You are on page 1of 66

PAWEES

2016
The 15th PAWEES Conference of Sustainable Paddy Water
Management in Water-Energy-Food NEXUS
20 21 October 2016
Daejeon, South Korea
Theme 1: Water-Food Relationships and Agricultural Water Management
Theme 2: Tools and Analysis for Better Paddy Water Management
Theme 3: Climate Change and Paddy Water Management
Theme 4: Agricultural water for the development of rural society in Asia

ORGANIZERS
International Society of Paddy and Water Environment Engineering (PAWEES)
Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers (KSAE)
Seoul National University (SNU)
Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (MAFRA)
Korea Rural Community Corporation (KRC)
The Policy Council for the PALDANG Watershed
Daejeon International Marketing Enterprise(DIME)

PROGRAMME
The PAWEES2016 conference program details are currently being prepared as follows:

Theme 1: Water-Food Relationships and Agricultural Water Management


Theme 2: Tools and Analysis for Better Paddy Water Management
Theme 3: Climate Change and Paddy Water Management
Date

Time

Schedule
Theme 2 - Tools and Analysis for Better Paddy Water

Room
Damoa Hall
(1st floor)

9:00~10:45 Management
Chair: Sewoon WANG(Gyeongsang National University)

10:45~11:00

Coffee Break

11:00~12:00

Opening & Awards Ceremony

12:00~13:00

Lunch Break

20
13:00~14:00
Poster Session
October,
Theme 1 - Water-Food Relationships and Agricultural Water
Thursday
13:30~15:10 Management

Damoa Hall
(1st floor)

Damoa Hall
(1st floor)

Chair: Yu-Pin LIN(National Taiwan University)

15:10~15:20
15:20~17:00

Coffee Break
Theme 3 - Climate Change and Paddy Water Management
Chair: Takao MASUMOTO(National Agriculture and Food Organization)

17:00~18:00

Coffee Break and Exhibition

18:00~20:00

Reception with KSAE

9:30~12:00

PAWEES Business Meeting & Closing Ceremony

12:00~13:00

Lunch

21
October,
Friday 13:00~18:00

18:00~20:00

Damoa Hall
(1st floor)

Damoa Hall
(1st floor)

Technical Tour
(The Geum River Estuarine Dike

Saemangeum

& Saemangeum 33 Center)


Dinner

Yusung
HOTEL

SMALL CONFERENCE
The PAWEES2016 Small conference details are currently being prepared as follows:

Theme 4: Agricultural water for the development of rural society in Asia


Chair: Kyoung Sook Choi(Kyungpook National University)

Date

Time

Title

9:10 ~ 9:15

Welcome

9:15 ~ 9:20

Introduction and objective of the conference

9:20 ~ 9:35

Paddy water environment and rural development


in Korea
An application of the information and

20

9:35 ~ 9:50

October,

communication technology to modernize the


agricultural water management in Japan

Speaker

Prof. KwangSik Yoon


(Korea)
Toshiaki Iida
(Japan)
Prof. Budi

Thursday
9:50 ~ 10:05

Empowering farmers to be more water resilience


in the face of climate changes

Indra
Setiawan
(Indonesia)

10:05 ~

A case study on rural development with

10:20

agricultural infrastructure development

10:20 ~
10:45

Q &A, Recommendation, Wrap up

Room

Mr. Seung
Won

Lee

(Korea)

Prince Hall
(2nd floor)

The 15th PAWEES Conference of Sustainable Paddy Water


Management in Water-Energy-Food NEXUS
Theme 1: Water-Food Relationships and Agricultural Water Management
Date: 20 October, Thursday
Location: Damoa Hall, 1st floor
Chair: Yu-Pin LIN(National Taiwan University)
No. Presenter(Affiliation)
1
2

Joko Sujono
( Universitas Gadjah Mada)

Valiollah Karimi

Mid-Summer drainage effects on water productivity of rice


cultivars (Hashemi and Fajr)

(Civil Engineering Research

Methods on Irrigation Water Supply and Demand in Large-

(Tokyo University of
Agriculture and Technology)

Atiqotun Fitriyah
(Tokyo University of
Agriculture and Technology)

farmers income

The Influence of Diversification of Paddy Rice Cultivation

Davy Sao

Modified SRI for increasing paddy rice productivity and

Naoko KOSHIYAMA
Institute for Cold Region)

Title

Shuhei Nakamura
(Utsunomiya University)

Scale Paddy Rice Field Areas


MODSIM-based water allocation modeling of Pursat River
Basin, Cambodia
Water Budget and Water Resource Management in Terraced
Paddy Field Catchment Area
Changes in Rice Planting Methods in Different Regions of
Thailand

Hiroshi Ikeura
7

(Japan International

Water requirement for preparatory irrigation for rainy season

Research Center for

lowland rice in a mountainous village in Lao PDR

Agricultural Sciences)

8
9

Toshiaki Iida
(University of Tokyo)

Pu-Reun Yoon
(Seoul National University)

Chihhao Fan
10

(National Taiwan University)

Characterization of excess irrigation water in paddy fields in


Japan
The Water Footprint Estimation of Nine Countries Considering
Grain and Meat Calorie Consumption Pattern
Comparative Exploration of Food Water Nexus for Areas with
Different Levels of Urbanization A Preliminary Study in
Taiwan

Modified SRI for increasing paddy rice productivity and


farmers income
Joko Sujono
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada,
Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Keywords: planting method; group system; tillers number


ABSTRACT
System of rive intensification (SRI) is an innovative paddy rice cultivation approach attaining high
yields with lower input both water and fertilizer and cost saving. Significant yields of SRI practice have
been reported in number of countries outside Madagascar the origin of SRI. The main reason for high
yields is due to higher tiller number and panicle number as a results of single young seedlings, wider
spacing, soil aeration that supported by organic material. To increase the income of rice farmers, rice
productivity must increase significantly at minimum cost.
Increasing the paddy rice productivity could be achieved by improving the SRI approach so that the
tiller and panicle numbers could increase significantly compare with the common SRI. In this research,
SRI approach for paddy rice cultivation is modified in terms of number of hill in each point of a grid
system. Instead of using one hill for each point of a grid system, the modified SRI uses a group of hill.
Three type of modified SRI is being carried out in pot experiment i.e. each group consists of 2 (line
form), 3 (triangle form) and 4 (square form) hills with single young seedling as common SRI has. The
distance among hill of single seddling in each goup is 5.0cm. To maintain soil fertility, compost and
liquid organic fertilizers are used during the experiments. The performance of those modified SRI in
terms of agronomic and water irrigation parameters will be compared to common SRI with single
seedling and single hill in each point of a grid system.
Modified SRI with a group of hills with single seedling for each point of grid increased the tiller
numbers significantly. However, further research still needed for maintaining the tillers to become
productive tillers.

