = 0.175 min

Power (W cm 3 )

t = 3.16 min

Group 2

R = 0.549 cm

Group 1

T. Basak et al. / Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies xxx (2015) xxxxxx

R = 0.164 cm

350

340.7

340.3

339.95
340.4

300
1
0.5
0
0

0.05

0.1

0.15

350

300
0.5

340.1

0.04

0.06

35
37.5

36

t = 0.061 min

Group 3

R = 0.094 cm

350
339.9
340.2

300
0.5

340.1

0.02

1.03

1.02

t = 0.822 min

Group 4

R = 0.865 cm

350
339.9
340.5

300
0.5

340.1

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Time, t (min)
 and degree of thermal runaway (T = Tmax -Tmin) with time (t) for the radially irFig. 4. Spatial power and temperature distributions at t = tf and evolution of average temperature (T)
radiated food materials in the intermediate regime corresponding to regime I [Group 1 (Turnip; Nw = 0.21), Group 2 (Pizza baked dough; Nw = 0.22), Group 3 (Ham; Nw = 0.15) and
Group 4 (Almond; Nw = 0.12)].

for the radial incidence, which are highest among all Groups of materials. The processing time for Group 3 materials is 0.061 min due to
the lateral or radial incidence. Group 4 material requires the
processing time (tf) around 0.813 min for the lateral incidence and
0.822 min for the radial incidence. It is interesting to observe that, the
processing time for the lateral irradiation is almost similar to that for
the radial irradiation for all Groups of food materials.
The third column of Figs. 3 and 4 elucidates that, the evolution of
T with respect to time is linear for both the lateral and radial incidences. The gures (see third column of Figs. 3 and 4) show that
Group 3 material corresponds to the highest and Group 2 material
corresponds to the lowest slope/heating rate. It is found that, T increases linearly with time and later that attains the steady value for
all Groups of food materials except for Group 4 materials during
both the lateral and radial incidences (see third column of Figs. 3
and 4). Group 4 materials show the linear variation of T with
time during the entire period of processing time and that may
lead to thermal runaway for the larger duration of processing during the lateral or radial incidence. The above observation states
that, Group 1, Group 2 and Group 3 materials may never exhibit
the runaway situation even with the high average temperature,
whereas Group 4 materials may exhibit a runaway situation with
a high average temperature rise involving the large processing
time. Note that, T is around 3 K for all Groups of materials (except
Group 3, T = 1.2 K) corresponding to the lateral incidence. On the
other hand, for the radial incidence, T is around 0.5 K for both
Group 2 and Group 3 materials and they are around 1 K for both
Group 1 and Group 4 materials. In general, smaller values of T
show non-occurrence of thermal runaway corresponding to all
Groups of food materials in regime I, except for Group 4 materials
during the lateral incidence. Based on T, the lateral or radial irradiation may be used for Group 1Group 3 materials, but the radial
irradiation may be preferred for Group 4 materials. Otherwise

either the lateral or radial irradiation may be used based on almost


identical processing time for the lateral and radial radial
irradiations.
3.2.3. Intermediate regime: regime II
Figs. 5 (lateral incidence) and 6 (radial incidence) show the power
(rst column) and temperature (second column) distributions and variation of T and T with time (third column) corresponding to regime II.
It is observed that multiple maxima occur for the lateral incidence, implying that the larger sample dimension favors multiple spatial resonances in the intermediate regime. However, only a single maximum is
observed near the center for the radial incidence indicating that the radial incidence reduces spatial interferences. The laterally incident food
materials exhibit the primary and secondary maxima in the power absorption with the primary maximum occurring at the opposite face
and the secondary maximum occurring at the incident face for all
Groups of food materials. Note that, the magnitude of the primary maximum for Group 1 material is around 6 W cm3, while the secondary
maximum is around 4 W cm3. It is observed that, the spatial power
varies within 16 W cm3 at the opposite face and the power is within
14 W cm3 at the incident face for Group 1 material due to the lateral
incidence. On the other hand, Group 1 material shows the single maximum at the center of the sample with the magnitude around
0.8 W cm3 and the absorbed power decreases to 0.1 W cm3 towards
the outer face of the sample due to the radial incidence. Correspondingly, Group 1 material shows the primary maximum in temperature
around 365 K (temperature variation is around 335365 K) at the opposite face and the secondary maximum of about 345 K (temperature variation is around 335345 K) at the incident face during the lateral
incidence (see second column of Fig. 5). On the other hand, Group 1 material shows the maximum value of temperature (342.5 K) at the center of the sample and the variation of temperature is found to be around
339.5342.5 K due to the radial incidence (see second column of Fig. 6).

