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MGMT ESSAY 15 TOPICS

SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT
1. Replace each rule of thumb method with a scientific method
2. Managers should scientifically select, train, teach and develop workers
3. Managers should cooperate with workers to ensure work has been done according to the scientific
method developed
4. Almost equal work distribution between manager and workers

FAYOLISM 5 FUNCTIONS
PLANNING

ORGANISING

COMMANDING

Defining goals, establish


strategies, develop plans
and coordinate activities

Arranging and
structuring work

Implementing plans to
personnel

COORDINATING

CONTROLLING

Involves working with people

Evaluation and correction of


performance

McGREGORS THEORY X AND THEORY Y


Theory X
Employees are lazy and unmotivated
Close supervision from managers required
Well-defined rewards and punishments for control
Theory Y
Employees do what is good for the company, self-motivated
Managers need to provide opportunities
Authority should be decentralisation

MINTZBERGS MANAGERIAL ROLES

DESICIONAL

INFORMATIONAL

INTERPERSONAL

RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION


Recruitment & Derecruitment
Recruitment
The process of locating, identifying and attracting capable applicants
Derecruitment
Reducing the size of an organisation

Internal search

Advertisements
Employee Referrals
Employee Agencies

Resignation
Dismissal
Redundancy (or retrenchment)
Redeployment
Lay-off
Selection
Selection

+
+

Recruitment Sources
Low cost
Candidates already familiar with organisation
Limited supply
Wide distribution
Many unqualified candidates
Can generate strong candidates
May not increase diversity of employees
Many candidates
Only entry-level positions

Derecruitment Sources
Voluntary termination of employment
Involuntary termination of employment
Dismissal due to a unneeded role, not the fault of the employee
Transfer of an employee, maybe downward
Temporary involuntary termination

After recruitment is a process that involves predicting and choosing from a pool
of candidates who will be most suitable.

Selection Errors

Rejecting a suitable candidate (reject error) or accepting a candidate who does


not perform (accept error)

Realistic Job Preview

Provides both positive and negative information about the job and company

Application Forms
Interviews
Written Test
Performance/Simulation Test

Selection Devices
Can predict job performance
Can be subject to bias
Good at predicting supervisory positions
Simulates jobs, good for evaluating managerial potential

EMPLOYEE COMPENSATION AND BENEFITS

Compensations include rewards, benefits and incentive payments


Skill-based pay pay based on job skills demonstrated by employees
Variable pay
pay based contingent on employee performance
Profit Sharing
Group Incentives/Awards

PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT
Performance management system
Performance appraisal
Performance feedback

establishing performance standards and appraisal techniques


obtaining information on employee performance
the presentation of feedback

Performance Appraisal Methods


Written Essay
is a written description of employees strengths and weaknesses
Critical Incident
focuses on critical behaviour
Graphic Rating Scale
employee rated based on different performance factors
Behaviourally Anchored Rating Scale employee rated based on actual behaviours demonstrated
Multi-person Comparison
ratings based on comparisons with other employees
Management by Objectives
rated based on goals achieved
360-Degree Appraisal
uses feedback from supervisors and employees co-workers

UTILITARIANISM
Make crap up.

TUCKMAN AND JENSENS FRAMEWORK


PLANNING

STORMING

NORMING

People join the group,


defining group purpose,
structure, leadership

Conflict stage, control


over the group

Group structure
solidifies, assimilate to
common expectations

PERFORMING

ADJOURNING

Performing the task at hand

Group begins to disband,


wrapping up activities

HERSEY AND BLANCHARDS SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP


Situational Leadership Model
Readiness

focuses on followers readiness


the ability and willingness of followers to accomplish a task

TELLING

SELLING

PARTICIPATING

DELEGATING

High-task,
Low-relationship
leadership

High-task,
High-relationship
leadership

Low-task,
High-relationship
leadership

Low-task,
Low-relationship
leadership

JOB CHARACTERISTICS MODEL


SKILL VARIETY

TASK SIGNIFICANCE

TASK IDENTITY

AUTONOMY

JOB FEEDBACK

job has variety


of activities

job has substantial


impact

degree that the


job is required
for completion
of a task

degree of
freedom at
work

degree which
job provides
feedback

PERSONALITY THEORIES
Big 5 Model
EXTROVERSION
Sociable
Gregarious
Assertive
Talkative
Expressive

ADJUSTMENT

AGREEABLENESS
Courteous
Trusting
Good-natured
Tolerant
Cooperative
Forgiving

Emotionally stable
Non-depressed
Secure
Content

CONSCIENTIOUSNESS
Dependable
Organised
Persevering
Thorough
Achievement orientated

INQUISITIVENESS
Curious
Imaginative
Artistically sensitive
Broad-minded
Playful

Myer-Briggs Type Indicator


SOCIAL INTERACTION
Extrovert
Introvert

GATHERING DATA
Sensing
Intuitive

DECISION MAKING
Feeling
Thinking

ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE
Make more crap up.

INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION PROCESS


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Sender
Message
Encoding
Channel
Noise
Receiver

The person who wants to convey some information


The information that is to be conveyed
Information converted into symbolic form
The medium used to transfer the message
Any disturbances during the message transfer
The recipient of the message

STYLE OF DECISION MAKING


Perceptive
Judgemental

7. Decoding The translation of the message

TEMPORAL SCOPE AND COMMUNICATION MEDIA


More trust in face-to-face communication, compared to virtual communication
More team member exchange in face-to-face, compared to virtual communication
Communication was generally more effective with more team member exchange, not necessarily
information sharing.

POWER

Power is the capacity of A to influence B, and for B to act in accordance to As wishes


Largely based on Bs dependency on A

LEADERSHIP AND POWER

Legitimate power:
Coercive power:
Reward power:
Expert power:
Referent power:

authority
the responsibility to punish or control, based on fear
ability to distribute rewards
expertise, skill or knowledge
desirable personal traits or resources

LEADERSHIP
FIEDLER MODEL OF LEADERSHIP
LEADER-MEMBER
RELATIONS
Degree of confidence

TASK STRUCTURE

POSITION POWER

Formalisation of tasks
given to subordinates

Degree of influence over


power-based activites

PATH-GOAL THEORY
DIRECTIVE LEADER

SUPPORTIVE LEADER

Sets expectations of
subordinates,
specific guidance

Friendly, shows
concern for followers

PARTICIPATIVE
LEADER

ACHEIVEMENTORIENTED LEADER

Consults group before


making a team
suggestion

Expects highest
performance from
followers, sets
challenging goals

Unlike Fielder model, path-goal theory assumes the leader is flexible.

TRANSACTIONAL-TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERS
Transactional leaders:
Transformational leaders:

guide and motivate through social exchanges to work towards goals


stimulate and inspire followers to view old problems in new ways

STRATEGY
THREE TYPES OF ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE
1. Changing Structure
2. Changing Technology
3. Changing People

STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PROCESS

S TRENGTHS
WEAKNESSES
O PPORTUNITIES
T HREATS