Mid-Summer drainage effects on water productivity of rice


cultivars (Hashemi and Fajr)
Valiollah Karimi1, Mohammad Alijani2 and Hatam Hatami1
1

Haraz Extension and Technology Development Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension
Organization (AREEO), Mahmoodabad, Iran
2
M.Sc. Student of Haraz University

Keywords: Paddyfield; Mid-summer drainage; Water productivity; Water consumption


ABSTRACT
Importance of rice as a staple crop for feeding of human being is obvious. Besides, water is major input
for rice production. Water crisis is one of the serious interests for present and future conditions of IRAN.
In order to determine mid- summer drainage effects on rice grain yield, water consumption and water
productivity, a field experiment was carried out as a factorial in basis of randomized complete block
design with 3 replications in Babolsar in 2014. Factors were used including 2 levels rice cultivars
(Hashemi and Fajr) and 5 levels mid-summer drainage duration (0, 3, 5, 7 and 9 days). Results showed
Cultivars and Mid-summer drainage duration had significant effects on Grain yield, Water consumption
and water productivity (p<0.01). Mid-summer drainage with 5 days duration for Hashemi and Fajr
cultivars had the highest grain yield and water productivity and lowest water consumption which were
5852 and 8767 Kg/ha; 0.92 and 1.30 Kg/m3; 6363 and 6753 m3/ha respectively. Mid-summer drainage
with 5 days duration caused increase of grain yield and water productivity for Hashemi and Fajr cultivar
compare to control by 8.6%, 9.9% and 15%, 13% respectively, but the decrease of water consumption
obtained by 5.5% and 2.7% respectively. Thus, 5 days duration for mid-summer drainage of Paddyfield
which has the maximum yield and water productivity was recommended for this region.

The Influence of Diversification of Paddy Rice Cultivation


Methods on Irrigation Water Supply and Demand in Large-Scale
Paddy Rice Field Areas
Naoko KOSHIYAMA1, Miki SAKAI1, Kazumasa NAKAMURA1
1

Civil Engineering Research Institute for Cold Region, PWRI, JAPAN

Keywords: large-sized paddy field; subsurface irrigation; irrigation requirements; transplant


cultivation; direct-seeding cultivation
ABSTRACT
In Japan, to secure stable yields of paddy field rice, transplant cultivation, in which seedlings are planted
in the paddy field after soil puddling, has been widely conducted. In Hokkaido, where the average farm
tends to be larger than anywhere else in Japan, the development of groundwater level control systems
and the use of large-block paddy fields have been promoted to improve productivity. In the areas with
groundwater level control systems, the area of paddy field in which labor-saving paddy rice cultivation
methods (e.g., transplant cultivation without soil puddling, direct seeding) are used has been expanding.
From the viewpoint of agricultural water management, it is conceivable that such changes in cultivation
methods affect agricultural water management, because different cultivation methods in which the
growth periods of the rice plant vary require different irrigation timing and amount. The authors
compared the water management under four cultivation methods: transplant cultivation, direct-seeding
in non-puddled submerged paddy fields, direct-seeding in well-drained paddy fields, and transplant
cultivation in non-puddled paddy fields. They did this by using a large block paddy field with
underground irrigation facilities in Moseushi Town, Hokkaido. The comparison clarified the
characteristics of irrigation water demand and the influence of cultivation method on irrigation water
supply for each cultivation method.

MODSIM-based water allocation modeling of Pursat River Basin,


Cambodia
Davy Sao1, Tasuku Kato2
1

Department of International Environmental and Agricultural Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and
Technology, Tokyo, Japan
2
Institute of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo, Japan

Keywords: MODSIM; Water allocation modeling; Pursat River Basin


ABSTRACT
Pursat River Basin is located in Pursat Province of Cambodia, south of the Tonle Sap Great Lake, and
drains an area of 5,955 km2. The river flows for approximately 150 km and drains into the Tonle Sap
Great Lake. Recent increase of irrigated land and industrial sectors, the pressure on water resources in
the basin is increased. A series of irrigation and multipurpose dam projects in this area are either in
planning stages, under construction or operational. There are 12 large and medium-sized irrigation
schemes that cover an area of 55,509 ha. Hence, water supplies in more efficient and productive way
are necessarily required. This study is conducted on water allocation modeling of Pursat River Basin
using MODSIM model, a generalized river basin decision support system (DSS) and network flow
model, designed specifically to meet the growth of water demands under pressure. The river system of
the Pursat River Basin is represented as a network of nodes and links. The objectives of this study are
to analyze the water balance in the basin following different levels of irrigation development, and to
determine the water allocation in the river basin under different demand scenarios. The river basin
consists of three dams; Dam 1 is under construction, and Dam 3 and Dam 5 are completed. The
simulation is conducted under two scenarios: natural scenario without Dam 1, 3, and 5; and dam
scenario with the presence of Dam 1, 3, and 5.

Water Budget and Water Resource Management in Terraced


Paddy Field Catchment Area
Atiqotun Fitriyah1, Tasuku Kato2
1

Graduate school of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology


2
Institute of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology

Keywords: terraced paddy field; water management; surface water monitoring


ABSTRACT
Terraced paddy is typical paddy fields landscape in mountainous area. Its ability to retain and to store
water by paddy plot itself and slope of land surface has been useful for soil and water conservation. In
Indonesia, topographical condition is under numerous mountainous areas, then, terraced paddy field
became integral part of national rice production along with lowland paddy field. Conducting rice
cultivation in terraced paddy area has a beneficial aspect because upstream area has better water
availability. But in contrary, as water resources is under limited condition in dry season, efficient use of
water is important to improve yield of rice production. An 8.58 ha catchment area of terraced paddy
field in Wonogiri, Java, Indonesia was chosen to analyse water balance under water management of
terraced paddy production management as objectives of this study. Dry season period monitoring in
2015 shows that nearly 49% of water irrigated to the field loss as percolation, lateral seepage and water
storage change with the water use efficiency (WUEyield) of 9.07 17.25 kg grain/ha/mm. Water
distribution in a plot-to-plot terraced paddy field is estimated along with yield estimation using literature
review of terraced paddy field characteristic and verified with a 2-months monitoring data of surface
water monitoring. Those analysis would be contributed to improve yield of rice production in terraced
paddy fields.

