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48-Hour Chick Embryo: Whole Mount

Changes in the 48-hour chick embryo:

head fold of the amnion


o covers the cranial half of the embryo
o formation of amniotic fold

head fold + lateral amniotic fold

caudal fold
o establishes the caudal boundary of the body
o separates the embryo from underlying
blastoderm via subcaudal pocket
o beginning of this fold: concavity facing the
anterior end

processes involved in the 48-hour chick:


o cephalization (rapid growth of anterior
portion)
o ventral flexion (bending)

at the anterior end of the embryo


makes the half of

formation of a pronounced cranial


the embryo lie on
flexure (level of midbrain)
its left side while
the posterior half

formation of an indicated cervical


remains at the
flexure (near hindbrain and spinal
original position
cord)
o dextral torsion (twisting)

at the anterior end of the embryo

involves all of the head, both cranial


and cervical flexures.

heart
o elongation and twisting
o ventricle becomes posterior to the atrium (in
terms of location)

both these chambers are located


outside of the embryo

three fetal membranes that are seen:


o amnion

encircles anterior portion of embryo

consists of inner layer of ectoderm


& outer layer of somatic mesoderm
o yolk sac

double-membrane structure

on left side of embryo

contains blood vessels

derived from endoderm and


splanchnic mesoderm
o chorion

double-membrane structure

on right side of the embryo

consists of outer layer of ectoderm


and inner layer of somatic
mesoderm

branchial grooves and visceral arches


o branchial grooves

white lines that radiate out from the


heart toward the auditory vesicle

composed of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd


branchial grooves
o visceral arches

masses of cells

composed of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd


visceral arches

depending on its order, each


visceral arch is located cranial to its
corresponding branchial groove

example: 1st visceral arch


will be cranial to the 1st
branchial groove.

1st visceral arch

splitted into two via the


stomodeum
o maxillary process
(anterior)
o mandibular
process
(posterior)

48-Hour Chick Embryo: Transverse Section


Section through the mesencephalon
Mesencephalon

oval-shaped

first cavity of the brain to be seen

in posterior sections, the frontal section of the


mesencephalon has several divisions
o due to cranial flexure
Isthmus

constriction at the lengthened section of the brain

partially separates the mesencephalon from the


hindbrain
Myelencephalon

opposite to mesencephalon

has a thin roof


Metencephalon

underlined portion of the brain

between myelencephalon and isthmus


Mesenchyme

loose connective tissues

between brain and epidermis


Fetal Membranes

refer to the whole mount descriptions


Extraembryonic Coelom

space bounded by mesoderm


1

this space is between the chorion, yolk sac, and


amnion

Section through the diencephalon


Diencephalon

when the brain separates into two cavities, it is the


lower cavity

replaces the mesencephalon in the preceding section


Velum transversum

depression on the dorsal wall of the forebrain

functions as a demarcation between diencephalon and


telencephalon
Metencephalon

poorly defined

anteriorly delimited by isthmus


Myelencephalon

when the brain is divided into two cavities, this is the


larger and upper cavity

has a thin roof

will give rise to the posterior choroid plexus


Semilunar ganglion

dark accumulation of cells on the sides of the


myelencephalon

ganglion of the trigeminal (V) cranial nerve


Jugular ganglion

mass of cells that is: lateral to the myelencephalon


and above the anterior cardinal veins

ganglion of the X cranial nerve


Anterior cardinal vein

space that is located on each side of the


myelencephalon

as the section moves posteriorly, this becomes long


spaces toward the diencephalon

further posteriorly, this becomes more dorsal and


becomes located ventrolateral to the myelencephalon
Notochord

vacuolated cells between the myelencephalon and the


diencephalon

tracing posterior, splits into two due to cranial flexure

in succeeding structures, will eventually unite back


into one, single structure
Section through the otic vesicle
Otic vesicle

paired vesicle on each side of the myelencephalon

formed as an invagination of the ectoderm

in older specimens, an invagination at the dorsal wall


of
the otic vesicle is the forerunner of the
endolymphatic duct
Anterior cardinal vein

