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Ch 9 Discrete Control

Using PLCs and PCs


Sections:
1. Discrete Process Control
2. Ladder Logic Diagrams
3. Programmable Logic Controllers
4. Personal Computers Using Soft Logic

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No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

Discrete Process Control


Discrete process control systems deal with parameters
and variables that are discrete and that change
values at discrete moments in time.
The parameters and variables are typically binary; they
can have either of two possible values, 1 or 0.
The values mean
ON or OFF,
true or false,
object present or not present,
high voltage value or low voltage value, and so on,
depending on the application.
2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

Discrete Process Control


The binary variables in discrete process control are
associated with input signals to the controller and
output signals from the controller.
Input signals are typically generated by binary sensors,
such as limit switches or photosensors that are
interfaced to the process.
Output signals are generated by the controller to
operate the process in response to the input signals
and as a function of time.
These output signals turn on and off switches, motors,
valves, and other binary actuators related to the
process.
2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

Discrete Process Control


The purpose of the controller is to coordinate the
various actions of the physical system, such as
transferring parts into a workholder, feeding a
machining workhead, and so on.
Discrete process control can be divided into two
categories:
(1) logic control, which is concerned with
event-driven changes in the system, and
(2) sequencing, which is concerned with
time-driven changes in the system.
Both are referred to as switching systems in the sense
that they switch their output values on and off in
response to changes in events or time.
2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

Discrete Process Control

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No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

Logic Control
A logic control system, also referred to as
combinational logic control, is a switching system
whose output at any moment is determined
exclusively by the values of the current inputs.
(1) A logic control system has no memory and does
not consider any previous values of input signals in
determining the output signal.
(2) Neither does it have any operating characteristics
that perform directly as a function of time.

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No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

Logic Control
Example from robotics to illustrate logic control:
In a machine-loading application, the robot is
programmed to pick up a raw workpart from a known
stopping point along a conveyor and place it in a
forging press.
Three conditions must be satisfied to initiate the loading
cycle.
1. The raw workpart must be at the stopping point;
2. The forging press must have completed the process
on the previous part;
3. The previous part must be removed from the die.
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No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
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Logic Control
The first condition can be indicated by means of a
simple limit switch that senses the presence of the
part at the conveyor stop and transmits an ON signal
to the robot controller.
The second condition can be indicated by the forging
press, which sends an ON signal after it has
completed the previous cycle.
The third condition might be determined by a
photodetector located so as to sense the presence
or absence of the part in the forging die. When the
finished part is removed from the die, an ON signal
is transmitted by the photocell.
All tree of these ON signals must be received by the
robot controller to initiate the next work cycle.

2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

Boolean Algebra and Truth Tables


The logic elements form the foundation for a special
algebra that was developed around 1847 by George
Boole and that bears his name.
Its original purpose was to provide a symbolic means of
testing whether complex statements of logic were
TRUE or FALSE.
In fact, Boole called it logical algebra.
It was not until about a century later that Boolean algebra
was shown to be useful in digital logic systems.

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No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

Elements of Logic Control


Basic elements, called logic gates:
AND output = 1 if all inputs = 1, zero otherwise
OR output = 1 if any input = 1, zero otherwise
NOT output = 1 if (single) input = 0, and vice versa
Additional elements:
NAND combination of AND and NOT
NOR combination of OR and NOT

2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

Elements of Logic Control


The basic elements of logic control are the logic gates
AND, OR, and NOT.
In each case, the logic gate is designed to provide a
specified output value based on the values of the
input(s).
For both inputs and outputs, the values can be one of
two levels, the binary values 0 or 1.
For purposes of industrial control, we define:
0 (zero) to mean OFF, and
1 (one) to mean ON.
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No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
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AND Gate
Electrical circuit illustrating
the operation of the logical
AND gate.

In Boolean algebra, the AND function is expressed as:


Y = X1.X2

(9.1)

This is called the logical product of X1 and X2.


As a logic statement it means: Y is true if both X1 and X2 are
true; otherwise, Y is false.
2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
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AND Gate
The truth table is often
used to present the
operation of logic systems.
A truth table is a tabulation
of all of the combinations
of input values to the
corresponding logical
output values.
The truth table for the
AND gate has four
possible combinations for
two input binary variables.
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No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

OR Gate
The OR function in
Boolean algebra notation
is given by:
Y = X1 + X2

(9.2)

This is called the logical


sum of X1 and X2.
In logic, the statement
says: Y is true if either X1
or X2 is true; otherwise Y
is false.
2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
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NOT Gate
The NOT function is
referred to as the negation
or inversion of the
variable.
It is indicated by placing a
bar above the variable.
Y = X1

(9.3)