Changes in Rice Planting Methods in Different Regions of


Thailand
Shuhei Nakamura1, Akira Goto2, Sudsaisin Kaewrung3
1

Graduate School of Agriculture, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya, Japan


2
Faculty of Agriculture, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya, Japan
3
Kasesart University, Bangkok, Thailand

Keywords: Rice Planting Method; Thailand; Irrigation; Farming Scale; Farming cost
ABSTRACT
Currently in Thailand, labor shortage and wage increase associating economic development have given
significant impacts on agricultural production. As rice cropping is also forced to change largely, the
typical changes can be observed in rice planting methods which reflect such many factors as paddy plot
size, state of irrigation development, and farming scale. Although the changes show various forms and
directions, the aptitude of each method for certain conditions and the future direction are not yet clarified.
This paper inventories the current changes of rice planting methods in three regions, Central Plane,
North and Northeast (divided into irrigated and rain-fed areas), of Thailand, and analyzes advantages
and disadvantages of each method. We carried out hearing surveys with questionnaires in the study
areas of each region. The results showed different patterns of changes in planting methods in different
regions. In Central Plane, it was found that machine-transplanting has become popular replacing
traditional hand-broadcasting. This transition was explained by the fact that machine-transplanting can
bring higher yield of rice than hand-broadcasting and the increase in yield exceeds the cost of entrusting
machine-transplanting. In Northern Thailand, since labor shortage has made the traditional handtransplanting difficult, trials of diversified methods were identified. The difficulty of the traditional
hand-transplanting was found also in Northeast. While the dominant shift to hand-broadcasting and
machine-transplanting was recognized in the irrigated area, continuation of self-sufficient rice cropping
seemed crucially difficult in the rain-fed area. From these results, we evaluated the aptitude of each
planting method for different conditions.

Water requirement for preparatory irrigation for rainy season


lowland rice in a mountainous village in Lao PDR
Hiroshi Ikeura1, Khaykeo Keokhamphui2, Somphone Inkhamseng2,
Toshihiko Anzai1
1

Rural Development Division, Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences
Water Resources Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Laos

Keywords: water requirement; soil moisture storage capacity; precipitation; evapotranspiration


ABSTRACT
In a mountainous village located in the northwestern region of the Vientiane Province in Lao Peoples
Democratic Republic, late transplanting caused by a water shortage in the early rainy season led to a
yield reduction of lowland rice. This was observed at the lower part of the lowland area. Therefore,
preparatory irrigation is necessary to accelerate the time of transplanting and increase rice yield. To
determine the water requirement of preparatory irrigation, field monitoring for soil moisture and
groundwater was performed in the village from the end of the dry season to the beginning of the rainy
season in 2014 and 2015. Soil moisture was the lowest level at the end of April, and it started to increase
thereafter because of infiltration by rainwater. After intensive rainfall (r > 20 mm h-1), the groundwater
table increased rapidly, suggesting that surface water infiltrated through cracks. Field ponding began
after the groundwater table had risen to the ground surface. However, in the late planting fields, the
groundwater table was still 1 to 2 m below the ground surface at the beginning of June. As we planned
to begin transplanting in the middle of July, we determined the water requirement for preparatory
irrigation considering the soil moisture storage capacity, precipitation, and evapotranspiration from the
middle of June to the beginning of July. (219 words)

Characterization of excess irrigation water in paddy fields in


Japan
Toshiaki Iida1, Mutsuki Sakai2, Masaomi Kimura1, Naritaka Kubo1
1

Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
2
Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Tokyo, Japan

Keywords: Paddy field irrigation; Irrigation labor; Excess irrigation; Farming style; Irrigation
information service
ABSTRACT
In this study, excess irrigation in paddy fields was defined as the irrigation while floodwater of a paddy
field plot is overflowing from the outlet of the plot. As it is hypothesized that the excess irrigation is
caused by the saving of irrigation work load, the relation between the saving of irrigation work load and
the amount of excess irrigation water was analyzed. Four farmers with various farm management styles,
i.e. a part-time farmer, an old full-time farmer, a young full-time farmer, and an agricultural corporation,
were selected as the study farmers. One plot was selected from the plots cultivated by each study farmer
as the study plot. The amount of excess irrigation water at the study plots was estimated from the precise
field monitoring of the amount of the irrigation water and the depth of the floodwater. The irrigation
work load of each study farmer was estimated from the spatial distribution of the plots cultivated by
each study farmer. The interview to each study farmer was also carried out. It was revealed that the
amount of excess irrigation water during a whole irrigation period was larger in case of the part-time
farmer and the agricultural corporation and smaller in case of the full-time farmers. The relation
between the irrigation work load and the amount of excess irrigation water was vague. It was suggested
that the management style of the farmhouse affects the amount of excess irrigation water.

The Water Footprint Estimation of Nine Countries


Considering Grain and Meat Calorie Consumption Pattern
Pu-Reun Yoon1, Bu-Young Oh1, Won Choi1, Jin-Young Choi2*
1

Department of Rural Systems Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
Department of Rural Systems Engineering, and Research Institute for Agriculture & Life Sciences, Seoul
National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea

Keywords: Grain and Meat; Calorie Consumption Pattern; Virtual Water; Water Footprint
ABSTRACT
Due to global population growth and abnormal climate change, water demand is steadily increasing. As
the world population according to OECD statistics will reach around two billion people until 2050, it is
expected that water demand will rise 55% or more than. There is a virtual water and water footprint,
one of the methods that expect the water demand. To estimate the total volume of fresh water needed to
cultivate crop in agricultural areas, the concept of virtual water can be introduced. Also, water footprint
is the extended concept of virtual water proposed by A.Y. Hoekstra and A.K. Chapagain in 2002. By
considering the regional characteristics, this study is to analyze and compare the consumption patterns
of virtual water on grain and meat in representative developed and developing countries. Also, the result
of virtual water extends to the concept of water footprint, green and blue water footprint. The amount
of annual virtual water on grain was significantly estimated to be 331.43 /cap/year in India, whereas
the annual virtual water related to meat was biggest in Brazil, 850.83 /cap/year. In addition, the
averaged virtual water per calorie in meat was about 10 times more than grain. The developed countries,
where wheat and corn grown outdoors are staple grains, mainly used green water footprint. On the other
hand, the countries taking account of rice as the staple grain are relatively belonged to the higher
proportion at blue water footprint. The changes in food consumption patterns can significantly affect
the use of water resources.

