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DSP .Chapter :02
Discrete-Time Signal Processing, 3rd Edition
Alan V. Oppenheim
Ronald W. Schafer

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You are on page 1of 29

See Oppenheim and Schafer, Second Edition pages 893, or First Edition

pages 879.

1 Discrete-time signals

A discrete-time signal is represented as a sequence of numbers:

x D fxng;

1 < n < 1:

Discrete-time signals are often obtained by sampling continuous-time signals.

In this case the nth sample of the sequence is equal to the value of the analogue

signal xa .t / at time t D nT :

xn D xa .nT /;

1 < n < 1:

fs D 1=T .

xa .1T /

...

...

t

x[1]

For this reason, although xn is strictly the nth number in the sequence, we

often refer to it as the nth sample. We also often refer to the sequence xn

when we mean the entire sequence.

Discrete-time signals are often depicted graphically as follows:

x[3]

x[2]

x[4]

x[1]

x[4]

x[0]

1

...

4

...

2

1 0

4

x[1]

x[3]

x[2]

(This can be plotted using the MATLAB function stem.) The value xn is

undefined for noninteger values of n.

Sequences can be manipulated in several ways. The sum and product of two

sequences xn and yn are defined as the sample-by-sample sum and product

respectively. Multiplication of xn by a is defined as the multiplication of

each sample value by a.

A sequence yn is a delayed or shifted version of xn if

yn D xn

n0 ;

with n0 an integer.

The unit sample sequence

1

n

0

is defined as

n D

8

<0

n0

:1

n D 0:

It plays the same role for discrete-time signals as the Dirac delta function does

for continuous-time signals. However, there are no mathematical

An important aspect of the impulse sequence is that an arbitrary sequence can

be represented as a sum of scaled, delayed impulses. For example, the

sequence

a

a

a4

a0

...

...

1

1 0

n

4

a1

a3

a2

can be represented as

xn D a

4 n

C 4 C a

3 n

C 3 C a

Ca1 n

2 n

1 C a2 n

C 2 C a

2 C a3 n

1 n

C 1 C a0 n

3 C a4 n

xn D

1

X

xkn

k:

kD 1

1

n

0

is defined as

un D

8

<1

n0

:0

n < 0:

4:

n

X

un D

k:

kD 1

un D n C n

1 C n

2 C D

1

X

k:

kD0

Conversely, the unit sample sequence can be expressed as the first backward

difference of the unit step sequence

n D un

un

1:

discrete-time systems. The general form is

xn D A n :

If A and are real numbers then the sequence is real. If 0 < < 1 and A is

positive, then the sequence values are positive and decrease with increasing n:

...

...

n

0

For 1 < < 0 the sequence alternates in sign, but decreases in magnitude.

For jj > 1 the sequence grows in magnitude as n increases.

A sinusoidal sequence

...

0

n

...

xn D A cos.!0 n C /

for all n;

D jje j!0 and A D jAje j can be expressed as

xn D A n D jAje j jjn e j!0 n D jAjjjn e j.!0 nC/

D jAjjjn cos.!0 n C / C j jAjjjn sin.!0 n C /;

so the real and imaginary parts are exponentially weighted sinusoids.

When jj D 1 the sequence is called the complex exponential sequence:

xn D jAje j.!0 nC/ D jAj cos.!0 n C / C j jAj sin.!0 n C /:

The frequency of this complex sinusoid is !0 , and is measured in radians per

sample. The phase of the signal is .

The index n is always an integer. This leads to some important differences

between the properties of discrete-time and continuous-time complex

exponentials:

Consider the complex exponential with frequency .!0 C 2/:

xn D Ae j.!0 C2/n D Ae j!0 n e j 2 n D Ae j!0 n :

Thus the sequence for the complex exponential with frequency !0 is

exactly the same as that for the complex exponential with frequency

.!0 C 2/. More generally, complex exponential sequences with

frequencies .!0 C 2 r/, where r is an integer, are indistinguishable from

one another. Similarly, for sinusoidal sequences

xn D A cos.!0 C 2 r/n C D A cos.!0 n C /:

In the continuous-time case, sinusoidal and complex exponential

sequences are always periodic. Discrete-time sequences are periodic (with

period N) if

xn D xn C N

for all n:

A cos.!0 n C / D A cos.!0 n C !0 N C /;

which requires that

!0 N D 2k

for k an integer:

C e j!0 n to be periodic.