Please cite this article as: Basak, T., et al., A generalized approach on microwave processing for the lateral and radial irradiations of various Groups
of food materials, Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ifset.2015.11.009

T. Basak et al. / Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies xxx (2015) xxxxxx

0
36

335

335

0.5

5
36

335

335

t = 4.79 min

0.2

0.8

0.5

0.2

33

34

34

t = 1.115 min

33

340

1.5

300
50
0

350

33

Group 1

t = 1.017 min

325

0
33
340

0.1

Group 2

300
50

325

1.5
3

Group 3

350

0.5

R = 0.45 cm

350

33

350

0.4

R = 1.722 cm

Temperature (K)
340

R = 0.577 cm

Power (W cm 3 )

300
10
0

334

0.5

340
350

345
335

t = 3.065 min

0.26
0.34

2
0.34
0.2

Group 4

335

0.26

R = 2.882 cm

350

300
20
10
0

Time, t (min)

0.1

0.8
0.4

t =9.53 min

Group 1

R = 0.577 cm

 and degree of thermal runaway (T = Tmax -Tmin) with time (t) for the laterally
Fig. 5. Spatial power and temperature distributions at t = tf and evolution of average temperature (T)
irradiated food materials in the intermediate regime corresponding to regime II [Group 1 (Turnip; Nw = 0.74), Group 2 (Pizza baked dough; Nw = 0.69), Group 3 (Ham; Nw = 0.72)
and Group 4 (Almond; Nw = 0.4)].

339.5

350

342

300
341

0.02
0.14
0.06

t = 30.4 min

Group 2

R = 1.722 cm

0
339

344
342

10

350

300
5
0

10

20

30

350

2
1.2
0.6

t = 2.55 min

Group 3

R = 0.45 cm

0.4

339
343

300
5

340

0.16
0.22

0.2

t = 4.56 min

Group 4

R = 2.882 cm

350
337
340
345

300
5

338

Time, t (min)
 and degree of thermal runaway (T = Tmax -Tmin) with time (t) for the radially irFig. 6. Spatial power and temperature distributions at t = tf and evolution of average temperature (T)
radiated food materials in the intermediate regime corresponding to regime II [Group 1 (Turnip; Nw = 0.74), Group 2 (Pizza baked dough; Nw = 0.69), Group 3 (Ham; Nw = 0.72) and
Group 4 (Almond; Nw = 0.4)].

Please cite this article as: Basak, T., et al., A generalized approach on microwave processing for the lateral and radial irradiations of various Groups
of food materials, Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ifset.2015.11.009