Comparative Exploration of Food Water Nexus for Areas with


Different Levels of Urbanization A Preliminary Study in Taiwan
Chihhao Fan*, Zih Shian Liao
Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan

Keywords: rice production; agricultural water consumption; domestic water supply; industrial
water supply; urbanization
ABSTRACT
The food and water nexus is an important issue which attracts a lot of attentions due to the impact of
global warming effect on the food and water redistribution. In the present study, the food-water nexus
of two different administrative areas were chosen for comparison. The Area T experienced extensive
urbanization during past few decades, while the other (Area Y) is the district for substantial agricultural
activities. The target functions were rice production, and agricultural water consumption. The
independent variables used for nexus analysis included enterprise sales, collectable tax per capita,
fishery production, atmospheric environmental quality, labor participation index, population, area of
paddy field, manufacturing sales. In the urbanized area, Variables with significant negative correlation
to rice production were domestic water supply, industrial water consumption, electricity sales,
enterprise sales, labor participation index, population and manufacturing index, while agricultural water
consumption and area of paddy field exhibit significant positive correlation. For conventional
agricultural area (Area Y), only the variable of atmospheric environmental quality showed significant
negative correlation with rice production. Apparently, urbanization is a key factor impacting
substantially on the rice production and agricultural water consumption. Due to less resources demands
and human/social/economic activities in conventional district (Area Y), the variation of agricultural
water consumption was found independent from all other investigated variables.

The 15th PAWEES Conference of Sustainable Paddy Water


Management in Water-Energy-Food NEXUS
Theme 2: Tools and Analysis for Better Paddy Water Management
Date: 20 October, Thursday
Location: Damoa Hall, 1st floor
Chair: Sewoon Hwang(Gyeongsang National University)
No. Presenter(Affiliation)
Satyanto K. Saptomo

(Bogor Agricultural
University)

2
3
4

Takuji Kozawa
(University of Tokyo)

Yuma SHIMAMOTO

9
10

11

sedimentary condition
Analysis of Environmental Burden of Cement Improved Soil
Prediction and Assessment of Water Quality in Agricultural

(Kindai University)

Ponds of Nara Prefecture, Japan

(Tokyo University of

(National Agriculture and


Food Research Organization)

Study of hydraulic value estimation at an open channel under

Yutaka Matsuno

K. Watabe

Subsurface Drainage

mixed with Rice Husk Ash

Agriculture and Technology)

Estimating Watertable Distribution in Paddy Field with

(Niigata University)

Tasuku KATO
5

Title

Da Rae Kim
(Konkuk University)

Ji Wan Lee
(Konkuk University)

HsinI Hsieh
(National Taiwan University)

Jeerapong Laonamsai
(Chulalongkorn University)

Water and nitrogen balance analysis combined with surface


and ground water flow interaction in pump irrigated paddy area
Influence of land consolidation projects on oviposition periods
of Japanese brown frog in paddy field areas
SWAT parameter estimation for watershed hydrology and
stream water quality with big drought observed data
Evaluation

of

the

Relationship

between

Meteorological,

Agricultural and Big Data for 2014-2015 South Korea Severe


Drought
Irrigation Risk management by Spatiotemporal Flow Simulation
SWAT AND STABLE ISOTOPE ANALYSIS OF RUNOFF AND
BASEFLOW FOR AGRICULTURAL WATER IN THAILAND

Chung-Gil Jung

The Effect of Long-Term Soil Erosion and Soil Depth Changes

(Konkuk University)

by Improvement of Rain Erosivity Using Minute Unit Rainfall


Data

Estimating Watertable Distribution in Paddy Field with Subsurface


Drainage
Satyanto K. Saptomo1
1

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Bogor Agricultural University, Lecturer

Keywords : Modflow; sub-surface drainage; sub-surface irrigation; paddy field


ABSTRACT
Facing toward climate change with increasing uncertainty requires technology that enables food production field to
adapt. One option is to convert agricultural land such as paddy field into multi water regime production land, namely
saturated and unsaturated soil or wet and dry field. Subsurface drainage system such as mole drain is one of the method
that help with draining excessive water, while in the other hand storing water for capillary rise so that with appropriate
setting it can function as both sub-subsurface drainage and sub-surface irrigation. The use of sub surface drainage in
Indonesia has not yet being common and before physical construction is being conducted, assessments need to be done.
This study aims to simulate water table distribution of a paddy field with sub-surface drainage. In this case simulation
is conducted using Modflow model to simulate different sub-surface drainage installment spacing. The simulation were
conducted for 4, 5, 6, 8 and 10 m subdrain spacing distances. The depths of sub-drain were set at 40, 50 and 60 cm depth
beneath the surface. Smaller spacing of subdrain will increase uniformity of water table in the field, but more costly.
Optimum spacing is also depends on soil physical properties which control the drainage rate and also capillary rise.

Study of hydraulic value estimation at an open channel under sedimentary


condition
Takuji Kozawa1*, Naritaka Kubo1*
1

Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo

Keywords: irrigation system; hydraulic; water management


ABSTRACT
The current understanding is that information about hydraulic values such as water level, roughness coefficient and
discharge in canal are needed for irrigation planning. In Mae Lao River basin located in north Thailand, irrigation
planning are made when the basin is damaged with drought. However, the main canal of irrigation system have a problem
on making irrigation planning, because of serious sedimentation, which cannot be observed continuously, or demands
much cost for exclusion. The aim of this study is to infer hydraulic values including sedimentation in open channel, here
we simulate the stream flow using a numerical model. Here we found that roughness coefficient and sedimentation
height in canal is inferred by using continuous water level and water temperature data. A simulation model describing
one dimensional unsteady flow was introduced on the upstream current of the canal. In this study area, water level and
water temperature are observed continuously at some points. Using this model and observed data, water temperature
and discharge in canal were calculated when sedimentation height and roughness coefficient parameter are given. Here
we found the unique value of the variables, evaluating Root Mean Squared Error between calculation values and
observation values. This simulation result indicate that sedimentation height in canal could be inferred from water
temperature and water level. This result provide a way of information gathering in open channel with sedimentation
using easy measuring equipment.