The two factors just described can be combined to reach the conclusion that

there are only N distinguishable frequencies for which the corresponding

sequences are periodic with period N . One such set is

!k D

2k

;

N

k D 0; 1; : : : ; N

1:

frequencies has to be modified: the discrete-time sinusoidal sequence

xn D A cos.!0 n C / oscillates more rapidly as !0 increases from 0 to ,

but the oscillations become slower as it increases further from to 2.

!0 D 0

1

0

1

!0 D

8

1

0

1

!0 D

4

1

0

1

!0 D

1

0

!0 D 15

8

!0 D 7

4

1

1

0

1

1

0

1

8

!0 D 2. In general, any frequencies in the vicinity of !0 D 2k for integer

k are typically referred to as low frequencies, and those in the vicinity of

!0 D . C 2k/ are high frequencies.

2 Discrete-time systems

A discrete-time system is defined as a transformation or mapping operator that

maps an input signal xn to an output signal yn. This can be denoted as

yn D T fxng:

T fg

x[n]

y[n]

yn D xn

nd W

x[n]

...

...

n

3

y[n]=x[n2]

...

...

n

1

M2

X

1

xn

yn D

M1 C M2 C 1

kD M1

y[3]

x[n]

...

...

n

1

y[2]

::

:

1

.x1 C x2 C x3/

3

1

y3 D .x2 C x3 C x4/

3

::

:

y2 D

transformation T fg.

A system is memoryless if the output yn depends only on xn at the same n.

For example, yn D .xn/2 is memoryless, but the ideal delay

yn D xn

nd is not unless nd D 0.

A system is linear if the principle of superposition applies. Thus if y1 n is the

response of the system to the input x1 n, and y2 n the response to x2 n, then

linearity implies

Additivity:

T fx1 n C x2 ng D T fx1 ng C T fx2 ng D y1 n C y2 n

Scaling:

T fax1 ng D aT fx1 ng D ay1 n:

These properties combine to form the general principle of superposition

T fax1 n C bx2 ng D aT fx1 ng C bT fx2 ng D ay1 n C by2 n:

In all cases a and b are arbitrary constants.

This property generalises to many inputs, so the response of a linear system to

P

P

xn D k ak xk n will be yn D k ak yk n.

A system is time invariant if a time shift or delay of the input sequence causes

a corresponding shift in the output sequence. That is, if yn is the response to

xn, then yn n0 is the response to xn n0 .

For example, the accumulator system

yn D

n

X

kD 1

10

xk

yn D xM n

for M a positive integer (which selects every M th sample from a sequence) is

not.

2.4 Causality

A system is causal if the output at n depends only on the input at n and earlier

inputs.

For example, the backward difference system

yn D xn

xn

yn D xn C 1

xn

is not.

2.5 Stability

A system is stable if every bounded input sequence produces a bounded output

sequence:

Bounded input: jxnj Bx < 1

Bounded output: jynj By < 1.

For example, the accumulator

yn D

n

X

kD 1

11

xn

is

8

n

<0

X

n<0

yn D

un D

:n C 1

n 0;

kD 1

If the linearity property is combined with the representation of a general

sequence as a linear combination of delayed impulses, then it follows that a

linear time-invariant (LTI) system can be completely characterised by its

impulse response.

Suppose hk n is the response of a linear system to the impulse n

n D k. Since

( 1

)

X

yn D T

xkn k ;

k at

kD 1

yn D

1

X

xkT fn

kg D

kD 1

1

X

xkhk n:

kD 1

hn k. The previous equation then becomes

yn D

1

X

xkhn

k is

k:

kD 1

This expression is called the convolution sum. Therefore, a LTI system has

the property that given hn, we can find yn for any input xn. Alternatively,

yn is the convolution of xn with hn, denoted as follows:

yn D xn hn:

12

The previous derivation suggests the interpretation that the input sample at

n D k, represented by xkn k, is transformed by the system into an

output sequence xkhn k. For each k, these sequences are superimposed

to yield the overall output sequence:

hn

xn

1

1 0

x 1hn C 1

x 1n C 1

1 0

x1n

x1hn

1

0

yn D x 1hn C 1 C x1hn

computational form: the nth value of the output, namely yn, is obtained by

multiplying the input sequence (expressed as a function of k) by the sequence

with values hn k, and then summing all the values of the products

xkhn k. The key to this method is in understanding how to form the

sequence hn k for all values of n of interest.