10

T. Basak et al. / Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies xxx (2015) xxxxxx

The primary maximum in the power absorption for Group 3 material is


around 4 W cm3 and the secondary maximum is around 3 W cm3
during the lateral incidence. Note that, the variation of the
spatial power is found as 1.54 W cm3 at the unexposed face and that
is 1.53 W cm3 at the exposed face corresponding to Group 3 material
during the lateral incidence (see rst column of Fig. 5). Similar to Group
1 materials, the maximum in the spatial power for Group 3 material
due to the radial incidence is found around 2 W cm3 at the center of
the sample and the power absorption varies within 0.42 W cm3 (see
rst column of Fig. 6). The temperature variations for Group 3 material
are 338350 K at the unexposed face and 338340 K at the exposed
face of the material during the lateral incidence (see second column of
Fig. 5). In contrast, the variation of temperature is around 339343.5 K
for Group 3 material during the radial incidence (see second column of
Fig. 6).
It is observed that, the magnitudes of the maxima in the power
absorption for Group 2 and Group 4 materials (high fw) are lesser
compared to Group 1 and Group 3 materials (see Figs. 56). The spatial
power variations for Group 2 and Group 4 materials are found around
0.20.8 W cm3 and 0.260.38 W cm3, respectively at the unexposed
face (see rst column of Fig. 5). They are around 0.20.4 W cm3 and
0.260.38 W cm3, respectively at the exposed face during the lateral
incidence (see rst column of Fig. 5). On the other hand, the spatial
power variations for Group 2 and Group 4 materials are around 0.02
0.14 W cm3 and 0.160.22 W cm3, respectively during the radial
incidence (see rst column of Fig. 6). Correspondingly, the temperature variations are around 335375 K and 335355 K for Group 2
and Group 4, respectively during the lateral incidence (see second
column of Fig. 5). On the other hand, the temperature variations
are around 339344 K and 337346 K for Group 2 and Group 4, respectively during the radial incidence (see second column of
Fig. 6).
Note that, the processing time (tf) for Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 and
Group 4 materials are observed as 1.017, 4.79, 1.115 and 3.065 min,
respectively, due to the lateral incidence (see Fig. 5), whereas those
are around 9.53, 30.4, 2.55 and 4.56 min, respectively (see Fig. 6)
corresponding to the radial incidence. In contrast to regime I, the lateral
incidence leads to the larger processing rate compared to the radial incidence for all the Groups of materials. Correspondingly, the lateral incidence leads to substantial time savings in regime II especially for Group
2 materials.
Similar to thin samples and regime I, third column of Figs. 5 and 6
illustrates that, the plot of average temperature (T ) vs time is linear
for all Groups of food materials corresponding to both the lateral and radial incidences. It is found that Group 1 and Group 3 materials provide
the larger heating rate than Group 2 and Group 4 materials for both lateral and radial irradiations. The higher slope of T vs time curves (see
third column of Fig. 5) shows highly nonuniform heating for all Groups
of materials corresponding to the lateral incidence. Note that, T increases with time linearly during the initial stages of heating and later
that increases with comparatively lower slope for Group 1, Group 2
and Group 3 materials during the lateral incidence (see third column
of Fig. 5). In contrast, the linear increasing trend is observed for Group
4 material throughout the processing period during the lateral irradiation. It is found that the magnitude of T is around 50 K for both
Group 1 and Group 2 materials while T values are approximately 17
and 25 K for Group 3 and Group 4 materials, respectively. On the
other hand, the uniform heating is found for all Groups of food materials
during the radial irradiation (see third column of Fig. 6). It is observed
that, T vs time (t) corresponding to the radial incidence shows a low
value of T during the entire period of the processing time due to almost
uniform heating of the sample (see third column of Fig. 6). In all Groups
of food materials, T reaches a constant value within few minutes, except Group 4 material, which continues the linear variation of T with
time (see third column of Fig. 6). Note that, the magnitudes of T for
the radial incidence are around 3.5, 6.45, 5 and 9.39 K (at t = tf) for

Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 and Group 4 materials, respectively. Although,