Analysis of Environmental Burden of Cement Improved Soil mixed wit


h Rice Husk Ash
Yuma SHIMAMOTO, Tetsuya SUZUKI*and Toshihiro MORII
Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Japan
*Faculty of Agriculture, Niigata University, Japan

Keywords: Cement improved soil; Rice husk; Carbon dioxide emission; cogeneration system
ABSTRACT
In recent years, the utilization method of the waste material generated in the process of rice cropping has be
en required for sustainable rice cultivation. The purpose of this research is to develop an environmentally - f
riendly cement improved soil by using rice husk ash. One of the prerequisite conditions for developing this s
oil is a stable supply of rice husk ash with as little environmental burden as possible. In term of the reducti
on of environmental burdens, this paper analyzes both the energy efficiency in cogeneration system for the g
asfication of rice husk and the effectiveness in the reduction of carbon dioxide generated in the production o
f cement improved soil by adding rice husk ash. As a result, the cogeneration system creates twice as large
energy as the input, and mixing cement improved soil with rice husk ash causes an about 30 percent reducti
on of the carbon dioxide emission.

Prediction and Assessment of Water Quality in Agricultural Ponds of Nara


Prefecture, Japan
Yutaka Matsuno1*, Yoko Kishi2, Ryouichi Iwanaga3, Nobumasa Hatcho1
1

Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Agriculture, Kindai University, Japan


2
Department of Agriculture and Forestry, Nara Prefecture, Japan
3
Aitec Co., Ltd., Osaka Japan

Keywords: Water Quality; Small pond; Nara; Artificial Neural Networks (ANN)
ABSTRACT
In Nara Prefecture, Japan, many small agricultural ponds had been constructed for irrigating paddy rice field since
ancient times. In the last decades, economic growth and urbanization of the prefecture caused to decrease in agricultural
land area and the number of farmers that have consequently made the management of pond water environment difficult.
The present study was conducted to develop the water quality model using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) technique
for an assessment of the water environment of agricultural ponds in Nara. The study was especially intended to evaluate
an ability of the developed model to predict concentrations of Chl.a., COD, TN, and TP from the data of readily
measurable water quality parameters such as water temperature, EC, and DO. The developed model was calibrated with
the water quality data and validated with reasonable accuracy. The outcomes of the ANN model were also compared
with those of multiple regression model. It revealed that the ANN model was useful to assess and predict the water
quality status of agricultural ponds in Nara Prefecture.

Water and nitrogen balance analysis combined with surface and ground
water flow interaction in pump irrigated paddy area
Authors Tasuku KATO1 and Satoko OMINO2
1

Institute of agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, taskkato@cc.tuat.ac.jp


2
Graduate school of agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology

Keywords: water balance; nitrogen; denitrification; ground water; pump irrigation


ABSTRACT
Imbanuma lake located in Chiba, Japan is most degraded water quality in these decades. Agricultural pollutant source
is major component for eutrophication in this lake. Regarding nitrogen pollution, it is well known that paddy fields has
water purification through denitrification as ecosystem service or multi-function role. On the other hand, water
management of paddy fields influenced with water quality purification function. Former water and nitrogen balance
analysis, nitrogen pollutant is not so much purified by denitrification in paddy fields. The result suggested that excess
irrigation is directly drained to a collector drainage channel in vain. And the water level in drainage channel regulated
percolation in paddy plots. In this research, surface and ground water balance were observed and evaluated, and nitrogen
budget is analyzed, for evaluation of paddy field hydrology analysis. As a result in a target irrigation block, pump
withdrawal was 35mm/d with 14mm/d used inefficient, 25mm/d in averaged total input for paddy plot that composed
21mm/d as irrigation and 4mm/d as rainfall. Discharge is 20mm/d and deep percolation/seepage is 1 mm/d. Most ponded
water was drained to drainage channel by surface flow. Regarding ground water, high water level in drainage channel
restricted ground water flow, then, percolation was limited. In non-irrigation period, ground water released 150m3/d to
drainage channel in average of non-irrigation period. The results suggested that the difference of drain characteristics in
irrigation and non-irrigation period is coming from drainage channel management.

Influence of land consolidation projects on oviposition periods of Japanese


brown frog in paddy field areas
Watabe, K.1, Mori, A., Koizumi, N., Takemura, T., Mineta, T. and Yamaoka, M.
Institute for Rural Engineering, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization
1
Oral presenter and corresponding author

Keywords: Rana japonica; Amphibia; Rural ecosystem; Biodiversity; Agricultural infrastructure improvement
ABSTRACT
Egg-mass distributions of the endemic Japanese brown frog, Rana japonica were investigated at 20 paddy field sites in
the middle Sakura River Basin, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan, toward a development of conservation techniques for the frog
habitats. Egg-masses were counted in each site 400 to 1,000 meter around using a census route method. The survey was
replicated 6 to 9 times from March to May 2014 to 2015. The egg-mass distributions indicated that for sites after land
consolidation projects, a few frogs oviposited in shallow ponds and ditches with still-water, which often dry up, in March
before the beginning of irrigation. Since then, most frogs oviposited from late April to May. For sites without
consolidation projects, frogs already started to oviposit from March due to the existence of many puddles in the paddy
fields. These findings suggest that well-drained paddy fields because of the consolidation projects may cause a lag and
shortening of the frog oviposition period and that securement of still-water places would be important to provide their
oviposition habitats. It is expected that the preferable habitat conditions such as area and depth for their oviposition
could be proposed in the near future.