pair of blood vessels

located on ventro-lateral to the otic vesicles


Acoustico-facialis ganglion

dark accumulation of cells close to are sometimes


attached to the otic vesicle and anterior cardinal vein

located lateral to the myelencephalon

ganglia of cranial nerve VII and VIII

Semilunar ganglion

dark accumulation of cells at the sides of the body

attached to the myelencephalon

observe: root of ganglion


o pink structure
o embedded in myelencephalon
o attached to the ganglion
Superior ganglion

acccumulation of cells on the sides of the


myelencephalon

can be observed when the otic vesicle is not present


anymore or it is immediately posterior to the auditory
vesicles

ganglion of the glossopharyngeal (IX) nerve


Section through the optic cups
Optic cup

double-walled structures on the sides of the


diencephalon

formed via the invagination of the optic vesicles

fate: sensory retina (thick, inner layer) and pigmented


retina (thin, outer layer)

parts of the optic cup:


o presumptive retina

inner layer
o presumptive pigmented epithelium

outer layer

fate: pigmented layer of retina


Lens vesicle

sac-like cavity nestled within the optic cups

formed via invagination of the ectoderm


Optic stalk

connects optic cup with the diencephalon


Pharynx

cavity below the notochord

triangular in shape
o middle portion = pharynx proper
o arms of triangle = 1st pharyngeal pouch (or
hyomandibular pouch)

1st pharyngeal pouch


o will invaginate to form the 1st branchial
groove
o the double layered membrane formed by the
invagination is called the 1st closing plate
or 1st branchial plate
Preoral gut

anterior most part of the foregut

small circle or oval structure which is separated from


the pharynx via the oral plate

fingerlike diverticulum anterior to the future mouth


Carotid loop

extensions of the 1st aortic arches

medial to the anterior cardinal veins


Internal carotid arteries

paired vessels

extensions of the carotid loops


2

alongside forebrain
medial to the optic cups

Dorsal aorta

blood vessels on the sides of the notochord

above the 1st pharyngeal pouch


First aortic arch

blood vessels below the 1st pharygneal pouch

becomes located within the mandibular process

eventually becomes continuous with the ventral aorta


Visceral arches

between two pharyngeal pouches

lateral walls of the visceral arches:


o thickened
o filled with mesenchymal cells
Mandibular arch

more anterior of the rounded mesenchymal masses

between it lies the stomodeum

gives rise to the jaws

bears the first aortic arch

syn: 1st visceral arch


Maxillary arch

rounded or flattened masses

on the sides of the Rathkes pouch


Rathkes pouch

small vesicle

located between the infundibulum and the pharynx

arises as a dorsal evagination of the stomodeum

fate is the hypohysis


Oral plate

thin line made of ectoderm and endoderm

separates the stomodeum and pharynx

syn: pharyngeal membrane


Infundibulum

arises as an evagination from the diencephalon

extends in the direction of the foregut

later evaginate to become the posterior (neural) lobe


of pharynx
Diencephalon

more elongated at this level


Stomodeum

slit-like space where the Rathkes pouch opens


Notochord

as previously described
Section through the thyroid rudiment and the second
aortic arch
Thyroid rudiment

depression on the floor of the pharynx


2nd aortic arch

blood vessels beneath the 2nd pharyngeal pouch

located within the 2nd visceral arch (hyoid arch)

posteriorly, extend downward from the dorsal aorta

even more posteriorly, ventral ends of the 2nd aortic


arch become continuous with the ventral aorta

2nd pharyngeal pouch

outpocketing of the pharynx

can be seen when the otic vesicle is not seen or at the


posterior sections of the otic vesicle
Ventral aorta

blood vessels located beneath the pharynx

the following vessels are continuous with this:


o bases of the first aortic arch
o ventral ends of the 2nd aortic arch
o ventral ends of the 3rd aortic arches

aortic
arches

ventral
aorta

Section through the third aortic arch


3rd pharyngeal pouch

outpocketing of the pharynx

pharynx + 3rd pharyngeal pouch = laterally oriented


oral cavity
3rd aortic arch

beneath the 3rd pharyngeal pouch

not well developed

another pair of downward extensions from the dorsal


aorta

ventral ends are continuous with the ventral aorta


3rd visceral arch

between 2nd and 3rd pharyngeal pouch

arches that are posterior to the hyoid arch are


sometimes referred to as branchial arches
o this is because in lower vertebrates these
arches will bear the gills
Bulbus cordis