Group 14 materials can be safely handled with the low degree of thermal runaway via the radial incidence, the lateral irradiation may be recommended based on the lesser processing time for all Groups of food
materials. However, the radial irradiation may be preferred for Group 1
and Group 2 materials based on the lesser T values, but the processing
times are higher during the radial irradiation.
3.2.4. Intermediate regime: regime III
Figs. 7 (lateral incidence) and 8 (radial incidence) show the power
(rst column) and temperature (second column) distributions and variations of T and T with time (third column) corresponding to regime
III. The single power maximum at the center for Group 1, multiple
power maxima for Group 2 and Group 3 and single power maximum
at the exposed face for Group 4 materials are observed during the lateral
incidence (see rst column of Fig. 7). On the other hand, the common
decreasing trend of the power absorption from the center to periphery
occurs for Group 14 materials during the radial incidence. It is observed from the rst column of Fig. 7 that, during the lateral incidence,
Group 1 material shows the single maximum (3 W cm3) at the center
of the sample and the variation of the spatial power is around 0.5
3 W cm3 (see rst column of Fig. 7). Group 3 materials show the primary maximum around 1.6 W cm3 at the exposed face of the sample
and a secondary maximum around 1.2 W cm3 at the center of the sample during the lateral incidence (see rst column of Fig. 7). On the other
hand, Group 1 and Group 3 materials show the maximum of the spatial
power around 2.5 W cm3 (spatial power variation is around
0.52.5 W cm3) and 1.1 W cm3 (spatial power variation is around
0.31.1 W cm3), respectively during the radial incidence (see rst
column of Fig. 8). Similar to the spatial distribution of the power absorption, the maximum of temperature for Group 1 material is found at the
center due to both the lateral and radial incidences. It is observed that
the variation of temperature for Group 1 material is around
335355 K and 338352 K during the lateral and radial incidences, respectively. The maximum value of temperature for Group 3 material is
observed around 355 K at the exposed face of the sample during the lateral incidence, whereas the maximum is around 342.5 K at the center of
the sample during the radial incidence (see second column of Figs. 7 and
8). Temperature variation for Group 3 material is around 325355 K and
340342.5 K during the lateral and radial incidences, respectively. It
may be noted that, the processing time (tf) for Group 1 and Group 3 materials are 3.38 and 2.76 min, respectively during the lateral incidence
whereas tf = 4.68 and 4.93 min, respectively during the radial incidence
(see second column of Figs. 7 and 8).
Group 2 material (with high fw) shows the primary maximum
(0.8 W cm3) at the unexposed face with another secondary maximum
around 0.4 W cm3 at the left exposed face during the lateral incidence
(see rst column of Fig. 7). It is interesting to note that, two additional
maxima in the power absorption (0.3 W cm3) are also observed near
top and bottom faces of the sample. Note that, the variation of the spatial power absorption for Group 2 material is found to be around 0.2
0.8 W cm3 near the unexposed face and 0.10.4 W cm3 near the incidence face during the lateral incidence (see rst column of Fig. 7). On
the other hand, the single maximum around 0.25 W cm3 (variation of
the spatial power is around 0.050.25 W cm3) is found at the center of
the sample for Group 2 material during the radial irradiation (see rst
column of Fig. 8). The maximum of the spatial power for Group 4 material is observed around 0.35 W cm3 (variation of spatial power is
around 0.10.35 W cm3) near the exposed face of the sample during
the lateral incidence, while that is around 0.062 W cm3 (variation of
spatial power is around 0.0420.062 W cm3) at the center of the sample during the radial incidence (see rst column of Figs. 7 and 8). Similar
to the spatial distribution of the power absorption, the maximum value
of temperature for Group 2 material is found to be around 390 K (temperature variation is around 330390 K) at the unexposed face of the
sample, whereas the maximum value for Group 4 material is around

Please cite this article as: Basak, T., et al., A generalized approach on microwave processing for the lateral and radial irradiations of various Groups
of food materials, Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ifset.2015.11.009

T. Basak et al. / Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies xxx (2015) xxxxxx

340

t = 3.38 min

Group 1

350

345
355

0.5
0.5

Temperature (K)
33

R = 0.952 cm

Power (W cm 3 )

11

300
20
10
0

330

34
0
37
0

0.
0. 2
6

t = 6.56 min

0.1

0.3

0.1
0.2

0.1

Group 2

0.3

R = 2.794 cm

350

340

33

300
50
0

1.6
1
1 0.6

t = 2.76 min

355

Group 3

330

340
350

0.

1.2

0 .8
1.4

R = 0.75 cm

350

300
20
0

320

330

370

t = 5.84 min

0.1

0.1

0.3

Group 4

0.2

R = 5.044 cm

350

300
50
0

Time, t (min)
 and degree of thermal runaway (T = Tmax -Tmin) with time (t) for the laterally
Fig. 7. Spatial power and temperature distributions at t = tf and evolution of average temperature (T)
irradiated food materials in the intermediate regime corresponding to regime III [Group 1 (Turnip; Nw = 1.22), Group 2 (Pizza baked dough; Nw = 1.12), Group 3 (Ham; Nw = 1.2)
and Group 4 (Almond; Nw = 0.7)].