To this end, note that hn k D h .k n/. The sequence h k is seen to

be equivalent to the sequence hk reflected around the origin:

13

h[k]

2

Reflect

h[k]

0

k

2

Shift

h[nk]

n5

The sequence hn

to k D n.

n+2

multiplied together for 1 < k < 1, and the products summed to obtain the

value of the output sample yn. To obtain another output sample, the

procedure is repeated with the origin shifted to the new sample position.

Example: analytical evaluation of the convolution sum

Consider the output of a system with impulse response

8

<1

0nN 1

hn D

:0

otherwise

to the input xn D an un. To find the output at n, we must form the sum over

all k of the product xkhn k.

14

x[n]

0.5

0

10

0

k

n(N1) 0

k

10

10

h[nk]

0.5

0

10

Since the sequences are non-overlapping for all negative n, the output must be

zero:

yn D 0;

For 0 n N

follows that

n < 0:

yn D

n

X

ak ;

0nN

k D ak , so it

1:

kD0

Finally, for n > N 1 the product terms are xkhn k D ak as before, but

the lower limit on the sum is now n N C 1. Therefore

yn D

n

X

ak ;

kDn N C1

15

n>N

1:

All LTI systems are described by the convolution sum

yn D

1

X

xkhn

k:

kD 1

properties of the convolution operation:

Commutative: xn hn D hn xn

Distributive over addition:

xn .h1 n C h2 n/ D xn h1 n C xn h2 n:

Cascade connection:

x[n]

x[n]

h1 n

h2 n

h2 n

y[n]

h1 n

y[n]

yn D hn xn D h1 n h2 n xn D h2 n h1 n xn.

Parallel connection:

h1 n

x[n]

y[n]

h2 n

yn D .h1 n C h2 n/ xn D hp n xn.

Additional important properties are:

A LTI system is stable if and only if S D

16

P1

kD 1

delay system hn D n

average system

M2

X

1

hn D

n k

M1 C M2 C 1

kD M1

8

1

<

M1 n M2

M1 CM2 C1

D

:0

otherwise;

difference system hn D n n 1 are stable since S is the sum of a

finite number of finite samples, and is therefore less than 1; the

accumulator system

hn D

n

X

kD 1

8

<1

:0

n0

n<0

D un

is unstable since S D

P1

nD0

un D 1.

A LTI system is causal if and only if hn D 0 for n < 0. The ideal delay

system is causal if nd 0; the moving average system is causal if

M1 0 and M2 0; the accumulator and backward difference systems

are causal; the forward difference system is noncausal.

Systems with only a finite number of nonzero values in hn are called Finite

duration impulse response (FIR) systems. FIR systems are stable if each

impulse response value is finite. The ideal delay, the moving average, and the

forward and backward difference described above fall into this class. Infinite

impulse response (IIR) systems, such as the accumulator system, are more

difficult to analyse. For example, the accumulator system is unstable, but the

17

IIR system

hn D an un;

jaj < 1

is stable since

SD

1

X

ja j

1

X

jajn D

nD0

nD0

1

1

jaj

<1

Consider the system

Forward

difference

Onesample

delay

which has

hn D .n C 1

n/ n

D n

1 n C 1

D n

1

1 n

1:

Forward

difference

Onesample

delay

Backward

difference

Here a non-causal system has been converted to a causal one by cascading with

a delay. In general, any non-causal FIR system can be made causal by

cascading with a sufficiently long delay.

Consider the system consisting of an accumulator followed by a backward

difference:

18

Backward

difference

Accumulator

hn D un .n

1/ D un

un

1 D n:

The output is therefore equal to the input because xn n D xn. Thus the

backward difference exactly compensates for (or inverts) the effect of the

accumulator the backward difference system is the inverse system for the

accumulator, and vice versa. We define this inverse relationship for all LTI

systems:

hn hi n D n:

Some LTI systems can be represented in terms of linear constant coefficient

difference (LCCD) equations

N

X

ak yn

k D

M

X

bm xn

m:

mD0

kD0

Take for example the accumulator

Accumulator

x[n]

y[n]

Backward

difference

x[n]

N D 1, a0 D 1, a1 D 1, M D 0, and b0 D 1. Rewriting as

yn D yn

19

1 C xn

x[n]

y[n]

Onesample

delay

yn 1.