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Truth Tables for


NAND and NOR Gates

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Elements of Logic Control


The interlock system in our previous robot forging exampie illustrates the AND gate. All three conditions must
be satisfied before loading of the forge press is
allowed to occur.
The OR gate outputs a value of 1 if either of the inputs
has a value of 1, and 0 otherwise.
A possible use of the OR gate in a manufacturing system
is for safety monitoring. Suppose that two sensors are
utilized to monitor two different safety hazards. When
either hazard is present, the respective sensor emits a
positive signal that sounds an alarm buzzer.
2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

Elements of Logic Control


Both the AND and OR gates can be used with two or
more inputs.
The NOT gate has a single input.
The NOT gate reverses the input signal:
If the input is 1, then the output is 0;
if the input is 0, then the output is 1.
The NOT gate can he used to open a circuit upon receipt
of a control signal.

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No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

Laws and Theorems of


Boolean Algebra

These laws and theorems can often be applied to simplify logic circuits and
reduce the number of elements required to implement the logic, with resulting
savings in hardware and/or programming time.
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Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

Symbols for Logical Gates:


U.S. and ISO

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Logic Control

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No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
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Logic Control

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No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
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11

Logic Control

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No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
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Logic Control

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No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
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12

Logic Control

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No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

Sequencing
A sequencing system uses internal timing devices to
determine when to initiate changes in output variables.
Washing machines, dryers, dishwashers, and similar
appliances use sequencing systems to time the start
and stop of cycle elements.
Many applications in industrial automation require the
controller to provide a prescheduled set of ON/OFF
values for the output variables.

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No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
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13

Sequencing
Outputs are usually generated open loop fashion.
There is no feedback verification that the control
function has actually been executed.
Sequence of output signals is usually cyclical, as in a
high production work cycle; the signaIs occur in the
same repeated pattern within each regular cycle.
Common sequencing devices are:
Timer output switches on/off at preset times
Counter counts electrical pulses and stores them

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No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

Sequencing - Timer
A timer is a device that switches its output ON or OFF
at preset title intervals.
Common timers used in industry and in homes switch
on when activated and remain on for a programmed
length of time.
Two additional types of timers used in discrete control
systems can be distinguished as:
(1) delay-off timers and
(2) delay-on timers.

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No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
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14

Sequencing - Timer
A delay-off timer switches power on immediately in
response to a start signal, and then switches power off
after a specified time delay.
Many cars are equipped with this type of device.
When you exit the car, the lights remain on for a
certain length of time (e.g., 30 seconds), and then
automatically turn off.
A delay-on tuner waits a specified length of time
before switching power on when it receives a start
signal.
To program a timer, the user must specify the length
of the time delay.
2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

Sequencing - Counter
A counter is a component used to count electrical
pulses and store the results of the counting procedure.
The instantaneous contents can be displayed and/or
used in a process control algorithm.
Counters are classified as up counters,
down counters, and up/down counters.
Counters require two inputs:
1. Pulse train (series of on/off signals) that is
counted the counter.
2. Signal to reset the counter and restart the
counting procedure.
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No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
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15

Sequencing - Counter
Resetting the counter means zeroing the count for an
up counter and setting the starting value for a down
counter.
The accumulated count is retained in memory for use if
required for the application.
An up counter starts at zero and increments its
contents (the count total) by one in response to each
pulse. When a preset value has been reached, the
up counter can be reset to zero.
A down counter starts with a preset value and
decrements the total by one for each pulse received.
An up/down counter combines the two counting
operations.
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No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

Logic Diagrams
The logic network diagrams are useful for displaying
the relationships between logic elements.
Another diagramming technique that exhibits the logic
and to some extent, the timing and sequencing of
the system is the ladder logic diagram.
This graphical method has an important virtue in that it
is analogous to the electrical circuits used to
accomplish the logic and sequence control.
In addition, ladder logic diagrams are familiar to shop
personnel who must construct, test, maintain, and
repair the discrete control system.
2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

16

Ladder Logic
Diagram

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No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

Ladder Logic Diagrams


In a ladder logic diagram, the various logic elements
and other components are displayed along
horizontal lines or rungs connected on either end
to two vertical rails.
The diagram has the general configuration of a
ladder, hence its name.
The elements and components are:
contacts (representing logical inputs) and
loads also known as coils (representing outputs).
It is customary in ladder diagrams to locate the inputs
to the left of each rung and the outputs to the right.
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No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
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17

Ladder Logic Diagrams


A diagram in which various logic elements and other
components are displayed along horizontal rungs
connected on either end to two vertical rails
Types of elements and components:
1. Contacts - logical inputs (usually), e.g., limit
switches, photo-detector
2. Loads - outputs, e.g., motors, lights, alarms,
solenoids
3. Timers - to specify length of delay
4. Counters - to count pulses received
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No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