Temperature (K)
t = 4.68 min

0.5

0.5
2

t = 34.01 min

Group 1
Group 2

R = 2.794 cm

R = 0.952 cm

Power (W cm 3 )

0.05

0.2

350

338
350

300
20
10
0

343

350

336
354

300
20
10
0

343

10

20

30

35

350

0.3

t = 4.93 min

Group 3

0.9

0.3

R = 0.75 cm

0.5

340

300

342

2
0

0.042

t = 17.65 min

0.058

339

345

341

Group 4

0.046

33

R = 5.044 cm

350

300
5
0

10
15
Time, t (min)

20

 and degree of thermal runaway (T = Tmax -Tmin) with time (t) for the radially irFig. 8. Spatial power and temperature distributions at t = tf and evolution of average temperature (T)
radiated food materials in the intermediate regime corresponding to regime III [Group 1 (Turnip; Nw = 1.22), Group 2 (Pizza baked dough; Nw = 1.12), Group 3 (Ham; Nw = 1.2) and
Group 4 (Almond; Nw = 0.7)].

Please cite this article as: Basak, T., et al., A generalized approach on microwave processing for the lateral and radial irradiations of various Groups
of food materials, Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ifset.2015.11.009

12

T. Basak et al. / Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies xxx (2015) xxxxxx

390 K (temperature variation is around 310390 K) at the exposed face


of the sample during the lateral incidence (see second column of Fig. 7).
The maxima of temperature for Group 2 and Group 4 are around 354 K
(temperature variation is around 336354 K) and 346 K (temperature
variation is around 339346 K), respectively, at the center of the sample
during the radial incidence (see second column of Fig. 8). It may be
noted that, the processing time (tf) for Group 2 and Group 4 materials
are found to be around 6.56 and 5.84 min, respectively during the radial
incidence and tf = 34.01 and 17.65 min, respectively during the radial
incidence (see second column of Figs. 7 and 8). Correspondingly, substantial time savings can be achieved for Group 2 and Group 4 materials
in regime III via lateral incidence.
Similar to other regimes, the variation of T with time (t) is also found
to be linear at regime III for all Groups of food materials for both the lateral
and radial incidences (see third column of Figs. 7 and 8). Note that, the
variation of T with time for the lateral and radial irradiations show the
higher slope/heating rate corresponding to Group 1 and Group 3 materials and lower heating rates for Group 2 and Group 4 materials (see
third column of Figs. 7 and 8). The variation of T with time (see third column of Figs. 7 and 8) shows the occurrence of non-uniform heating during the lateral incidence for all Groups of materials. Note that, T initially
increases linearly, but the slope of T vs time (t) curve decreases during
the later stage for Group 1, Group 2 and Group 3 materials (see third column of Fig. 7). It is also observed that Group 1 material attains the steady
value. On the other hand, Group 4 material shows the linear variation of
T vs time during the entire period of processing (see third column of
Fig. 7). It may be noted that, at t = tf, T shows very high values for
Group 2 (67 K) and Group 4 (78 K) materials and comparatively low
values are found for Group 1 (25 K) and Group 3 (36 K) materials. Thus
thermal runaway occurs for all Groups of materials during the lateral incidence (see third column of Fig. 7). On the other hand, T vs time (t) corresponding to the radial incidence shows comparatively lower values
than the lateral incidence during the entire period of processing (see
third column of Fig. 8). In all Groups of food materials, T reaches a constant value within few minutes, except for Group 4 material which shows
the linear variation of T with time during the entire period of processing
(see third column of Fig. 8). It is found that, T values for Group 1, Group
2, Group 3 and Group 4 are around 19 K, 21 K, 3.3 K and 7 K, respectively
at t=tf due to the radial incidence. Although, Group 3 and Group 4 materials can be safely handled with the low degree of thermal runaway via
the radial incidence, the lateral incidence may be recommended based
on the lesser processing time for all Groups of food materials.