SWAT parameter estimation for watershed hydrology and stream water


quality with big drought observed data
Da Rae Kim1, Ji Wan Lee2, and Seong Joon Kim3*
1

Graduate Student, Konkuk University, Dept. of Civil and Environmental System Eng., 1 Hwayang dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul
143-701, South Korea, kimdr@konkuk.ac.kr
2
Doctoral Student, Konkuk University, Dept. of Civil and Environmental System Eng., 1 Hwayang dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul
143-701, South Korea, closer1@konkuk.ac.kr
3*
Professor , Konkuk University, Dept. of Civil and Environmental System Eng., 1 Hwayang dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701,
South Korea, Corresponding author: kimsj@konkuk.ac.kr, Tel: +82-2-450-3749, Fax: +82-2-444-0186

Keywords: SWAT; Sensitivity analysis; Model Calibration; Drought year


ABSTRACT
Since 2000, severe droughts have visited in South Korea with abnormal return periods and duration within a year. The
droughts have affected the amount and shape of flow hydrograph and the water quality concentration. The SWAT (Soil
and Water Assessment Tool) has been calibrated to understand the watershed hydrology and water quality for better
watershed management. For the long periods of droughts, the SWAT calibration parameters may be different to get a
good statistical results between observed and simulated ones. In this study, a 366 km2 Gongdo watershed located in
northwest part of South Korea was adopted with 14 years (2002-2015) data including 2008, 2014~2015 drought years.
By focusing on the drought years hydrographs (Q) and water quality data of sediment, total nitrogen, and total
phosphorus (SS, T-N, and T-P), the SWAT was calibrated and the results showed Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficients
(NSE) of 0.86 for Q and 0.76 for 1/Q were 0.86 and 0.76 respectively. The water quality calibration will be done with
drought periods responding parameters.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This research was supported by a grant (14AWMP-B082564-01) from Advanced Water Management Research Program
funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

Evaluation of the Relationship between Meteorological, Agricultural and Big


Data for 2014-2015 South Korea Severe Drought
Ji Wan Lee1, So Ra Ahn2, Chung Gil Jung3, and Seong Joon Kim4*
1

Doctoral Student, Konkuk University, Dept. of Civil and Environmental System Eng., 1 Hwayang dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul
143-701, South Korea, closer01@konkuk.ac.kr
2
Ph.D., Konkuk University, Dept. of Civil and Environmental System Eng., 1 Hwayang dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701,
South Korea, ahnsora@konkuk.ac.kr
3
Ph.D. candidate, Konkuk University, Dept. of Civil and Environmental System Eng., 1 Hwayang dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143701, South Korea, wjd0823@konkuk.ac.kr
4*
Professor , Konkuk University, Dept. of Civil and Environmental System Eng., 1 Hwayang dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701,
South Korea, Corresponding author: kimsj@konkuk.ac.kr, Tel: +82-2-450-3749, Fax: +82-2-444-0186

Keywords: Agricultural Drought; Reservoir Water Storage Rate; Big Data; Precipitation
ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study is to find the relationship between precipitation deficit, SPI(standardized precipitation index)12 month, agricultural reservoir water storage deficit and agricultural drought-related big data, and evaluate the
usefulness of agricultural risk management through big data. For the long term drought (from January 2014 to December
2015), each data was collected and analyzed with monthly and Provincial base. The minimum SPI-12 and maximum
reservoir water storage deficit compared to normal year was occurred at the same time of July 2014, and August and
September 2015. The maximum frequency of big data was occurred at June and July of 2014, and March and June to
September of 2015. The maximum big data was occurred 1 month advanced in 2014 and 2 months advanced in 2015
than the maximum reservoir water storage deficit. The occurrence of big data was sensitive to spring drought from
March, late Jangma of June, dry Jangma of July and the rainfall deficit of September 2015. The big data was closely
related with the meteorological drought and agricultural drought. Because the big data is the in situ feeling drought, it
is proved as a useful indicator for agricultural risk management.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This work was funded by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and development Program under Grant
KMIPA 20152070 and also was performed as a subproject of KISTIs project Development of HPC-based management
system against national-scale disaster funded by Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning.

Irrigation Risk management by Spatiotemporal Flow Simulation


HsinI Hsieh1, MingDaw Su1, YiiChen Wu1, KeSheng Cheng1
1

Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan

Keywords: Paddy irrigation; water shortage risk; spatiotemporal simulation


ABSTRACT
Characterizing and simulating streamflow series is an essential task for regional water resources planning and
management. It generally involves modeling the temporal variation and spatial correlation of streamflow data at different
sites. Stream flows have been found to be asymmetric and non-Gaussian. In this study, we proposed a stochastic
spatiotemporal simulation approach which is capable of generating non-Gaussian multi-site ten-day-period (TDP)
streamflow data series. Historical flow data from twelve flow stations within and near the Jianan Irrigation District in
southern Taiwan were used to exemplify the application of the proposed model. The model is composed of three
components: (1) stochastic simulation of bivariate non-Gaussian distributions, (2) anisotropic space-time covariance
function which characterizes the spatial and temporal variations of multisite ten-day periods (TDP) stream flows, and
(3) Monte Carlo spatiotemporal simulation of stream flows. Simulated realizations of the spatiotemporal anisotropic
multivariate Pearson type III distribution were validated by comparing parameters and spatiotemporal correlation
characteristics of the simulated data and the observed streamflow data. An example application which demonstrates
utilization of the proposed model for irrigation water shortage risk assessment is also presented.

SWAT AND STABLE ISOTOPE ANALYSIS OF RUNOFF AND


BASEFLOW FOR AGRICULTURAL WATER IN THAILAND
Jeerapong Laonamsai1 and Aksara Putthividhya2*
1

Graduate Student, Department of Water Resources Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok,
Thailand 10330; email: thaongo1109@yahoo.com
2
Assistant Professor, Department of Water Resources Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok,
Thailand 10330; email: dr.aksara.putthividhya@gmail.com
*Corresponding Letter