Symbols for Common Elements


Used in Ladder Logic Diagrams

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No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
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18

Ladder Logic Diagrams

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No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

Ladder Logic Diagrams


NAND, NOR
X1

NAND

X2

C
X1
NOR

X2
C

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No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
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19

Ladder Logic Diagrams

2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
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Ladder Logic Diagrams

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No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

20

Features of Ladder Logic Diagrams


Example 9.5 illustrates several important features of a ladder
logic diagram.
1. The same input can be used more than once in the
diagram.
In our example, the relay contact C was used as an input
on both the second and third rungs of the ladder.
This feature of using a given relay contact in several
different rungs of he ladder diagram to serve multiple logic
functions provides a substantial advantage for the
programmable controller over hardwired control unit.
(With hardwired relays, separate contacts would have to
be built into the controller for each logic function.)
2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

Features of Ladder Logic Diagrams


2. A second feature of Example 9.5 is that it is possible for an
output (load) on one rung of the diagram to be an input
(contact) for another rung.
The relay C was the output on the top rung in Figure 9.11,
but that output was used as an input elsewhere in the
diagram.
This same feature was illustrated in the push-button ladder
diagram of Example 9.4.

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No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
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21

Ladder Logic Diagrams

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No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

Ladder Logic Diagrams

2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

22

Ladder Logic
Diagram

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No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

Advantages of Ladder Logic Diagrams


Familiar to shop personnel who must construct, test,
maintain, and repair the control system,
Analogous to the electrical circuits used to accomplish
logic and sequence control,
Principal technique for programming PLCs.

2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

23

Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)


A Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) can be defined as
a microcomputer-based controller that uses stored
instructions in programmable memory to implement logic,
sequencing, timing, counting and arithmetic functions
through digital or analog input/output (I/O) modules, for
controlling machines and processes.
PLCs are primarily associated with discrete manufacturing
industries to control individual machines, machine cells,
transfer lines, material handling equipment, and
automated storage systems.

2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)


Examples of applications in process industries include
chemical processing, paper mill operations, and food
production.
Before the PLC was introduced around 1970, hard-wired
controllers composed of relays, coils, counters, timers,
and similar components were used to implement this
type of industrial control.
Today, many older pieces of equipment are being
retrofitted with PLCs to replace the original hard- wired
controllers, often making the equipment more productive
and reliable than when it was new.
2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

24

Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)

2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

Advantages of PLCs Compared to


Relay Control Panels
Programming a PLC is easier than wiring a relay control
panel,
PLC can be reprogrammed,
PLCs take less floor space,
Greater reliability, easier maintenance,
PLC can be connected to computer systems (CIM),
PLCs can perform a greater variety of control functions.

2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

25

Components of a PLC

2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

PLC Components
1. Processor is the central processing unit (CPU) of the
programmable controller.
Executes logic and sequencing functions by operating on
the PLC inputs to determine the appropriate output
signals.
The CPU Consists of one or more microprocessors
similar to those used in PCs and other data processing
equipment.
The difference is that they have a real-time operating
system and are programmed to facilitate I/O transactions
and execute ladder logic functions.
2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

26

PLC Components
2. Input/output module
connections to process; provides the connections to the
industrial equipment or process that is to be controlled.
Inputs to the controller are signals from limit switches,
push-buttons, sensors, and other on/off devices;
Outputs from the controller are on/off signals to operate
motors, valves, and other devices required to actuate the
process.
In addition, many PLCs are capable of accepting
continuous signals from analog sensors and generating
signals suitable for analog actuators.
The Size of a PLC is usually rated in terms of the number
of its I/O terminals.
2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

PLC Components
3. Memory unit contains the programs of logic,
sequencing, and I/O operations.
4. Power supply converts 115 - 240 V (AC) to
DC voltages of 5 V compatible with process equipment.
5. Programming device
The PLC is programmed by means of a programming
device.
The programming device is usually detachable from the
PLC cabinet so that it can he shared among different
controllers.
2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

27

PLC Components
Programming Device
Different PLC manufacturers provide
different devices, ringing from simple
teach-pendant type devices, similar to
those used in robotics, to special PLC
programming keyboards and displays.
Personal computers can also be used
to program PLCs.
A PC used for this purpose
sometimes remains connected to the
PLC to serve a process monitoring or
supervisory function and for
conventional data processing
applications related to the process.
2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

Typical PLC Operating Cycle


1. Input scan inputs are read by processor and stored in
memory.
2. Program scan control program is executed.
Input values stored in memory are used in the control
logic calculations to determine values of outputs
3. Output scan output values are updated to agree with
calculated values.
Time to perform the three steps (scan time) varies between 1
and 25 ms.
2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

28

Typical PLC Operating Cycle - Scan

One of the potential problems that can occur during the


scan cycle is that the value of an input can change
immediately after it has been sampled.
Since the program uses the input value stored in memory,
any output values that are dependent on that input are
determined incorrectly.
There is obviously a potential risk involved in this mode of
operation.