3.2.5. Thick sample


Simulations were also carried out to study power and temperature
distributions during the lateral and radial incidences for the thick samples
(Np = 4) (gures not shown). A common feature on the highest power
absorption at the exposed surface and the power decaying to the very
low value to the unexposed end during the lateral incidence is observed
for all Groups of materials. The absorbed power at Np N 3 also decays
from the periphery to the center of the samples during the radial incidence irrespective of Groups of materials. In thick regime, all Groups of
food materials show less power absorption during both the lateral and radial incidences due to the large sample dimension. It is found that the spatial power variation at Np = 4 is around 0.050.25 W cm3 for Group 1
materials and the variation is around 0.21.2 W cm3 for Group 3 materials during the lateral incidence. On the other hand, the spatial power
variation is around 0.0050.015 W cm3 for Group 1 materials and the
variation is around 0.050.2 W cm3 for Group 3 materials during the radial incidence. It is observed that, the temperature prole follows the similar trend as the power absorption prole for both the Groups of food
materials during the lateral or radial incidence. At Np = 4, the temperature variations for Group 1 and Group 3 are around 310410 K and
320370 K, respectively during the lateral incidence and they are around
338.5341 K for both the Groups during the radial incidence.

The variations of the spatial power for Group 2 and Group 4 materials at Np = 4 are around 0.020.12 W cm3 and 0.050.35 W cm3,
respectively during the lateral incidence. On the other hand, during
the radial incidence, Group 2 and Group 4 materials correspond to the
variation of the power around 0.00080.001 W cm3 and 0.015
0.035 W cm3, respectively. Following the similar trend of the spatial
power distributions, temperature variations for Group 2 and Group 4
at Np = 4 are around 320460 K and 320440 K, respectively during
the lateral incidence and they are around 337342 K and 330350 K, respectively during the radial incidence. It is observed that, the processing
time for all the materials in the thick regime is very high due to very low
power absorption. It may be noted that, the processing time for Group 1,
Group 2, Group 3 and Group 4 materials at Np = 4 is found as 44.5,
75.73, 6.42 and 9.83 min, respectively, during the lateral incidence
whereas very high processing times are found as 264, 2189, 16.67 and
37.83 min, respectively, for the radial incidence.

Similar to earlier cases, the variation of the average temperature (T)
with time is found to be linear in thick regime for both the lateral and
radial incidences. At Np = 4, the slope of T vs time (t) (or heating
rate) is found to be higher corresponding to Group 3 and Group 4 materials and lower corresponding to Group 1 and Group 2 materials for both
the lateral and radial incidences. The variation of T with time shows
that, the nonuniform heating is quite prominent during the lateral incidence for all Groups of food materials. It is observed that, T vs time (t)
exhibits linear variation during the entire period of processing and very
large T values are attained at t = tf for all Groups of food materials during the lateral incidence. At Np = 4, T at t = tf for Group 1, Group 2,
Group 3 and Group 4 materials are observed around 114.4 K, 155 K,
63.19 K and 135.89 K, respectively depicting the highly nonuniform
heating as well as high thermal runaway during the lateral incidence.
On the other hand, the uniform heating is observed at Np = 4 during
the radial incidence for all Groups of food materials except for Group 4
material. Note that, the lower value of T at t = tf is found corresponding to Group 1 (2.98 K), Group 2 (5.9 K) and Group 3 (2.96 K) materials
during the radial incidence leading to the uniform heating at Np = 4,
whereas a large value of T (21.94 K) is observed corresponding to
Group 4 material, leading to thermal runaway. Although, the processing
time is very high due to very less power absorption during the radial incidence, the radial incidence may be preferred in thick regime based on
the uniform heating within samples corresponding to Group 14 materials. The lateral incidence is not recommended for the thick samples
due to the large degree of thermal runaway for all Groups of food
materials.