Keywords: Stable isotope; fingerprinting; groundwater-surface water interactions; baseflow; water resources
management
ABSTRACT
An investigation using environmental isotopes (18O and D) was conducted to improve our understanding of the origin
and to provide baseline data on the spatial variation of surface and groundwater (in terms of baseflo) in the upper Chao
Phraya river basin where shortage of surface water is currently witnessed and groundwater has served as the secondary
source of drinking and agricultural water in water-stressed provinces for a sustainable water resources development
without adverse effects on the environment. Local precipitation, surface water, and groundwater along the main river
courses and their tributaries are directly sampled. In addition to the isotopic differentiation in the area, its impacts on
isotopic characteristics of surface water and groundwater are additionally explored. Surface water in the study area is
influenced by evaporation at some degree, revealing that rainfall may not be the primary source of surface water. Yom
rivers isotope values are far more D and 18O-enriched compared to Pings and Nans, suggesting the mixing of
groundwater with river water and/or the source of surface water may come from dry-period precipitation. Stable
oxygen and hydrogen isotope data in groundwater again fall on an evaporation line, and is thus indicative of the effects
of high evaporation rates through the top surficial material. The isotopic similarity with the more depleted D and
18O of groundwater samples suggests the potential mixing of groundwater with river water by different mixing
processes (54% from river water and 46% from rainfall). The results of stable isotope analyses show correlation
s in the isotope signature of shallow (i.e., < 50 m deep) and deeper aquifer (i.e., > 50 m deep) which may
be associated with hydraulic connection and/or similar hydrogeological conditions. d-excess stable isotope an
alyses are beneficial to identify the relative contributions of the wet and dry seasonal sources to the ground
water recharge. The results indicate that groundwater sources in the area are composed of an average of ap
proximately 71.4% wet seasonal sources and 28.6% dry seasonal sources. SWAT analysis can estimate baseflow
and groundwater recharge from streamflow records in the study area.

The Effect of Long-Term Soil Erosion and Soil Depth Changes by


Improvement of Rain Erosivity Using Minute Unit Rainfall Data
Chung-Gil Jung1, So-Ra Ahn2, Ji-Wan Lee3 and Seong-Joon Kim4*
1

Ph.D. Candidate, Konkuk University, Dept. of Civil and Environmental System Eng., 1 Hwayang dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul
143-701, South Korea, wjd0823@konkuk.ac.kr
2
Ph.D. Candidate, Konkuk University, Dept. of Civil and Environmental System Eng., 1 Hwayang dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul
143-701, South Korea, ahnsora@konkuk.ac.kr
3
Doctoral Student, Konkuk University, Dept. of Civil and Environmental System Eng., 1 Hwayang dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul
143-701, South Korea, closer01@konkuk.ac.kr
4*
Professor , Konkuk University, Dept. of Civil and Environmental System Eng., 1 Hwayang dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701,
South Korea, Corresponding author: kimsj@konkuk.ac.kr, Tel: +82-2-450-3749, Fax: +82-2-444-0186

Keywords: RUSLE; Soil erosion; Rain erosivity; Soil depth


ABSTRACT
The soil depth is an important factor for the watershed hydrologic cycle and maintaining the available water resources
in a watershed scale. The long-time soil erosion processes mainly by rains and irrigations in South Korea have removed
the original topsoil affecting the distribution of effective soil depth in a watershed. The changes of effective soil depth
can affect the potential soil water storage and successively the amount of surface runoff and the groundwater recharge.
In this study, the soil depth distribution changes by the long-term soil erosion and deposition process were estimated by
using RUSLE (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation) with the evaluation of RUSLE (Revised Universal Soil Loss
Equation) rain erosivity R factor for 15 years (2000 ~ 2010) using 1 minute data and considering sediment delivery. To
evaluate the soil depth change impact on hydrologic cycle, a grid-based continuous hydrologic model (PGA-CC) was
applied. For Soyang River Dam and Chungju Dam watershed located in the northeastern part of South Korea, firstly the
soil depth distribution (SDD) from 1975 to 2010 was prepared and secondly applied the SDD to trace the hydrologic
components behavior of soil water content, groundwater recharge, baseflow and streamflow in the watershed. We found
that each hydrologic component was affected by the soil depth changes to a considerable extent. From the spatial changes
of hydrologic components, the weakened areas can be identified from a sustainable water resources point of view.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This research was supported by a grant (16AWMP-B079625-03) from the Water Management Research Progr
am funded by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of the Korean government.

The 15th PAWEES Conference of Sustainable Paddy Water


Management in Water-Energy-Food NEXUS
Theme 3: Climate Change and Paddy Water Management
Date: 20 October, Thursday
Location: Damoa Hall, 1st floor
Chair: Takao Masumoto(National Agriculture and Food Organization)
No. Presenter(Affiliation)
1

Chusnul Arif

Cost-Effective and Accurate Estimation of Greenhouse Gas

(Bogor Agricultural

Emissions from System of Rice Intensification (SRI) Paddy

University)

LIN Xiaolan
2

(Tokyo University of
Agriculture and Technology)

Yong-Hoon Shin
3

(Seoul National
University)

Mirza Junaid Ahmad


4

(Kyungpook National
University)

Blay Twumasi George


5

(Kyungpook National
University)

6
7

Bu-Yeong Oh
(Seoul National University)

JeHong Bang
(Seoul National University)

Shih-Wei Chiang
8

(Agricultural Engineering
Research Center)

Kuang-Chung Lee
9

10

Title

(National Dong-Hwa
University)

Fields
The study on the relationship between the thickness of oxidized
layer and temperature
Estimation of water requirements in paddy and upland using
WRF meteorological data
Scenario based climatic impacts on crop evapotranspiration of
Wheat-Rice cropping system in Punjab, Pakistan
Prediction of corn yield based on climatic scenarios in Dangbe
district of Ghana using Aqua crop model
Assessment of climate change impact on water footprint of
paddy rice using AquaCrop 5.0
Estimation of future agricultural water requirement of NakDong watershed under climate change
Investigation of the Effects of RCPs on Rice Water Requirements
for Chia-Nan Irrigation Area in Taiwan
Participatory Evaluation of Indicators of Resilience and
Strategic Planning of Paddy-Dominated Landscapes: A Case
Study of an Indigenous Rice Paddy Cultural Landscape in
Taiwan

Pennapa Perawongsakul GCM-BASED


(Chulalongkorn University)

PRECIPITATION

CHANGE

ESTIMATES

FOR

MAEKLONG BASIN THAILAND

Cost-Effective and Accurate Estimation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from

System of Rice Intensification (SRI) Paddy Fields


Chusnul Arif1*, Budi Indra Setiawan1, Ardiansyah2, Nur Aini Iswati Hasanah1, Masaru Mizoguchi3
1

