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Abstract

This study aimed to design a Solar Power Generation and Distribution with
Automatic Solar Path Tracking System that focuses on the main electrical source of a
single family dwelling unit and that provide resources for teaching electrical power
generation and distribution system and renewable energy concepts mainly in Solar
energy. The set up consist of a photo-voltaic solar panel, charge controller, light sensors,
stepper motor, nickel metal hydride storage battery, diodes, resistors, fuse, integrated
circuit (IC) and test instruments for measuring voltages and currents. This Solar power
generation and distribution with automatic solar path tracking system is extensively used
to illustrate electrical concepts and promote renewable energy which is available from
the environment.
Some possible loads that the device can supply if the DC supply from the
battery can be converted into AC supply are household lightings and appliances (cellular
phones, televisions, radio computers and refrigerator).
The device is not only beneficial for a household use but also very useful in remote
areas where power is not readily available. This can be used for various purposes such
as, but not limited to; power supply for communication equipment, personal devices,
multi-media and other electronic gadgets with low power consumption.

Chapter 1
The Problem and Its Setting
1.1 Introduction
Sun is the most important component in lifes never ending cycle. Every living
things all flora and faunadefend on the sun, plant needs sunlight to produce their food in
aprocess called photosynthesis, which eventually become food of animals even humans.
Without sun, it is impossible for human or living things live in this world. The humanity
is now more aware in these inevitable climate change and energy crisis that will happen
in not so near future. To reduce the shortage of energy, global warming and mass
destruction of our environment, one of the way is to reduce these problem is to find a
new and environment friendly sources of energy such as hydropower, geothermal, wind
and solar energy form our nature andutilize these abundant natural energy and transform
these energy into electrical energy.
As stated by the Department of Energy, biomass, solar and wind will be the major
sources of energy for the next decade, accounting for more than a third of the countrys
total energy demand. As said by Engr. Bernardo F abula, President/CEO of Equator
Energy Corporation, Philippines is the richest in the world to harvest free electricity
from the sun (5kWh/m day), however due to absence of solar machineries, our country
is now produces the smallest, the most expensive and the dirtiest electricity in the world
72% mad from imported fossils based fuel (coal, petroleum and natural gas).

Fig.1.1 Primary Energy Mix of Selected Country, Share of Renewables vs.


Conventional
Because there are enough sunlight falls on earths surface every hour to meet the
worlds energy demand for an entire year. Silicon from just one ton of sand used in
photovoltaic cells could produce as much electricity as burning 500,000 tons of coal,
which makes solar energy the most efficient among other renewable energy sources.
The researchers created a new device that can convert the natural energy into
electrical energy with the use of solar panel for sun light with an automatic tracking
system which follows the light by the use of light sensor.
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Fig. 1.2 Solar Tracker Device


A solar tracker device that orients a payload toward the sun. Payload will be in the
form of photovoltaic panels, reflectors, lenses or any other optical device. This tracker
device is used to minimize the incidence between the incoming sunlight and a
photovoltaic panel. This increases the amount of energy produced from a fixed amount
of installed power generating capacity.
The sun travels through 360 degrees north to south per day, but from the perspective
of any fixed location the visible portion is 180 degrees during an average of half day
period.
Local horizon effects reduce this, making the effective motion about 150 degrees. A
solar panel in a fixed orientation between the dawn and sunsets extremes will see a
motion of 75 degrees to either side, and will lose 75 % of energy in the morning and
evening. Rotating the panels to east and west can help recapture the losses loss.
The solar panel that many of the users use is only in one way direction. If the
location of the sun is not perpendicular to the solar panel the power that is being generate
is low compare to the sun that is perpendicular to the panel.

1.2 Statement of the Problem


The major problems is how to solve the worldwide power shortage experience
mostly in the rural areas and pollution caused by burning coal to produce a conventional
energy which is the main cause of ozone depletion that leads to climate change.

The second problem is the unstable process of harvesting solar energy. As the
research stated, it is more effective and concentrated when the sun is in direct position
with the photovoltaic cell. Naturally, photovoltaic cells are installed in static
manner,because of this method, the power that can be generate by the photovoltaic
cellwill not attain its maximum loading capacity.
Therefore, this project fixed the problems that occur. TheSolar Power Generation
and Distribution with Automatic Solar Path Tracking Systempromotes the use of
photovoltaic cells, a renewable energy as the main source of electricity.This promotion,
the world will be aware of its benefits not only economically as well as environmentally
resulting to pollution reduction. The use of light dependent resistor as a sensor, it can
perceive heat in 180 degrees of rotation. So the solar power can be generatedhas very
high efficiency compared to the solar panel can only stay in one station.

1.3 Objectives of the Study


Below are the main objectives of the Solar Power Generation and Distribution with
Automatic Tracking System.
1. To promote the use of photovoltaic cells, a renewable energy as the efficient source
of electricity.
2. To improve the harvesting process of solar energy by the use of solar tracking
system.

1.4 Significance of the Study


Academe
The proposed design project will serve as an additional reference material for
University of Perpetual Help System DALTA Calamba Campus as a reference in
producing renewable energy. The engineering faculty and students could use this
research design as an instructional material for their design in new alternative energy and
in renewable energy.
Field of Engineering
This project design can serve as a sample technical project for renewable energy
especially in solar energy that will be benefited to the discipline of Electrical
Engineering, Electronics Engineering, Agricultural Engineering and other related
Engineering courses. This study gives an overall view on the different processes in
designing this technology.
Future Researchers
The research will help the future researchers by giving basic concepts of converting
energy as prime movers and other mediums. It can be used as reference for the future
researchers that will also focus on conversion of energy-related topics.

1.5 Limitation and Scope

The project focused to design and build the prototype of a solar tracking system that
would be the starting point to build the realistic solar tracking system.