4. Conclusion
A detailed theoretical study has been carried out to illustrate generalized microwave heating characteristics for various Groups of cylindrical food materials in the presence of the lateral and radial irradiations. It
has been shown that the role of material dielectric properties and sample dimension can be governed by three dimensionless parameters:
(a) fp, (b) fw and (c) Nw. Note that, fp and fw are features of material dielectric properties only via the wavelength and penetration depth and
Nw denotes the effect of the sample dimension. Based on fp and fw,
food materials are categorized in 4 Groups: Group 1 low fp; low fw,
Group 2 low fp; high fw, Group 3 high fp; low fw and Group 4
high fp; high fw. A preliminary study has been carried out to investigate
the average power absorption (qavg) vs cylinder radius for each Group of
materials. The average power absorption vs sample dimension shows a
few interesting characteristics irrespective of Groups of food materials.
The asymptotes of the average power at smaller and larger sample dimensions corresponding to the thin and thick samples, respectively
are identied. Regimes I, II and III are identied as the intermediate
sample thicknesses between the thin and thick sample regimes. It is observed that Groups 1 and 2 show more than one maxima of the average

Please cite this article as: Basak, T., et al., A generalized approach on microwave processing for the lateral and radial irradiations of various Groups
of food materials, Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ifset.2015.11.009

T. Basak et al. / Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies xxx (2015) xxxxxx

power for various sample dimensions due to low fp. Group 3 shows one
maximum of average power and no maxima of average power occurs in
Group 4 due to high fp. The identication of Groups based on the dielectric response in fw and fp has been done for the rst time in this work.
Spatial distributions of the power and temperature with variations
 and T vs time (t) at different regimes
of the average temperature (T)
for each Group of materials have been studied for both the lateral and
radial irradiations. Various local maxima of heating rates and associated
thermal runaway have been highlighted in Fig. 9. In the thin regime, the
temperature distributions are found to be uniform throughout the domain irrespective of Groups for both the lateral and radial incidences.
The processing time is identical for both the lateral and radial incidences
and no thermal runaway is observed for any Group of materials in the
thin regime.
Regime I illustrates almost uniform heating scenarios for all Groups
of materials due to both the lateral and radial incidences. The maximum
value of the temperature is found at the unexposed face for all Groups of
materials during the lateral incidence, whereas that is observed at the
center during the radial incidence. The processing time is identical for
both the lateral and radial incidences and no thermal runaway is observed for any Group of materials in regime I. In regime I, either the lateral or radial irradiation is suitable for the efcient heating due to the
less processing time and heating uniformity but, the radial irradiation

REGIME

IRRADIATION

GROUP 1

GROUP 2

may be a better option due to the spatial uniform heating. The multiple
maxima with the primary maximum at the unexposed face and the secondary maximum at the exposed face are found in regime II for all
Groups of materials during the lateral incidence, whereas a single maximum at the center of the sample is observed for all Groups of materials
during the radial incidence. The higher processing times are observed
for the radial incidence due to the lower power absorption in regime II
for all Groups of materials. In regime II, all Groups exhibit the high thermal runaway (T 50 K) during the lateral incidence and low thermal
runaway (T 7.8 K) during the radial incidence. Correspondingly, the
radial incidence is preferred over the lateral incidence based on the larger heating uniformity. On the other hand, the lateral incidence may be a
better heating option in regime II based on the lower processing time.
In regime III, Group 1 material shows the maximum value of temperature at the center, whereas Group 2 material shows the local maxima
of temperature at both the exposed and unexposed faces during the lateral incidence. On the other hand, Group 3 and Group 4 materials show
the maximum in temperature at the exposed face during the lateral incidence, whereas the maximum value is found at the center of the sample for all Groups of materials during the radial incidence. The higher
processing times are observed for the radial incidence due to the
lower power absorption in regime III for all Groups of materials. It is observed that, in regime III, all Groups show the high degree of thermal

GROUP 3

GROUP 4

CONCLUSION

Identical processing time for lateral


and radial incidences irrespective of
Groups.

LATERAL
t = 0.41 min

t = 4.31 min

t = 0.078 min

t = 0.675 min

THIN

T = 0 K for all Groups due to both


lateral and radial incidences.