Example: difference equation representation of moving average

Consider now the moving average system with M1 D 0:

hn D

1

.un

M2 C 1

un

M2

1/:

M2

X

1

yn D

xn

M2 C 1

k;

kD0

Using the sifting property of n,

hn D

1

.n

M2 C 1

M2

1/ un

so

Attenuator

x[n]

x1 n

1=.M2 C 1/

.M2 C 1/

sample delay

20

Accumulator

y[n]

yn yn 1 D x1 n. Therefore

yn

yn

1 D

M2

1

.xn

M2 C 1

xn

M2

1/;

b0 D bM2 C1 D 1=.M2 C 1/.

1,

without additional information or constraints a LCCDE does not provide a

unique solution for the output given an input. Specifically, suppose we have

the particular output yp n for the input xp n. The same equation then has the

solution

yn D yp n C yh n;

where yh n is any solution with xn D 0. That is, yh n is an homogeneous

solution to the homogeneous equation

N

X

ak yh n

k D 0:

kD0

It can be shown that there are N nonzero solutions to this equation, so a set of

N auxiliary conditions are required for a unique specification of yn for a

given xn.

If a system is LTI and causal, then the initial conditions are initial rest

conditions, and a unique solution can be obtained.

6 Frequency-domain representation of

discrete-time signals and systems

The Fourier transform considered here is strictly speaking the discrete-time

Fourier transform (DTFT), although Oppenheim and Schafer call it just the

21

Fourier transform. Its properties are recapped here (with examples) to show

nomenclature.

Complex exponentials

xn D e j!n ;

1<n<1

yn D

1

X

hke j!.n

k/

1

X

D e j!n

kD 1

hke

j!k

kD 1

Defining

H.e

j!

/D

1

X

j!k

hke

kD 1

eigenfunction of the system, and H.e j! / is the associated eigenvalue.

The quantity H.e j! / is called the frequency response of the system, and

H.e j! / D HR .e j! / C jHI .e j! / D jH.e j! /je j ^H.e

j! /

Consider the input xn D e j!n to the ideal delay system yn D xn

the output is

yn D e j!.n nd / D e j!nd e j!n :

The frequency response is therefore

H.e j! / D e

j!nd

H.e

j!

/D

1

X

nd e

nd ,

j!n

De

j!nd

nD 1

22

nd :

jH.e j! /j D 1

^H.e j! / D

!nd :

The frequency response of a LTI system is essentially the same for continuous

and discrete time systems. However, an important distinction is that in the

discrete case it is always periodic in frequency with a period 2:

H.e

j.!C2/

/D

D

D

1

X

nD 1

1

X

nD 1

1

X

hne

j.!C2/n

hne

j!n

hne

j!n

j 2 n

D H.e j! /:

nD 1

The reason for this periodicity is related to the observation that the sequence

j!n

;

1<n<1

e

has exactly the same values as the sequence

o

n

j.!C2/n

;

1 < n < 1:

e

A system will therefore respond in exactly the same way to both sequences.

Example: ideal frequency selective filters

The frequency response of an ideal lowpass filter is as follows:

23

Hlp .e j! /

2

!c

!c

2

frequency cycle, usually chosen to be the range to . Other examples of

ideal filters are:

Hhp .e j! /

Highpass

!c

!c

j!

1 Hbs .e /

Bandstop

!b

!a

1

!a

Hbp .e j! /

!b

Bandpass

!b

!a

!a

!b

In these cases it is implied that the frequency response repeats with period 2

outside of the plotted interval.

Example: frequency response of the moving-average system

24

8

1

<

M1 n M2

M1 CM2 C1

hn D

:0

otherwise

is given by

H.e j! / D

1

e j!.M2 CM1 C1/=2 e j!.M2 CM1 C1/=2

e

M1 C M2 C 1

1 e j!

1

e

D

M1 C M2 C 1

e j!=2 e j!=2

sin!.M1 C M2 C 1/=2 j!.M2 M1 /

1

2

e

:

D

M1 C M2 C 1

sin.!=2/

j!.M2

M1 C1/

j!.M2 M1 /

2

For M1 D 0 and M2 D 4,

jH.e j! /j

2

2

5

2

5

2

2

^H.e j! /

!