2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

Typical PLC Operating Cycle - Scan

However, the risk is minimized because the time between


updates is so short that it is unlikely that the output value
being incorrect for such a short time will have a serious
effect on process operation.
The risk becomes most significant in processes in which
the response times are very fast and where hazards can
occur during the scan time.
Some PLCs have special features for making immediate
updates ol output signals when input variables are known
to cycle back and forth at frequencies faster than the scan
time.
2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

29

Additional PLC Capabilities


Analog control PID control available on some PLCs for
continuous processes.
Arithmetic functions permits more complex control
algorithms to be implemented than conventional logic and
sequencing elements.
Matrix functions e.g., linear programming for optimal
control.
Data processing and reporting business applications.
Blurs the distinction between PLCs and PCs.

2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

PLC Programming
A standard for PLC programming was published by the
International Electrotechnical Commission in 1992,
entitled:
International Standard for Programming
Controllers (IEC 1131-3).
This standard specifics three graphical languages and
two text-based languages for programming PLCs.
IEC 1131-3 also states that the five languages must be
able to interact with each other to allow for all
possible levels of control sophistication in any given
application.
2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

30

PLC Programming

Graphical languages:
1. Ladder logic diagrams most widely used,
2. Function block diagrams instructions
composed of operation blocks that transform
input signals,
3. Sequential function charts series of steps
and transitions from one state to the next
(Europe).
Text-based languages:
1. Instruction list low-level computer language
2. Structured text high-level computer language

2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

PLC Programming

2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

31

PLC Programming
1. Ladder logic diagrams (LD)
The most widely used PLC programming language
today involves ladder diagrams (LDs).
Direct entry of the ladder logic diagram into the PLC
memory requires the use of a keyboard and monitor
with graphics capability to display symbols
representing the components and their
interrelationships in the ladder logic diagram.
The programmer inputs the ladder logic circuit
diagram rung by rung into the PLC memory with the
monitor displaying the results for verification.
2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

PLC Programming
2. Function Block Diagrams (FBD)
A function block diagram provides a means of
inputting high-level instructions.
Instructions are composed of operational blocks.
Each block has one or more inputs and one or more
outputs.
Within a block, certain operations take place on the
inputs to transform the signals into the desired
outputs.

2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

32

PLC Programming
3. Sequential Function Charts (SFC)
Also called the Grafcet Method graphically displays
the sequential functions of an automated system as
a series of steps and transitions from one state of
the system to the next.
It has become a standard method for documenting
logic control and sequencing in much of Europe.
However, its use in the United States is more
limited.

2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

PLC Programming
4. Instruction List (IL)
Instruction list programming provides a way of
entering the ladder logic diagram into PLC memory
The programmer uses a low-level computer
language to construct the ladder logic diagram by
entering statements that specify the various
components and their relationships fur each rung of
the ladder diagram.

2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

33

PLC Programming Instruction List


Let us explain this approach by introducing a
hypothetical PLC instruction set.
Our PLC language is a composite of various
manufacturers languages.
It contains fewer features than must commercially
available PLCs.
The instruction set for our PLC is presented in
Table 9.10.

2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

PLC Programming Instruction List

2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

34

PLC Programming Instruction List

2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

PLC Programming Instruction List

2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

35

PLC Programming
5. Structured Text (ST)
A high-level computer-type language, likely to
become more common in the future to program
PLCs and PC for automation and control
applications.
The principal advantage ol a high-level language is
its capability to perform data processing and
calculations on values other than binary.
Ladder diagrams and low level PLC languages are
usually quite limited in their ability to operate on
signals that are other than ON/OFF types.
2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

PLC Programming Structured Text


The capability to perform data processing and
computation permits the use of more complex
control algorithms, communication with other
computer-based systems, display of data on a
monitor, and input of data by a human operator.
Another advantage is the relative ease with which a
complicated control program can be interpreted by a
user.
Explanatory comments can be inserted into the
program to facilitate interpretation.

2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

36

Personal Computers Using Soft Logic


Available in sturdy enclosures for plant environment
Membrane-type keyboards to protect against dirt,
moisture, etc.
Can be ordered with I/O cards and other hardware to
connect to machines and processes.
Installed with Windows for implementing control
applications.
Can be programmed with soft logic - software that
emulates the operations of the built-in control
software in PLCs.
2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

37