RADIAL
t = 0.41 min

t = 4.31 min

t = 0.078 min

t = 0.675 min

Almost identical processing time for


lateral and radial incidences for each
Group.

LATERAL
t = 0.173 min

13

t = 3.093 min

t = 0.061 min

t = 0.813 min

RADIAL
t = 0.175 min

t = 3.16 min

t = 0.061 min

t = 0.822 min

Low value of T ( T< 3.6 K) for


all Groups due to both lateral and
radial incidences.
Higher processing time for radial
incidence irrespective of Groups.

LATERAL
t = 1.017 min

t = 4.79 min

t = 1.115 min

t = 3.065 min

t = 9.53 min

t = 30.4 min

t = 2.55 min

t = 4.56 min

II
RADIAL

High value of T (Group 1 & 2 : T


< 50 K, Group 3 & 4: T < 25 K) due to
lateral incidence and low value of T
( T < 7.8 K) due to radial incidence.
Higher processing time for radial
incidence irrespective of Groups.

LATERAL

III

t = 3.38 min

t = 6.56 min

t = 2.76 min

t = 5.84 min

t = 4.68 min

t = 34.01 min

t = 4.93 min

t = 17.65 min

RADIAL

High value of T for all Groups


(Group 1 & 3: T < 36 K, Group 2 & 4:
T < 78 K) due to lateral incidence and
moderate value of T for Group 1 & 2(T
< 19 K) and low value of T for Group
3 & 4 (T< 7 K) due to radial incidence.
Higher processing time for radial
incidence irrespective of Groups.

LATERAL
t = 44.5 min

t = 75.73min

t = 6.42 min

t = 9.83 min

t = 264 min

t = 2189 min

t = 16.67 min

t = 37.83 min

THICK
RADIAL

Low value of T ( T< 3.6 K) except


T = 20 K for Group 4 for radial
incidence and very high value of
T (T >> 60 K) for lateral incidence
for all Groups.

Fig. 9. Maxima of spatial temperature (shaded zones) for all Groups of food materials in various regimes. Heating characteristics are highlighted at the last column.

Please cite this article as: Basak, T., et al., A generalized approach on microwave processing for the lateral and radial irradiations of various Groups
of food materials, Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ifset.2015.11.009

14

T. Basak et al. / Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies xxx (2015) xxxxxx

runaway (25 K T 78 K) during the lateral incidence. It is also observed that, Group 1 and Group 2 materials show the high degree of
thermal runaway (T is around 20 K), whereas Group 3 and Group 4
materials show the low degree of thermal runaway (T 7 K) corresponding to the radial incidence. In regime III, Group 3 and Group 4
can be processed in the presence of the radial incidence based on the
uniform heating of materials. Thick regime exhibits the maximum
value of temperature at the exposed surface of the sample for all Groups
of materials during the lateral incidence and the maximum value is
found at the outer surface of the sample for all Groups of materials during the radial incidence. Very high degree of thermal runaway
(63 K T 155 K) is found for all Groups of material for the lateral incidence, whereas the uniform heating with very low thermal runaway
(T 3.6) is observed for all Groups of materials (except Group 4,
T = 22 K) for the radial incidence (see Fig. 9). In thick regime, the radial irradiation is found to be optimal for material processing based on
low degree of thermal runaway, but the low degree of thermal runaway
corresponds to very high processing time.
Figure 9 illustrates that the zone of maximum heating rate shifts
from the unexposed face to the exposed face with the increase of the
sample size for all Groups of materials during the lateral incidence,
whereas that shifts from the center to the outer face of the sample
with the increase of sample size during the radial incidence. The optimal
food processing scenarios in the presence of the lateral or radial irradiation may be forecasted for any food materials based on the current
analysis.
Acknowledgments
Authors would like to thank anonymous reviewers for critical comments and suggestions which improved the quality of the manuscript.
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Please cite this article as: Basak, T., et al., A generalized approach on microwave processing for the lateral and radial irradiations of various Groups
of food materials, Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ifset.2015.11.009