0

2

!

This system attenuates high frequencies (at around ! D ), and therefore has

the behaviour of a lowpass filter.

25

The discrete time Fourier transform (DTFT) of the sequence xn is

X.e

j!

/D

1

X

xne

j!n

nD 1

This is also called the forward transform or analysis equation. The inverse

Fourier transform, or synthesis formula, is given by the Fourier integral

Z

1

xn D

X.e j! /e j!n d!:

2

The Fourier transform is generally a complex-valued function of !:

X.e j! / D XR .e j! / C jXI .e j! / D jX.e j! /je j ^X.e

j! /

The quantities jX.e j! /j and ^X.e j! / are referred to as the magnitude and

phase of the Fourier transform. The Fourier transform is often referred to as

the Fourier spectrum.

Since the frequency response of a LTI system is given by

H.e

j!

/D

1

X

hke

j!k

kD 1

the impulse response, and the impulse response is

Z

1

hn D

H.e j! /e j!n d!:

2

A sufficient condition for the existence of the Fourier transform of a sequence

P

xn is that it be absolutely summable: 1

nD 1 jxnj < 1. In other words,

P1

the Fourier transform exists if the sum nD 1 jxnj converges. The Fourier

transform may however exist for sequences where this is not true a rigorous

mathematical treatment can be found in the theory of generalised functions.

26

Any sequence xn can be expressed as

xn D xe n C xo n;

where xe n is conjugate symmetric (xe n D xe n) and xo n is conjugate

antisymmetric (xo n D xo n). These two components of the sequence

can be obtained as:

1

.xn C x n/ D xe n

2

1

xo n D .xn x n/ D xo n:

2

xe n D

conjugate antisymmetric, then it is odd.

Similarly, the Fourier transform X.e j! / can be decomposed into a sum of

conjugate symmetric and antisymmetric parts:

X.e j! / D Xe .e j! / C Xo .e j! /;

where

1

X.e j! / C X .e

2

1

Xo .e j! / D X.e j! / X .e

2

Xe .e j! / D

j!

j!

/:

X.e j! / D XR .e j! / C jXI .e j! /;

the symmetry properties of the Fourier transform can be summarised as

follows:

27

Sequence xn

Transform X.e j! /

x n

X .e

j!

x n

X .e j! /

Refxng

Xe .e j! /

j Imfxng

Xo .e j! /

xe n

XR .e j! /

xo n

jXI .e j! /

Most of these properties can be proved by substituting into the expression for

the Fourier transform. Additionally, for real xn the following also hold:

Transform X.e j! /

Real sequence xn

xn

X.e j! / D X .e

xn

XR .e j! / D XR .e

xn

XI .e j! / D

xn

jX.e j! /j D jX.e

xn

^X.e j! / D

j!

j!

j!

^X.e

XR .e j! /

xo n

jXI .e j! /

j!

XI .e

xe n

/

/

/j

j!

Let X.e j! / be the Fourier transform of xn. The following theorems then

apply:

28

Sequences xn, yn

Transforms X.e j! /, Y .e j! /

Property

axn C byn

aX.e j! / C bY .e j! /

Linearity

xn

nd

j!nd

X.e j! /

e j!0 n xn

X.e j.!

x n

X.e

nxn

xn yn

X.e

1

2

xnyn

R

!0 /

j!

Time shift

Frequency shift

Time reversal

dX.e j! /

Frequency diff.

d!

j!

/Y .e

j!

X.e j /Y .e j.!

Convolution

/

/d

Modulation

Sequence

Fourier transform

n0

1 . 1 < n < 1/

an un .jaj < 1/

un

.n C 1/an un .jaj < 1/

sin.!c n/

n

xn D

8

<1

:0

j!n0

P1

kD 1 2.! C 2k/

1

1 ae j!

P1

1

C

kD 1 .! C 2k/

1 e j!

1

8.1 ae j! /2

X.e

j!

/D

<1

:0

0nM

j!j < !c

!c < j!j

sin!.M C1/=2

e j!M=2

sin.!=2/

otherwise

P1

e j!0 n

kD 1

29

2.!

!0 C 2k/

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