first heart cavity to be observed

differentiated from the ventral aorta due to the


presence of both an endocardium and a myocardium
Dorsal mesocardium

mesodermal stalk

attaches the stalk to the dorsal wall of the coelom


Nasal placode

thickened skin ectoderm

lateral to the telencephalon


1st somite

compact cell masses

composed of:
o dermatome

darkly stained cells

beneath skin ectoderm

future dermis of the skin


3

myotome

lightly stained cells

medial to future dermatome

future muscle

Anterior cardinal veins

becomes more ventral

separates into two vessels: postcardinal vein (dorsal)


and common cardinal vein (ventral)
Section through the atrium and ventricle
Spinal cord

replaces the myelencephalon at this level


Descending aorta

fused dorsal aortae


Dorsal intersegmented arteries

small blood vessels

arising at intervals from the dorsal aorta

extends dorsally between spinal cord and somite


Conus arteriosus

chamber of the heart at the right side of the embryo

endocardium and myocardium are widely separated

Lung buds

evagination on the ventro-lateral portions of the


foregut into the pleural cavity
Pleural cavity

portion of coelom that is lateral to the developing lung


buds

it is continuous with the pericardial cavity


Transverse septum

mesenchyme surrounding the sinus venosus

from where the dorsal mesocardium connects the


heart to the dorsal body wall

connected with the pleuropericardial membrane


Cranial liver diverticulum

small mass of cells dorsal to the sinus venosus

lies in the transverse septum (ventral to foregut)

a diverticulum from the wall of the gut gives rise to


the liver

syn: dorsal diverticulum


Caudal liver rudiment

branch or branches on ventral side of cranial liver


rudiment

syn: ventral diverticulum

Atrium

at the left side of the embryo

endocardium and myocardium are in close contact


with each other

future auricles

Duodenum

when the cranial liver rudiment becomes continuous


with the foregut

Ventricle

large looped chamber of the heart

connects the conus arteriosus and the atrium

Anterior intestinal portal

opening of foregut to the midgut

floor of midgut is the yolk

Laryngotracheal groove

V-shaped depression in the floor of the foregut

develops into: larynx, trachea, and lung buds

Vitelline veins

pair of blood vessels

extensions of the sinus venosus

located on each side of the anterior intestinal portal

the left vitelline vein passes out onto the yolk first
before the right vitelline vein

Future esophagus

dorsal portion of the gut

will later differentiate from part of the foregut (which


is dorsal to the laryngotracheal groove)
Cardinal Veins

paired precardinal veins (or anterior cardinal veins)


separates into two:
o postcardinal vein - dorsal
o common cardinal vein - ventral
Section through the sinus venosus
Sinus venosus

portion of the heart that is attached to the foregut via


the dorsal mesocardium
Common cardinal vein

blood vessel to which the sinus venosus is attached


Pleuropericardial membrane

mesenchyme that encloses the common cardinal vein

separate pleural cavity from the pericardial region of


the coelom

Section through the anterior intestinal portal

Peritoneal cavity

space where internal organs are located


Paired mesonephric duct

small tubules lateral to descending aorta

mesonephric tubule rudiments


o medial to the mesonephric duct
o will undergo cavitation to form mesonephric
tubules of the paired mesonephric kidneys

formed via delamination of the nephrogenic cord


(nephrotome)
Section through the lateral amniotic folds
Lateral amniotic folds

elevated folds that are about to fuse

continuous with the lateral body walls

consists of somatopleure
o forms inner amnion and outer chorion
Vitelline blood vessels

small blood vessels within the splanchnic mesoderm


4

Paired dorsal aortae

large pair of blood vessels below the notochord

descending aorta has not formed at more caudal levels


Mesonephric tubule rudiments

round cavity medial to the mesonephric duct


Nephrostome

opening of mesonephric tubule to the coelom


Vitelline arteries

extension of dorsal aorta onto the yolk sac


Section through the tail bud
Tail bud

mass of mesenchymal cells at caudal end of the


embryo

covered by skin ectoderm

note: the tail bud is a mesoderm derived structure but it is


covered by ectoderm

Hindgut

posterior portion of the gut

now has a floor


Allantoic rudiment

endoderm lined cavity located below the tail bud


Caudal intestinal portal

space where the floor of the allantoic rudiment


disappears

opening of hindgut into the yolk