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor, Indonesia
2
Department of Agricultural Engineering, Jendral Soedirman University, Purwokerto, Indonesia
3
Department of Global Agricultural Sciences, the University of Tokyo, Japan

Keywords: estimation tools; greenhouse gas emissions; system of rice intensification; soil moisture, water
management
ABSTRACT
System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is known as mitigation strategy of greenhouse gas emissions from paddy fields. In
term of global warming potential (GWP), SRI released lower greenhouse gas emission than that conventional practices.
Greenhouse gases such as methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emitted into the atmosphere are affected by the
dynamic changes of soil condition and soil microbial activities inside. Measurements of the gases in the fields are
difficult and need advanced instrumentation. When the instruments are limited, the cost-effective and accurate
estimation method is needed. The current study proposes cost-effective and accurate estimation of greenhouse gas
emissions based on soil moisture, soil temperature and soil electrical conductivity data. By the developed method, it is
expected that optimum water management for mitigating option of SRI paddy fields can be well determined. The
proposed model was validated based on two experiments in two different locations during 4 June to 21 September 2012
and 2 July to 10 October 2014. In each location, there were three different irrigation regimes, i.e., wet, medium and dry
regimes. As the results, the developed model estimated CH4 and N2O emissions accurately with determination
coefficients (R2) of 0.91 and 0.76 for CH4 and N2O estimation, respectively. From the model, characteristics of those
greenhouse gas emissions can be well identified. For the mitigation strategy, water regime by keeping the water level at
nearly soil surface is the best strategy with highest yield and lowest GWP.

The study on the relationship between the thickness of oxidized layer and
temperature
LIN Xiaolan1, YOSHIDA Koshi2, MAEDA Shigeya2, KURODA Hisao2
1

The United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Japan
2
College of Agriculture, Ibaraki University, Japan

Keywords: temperature; nitrogen removal; oxidized layer


ABSTRACT
The thickness of the oxidized layer refers to denitrification at paddy fields in previous studies. The relationship between
the thickness of oxidized layer and temperature were carried out in this study.
The DO concentration sensor was used to measure the O2 state of soil layer. The DO concentration measured every 0.2
mm in soil samples. Based on these DO concentration results, thicknesses of oxidized layer were counted then oxidized
layers and reduction layers were collected. As the result, thicknesses of oxidized layer changed in range of 16 ~85 mm
in soil layer and became deepest during August and September. It shows that the DO concentrations in paddy field soil
have a seasonal change and changed in a thin layer.
Also, the DO concentration and the soil surface temperature on soil sample point were measured in this study. When the
surface temperature rise, it was found the saturation percentage of dissolved oxygen increased. It may due to the
influence of photosynthesis on soil surface. The relationship between soil surface temperature and the oxidized layer
thickness were studied. A positive correlation is observed between the thickness of oxidized layer and soil surface
temperature in the range of 7 ~ 24 degrees Celsius. Therefore, when the soil surface temperature rises, the thickness of
the oxidized layer becomes thin. This relationship dissolved oxygen supply rate from the water and oxygen consumption
in the soil is affected.

Estimation of water requirements in paddy and upland using WRF


meteorological data
Yong-Hoon Shin1, Jin-Yong Choi2*, Min-Ki Hong1, SeungJae Lee3,
Sung-Hack Lee1
1

Department of Rural Systems Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
Department of Rural Systems Engineering, and Research Institute for Agriculture & Life Sciences, Seoul National University,
Seoul, Republic of Korea
33
National Centre for Agro Meteorology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea

Keywords: Water requirement; Soil moisture content; Grid-based water balance; WRF (Weather Research and
Forecast) model
ABSTRACT
The aim of this study is estimating water requirments in paddy and upland by WRF (Weatehr Forecast and Reserach)
meteorological data. The WRF model which provides high resolution and grid-based meteorological data can improve
calculation of irrigation factors, such as evapotranspiration, soil moisture content and water requirements in paddy and
upland. The grid-based meteorological data derived from WRF was applied to water balance model and was compared
with the nearest weather station data. In paddy, the water requirement was estimated with the water balance model with
rainfall and evapotranspiration. In upland, the soil moisture model was designed by four layers according to the depth
of soil and the irrigation requirements at each layers were computed with soil moisture content and evapotranspiration.
Applicability estimation of the high resolution meteorological data on water requirement estimating model was
conducted with observed data. The results of application of the WRF meteorological data and the weather station data
showed differences in rainfall, evapotranspiration, and water requirements. As the grid-based WRF data indicated a
regional difference more than the weather station data, estimating the water requirement by WRF data was in accordance
with the observed data.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This work was funded by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under Grant
Weather Information Service Engine (WISE) project (1204-ZZ-020-02D02-2016).

Scenario based climatic impacts on crop evapotranspiration of


Wheat-Rice cropping system in Punjab, Pakistan
Ahmad, Mirza Junaid1, Kyung-Sook Choi2
1

Graduate student, Dept. of Agricultural Civil Eng., Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea, E-mail :
agri.junaid1205@gmail.com
2
Member, Professor, Dept. of Agricultural Civil Eng., Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea, E-mail :
ks.choi@knu.ac.kr

Keywords: ETc; IWR; CROPWAT; Climate scenarios; UCC; Pakistan


ABSTRACT
This study investigated the potential climatic impacts upon crop evapotranspiration (ETc) and irrigation water
requirements (IWR) of wheat-rice cropping system for command area of Upper Chenab Canal (UCC) in Punjab province
of Pakistan. First, sensitivity analysis of reference evapotranspiration (ET o) was conducted to understand the relative
influence of climatic parameters on ETo variations. A 32-year (1980-2012) weather data set obtained from Pakistan
Meteorological Department (PMD) was used in the analysis. Results showed that temperature is most influential
parameter to ETo variations. ETc and IWR for both crops were then simulated under hypothetical future climate scenarios
of temperature rise of 1- 3C with 1C step (T1,T2 and T3) and rainfall variations based on 80%, 50% and 20%
probability of occurrence (dry, normal and wet). CROPWAT model was used to predict the ETc and IWR under normal
and scenario based climatic conditions. Average ETc values for wheat and rice were 342 mm and 580 mm. Both wheat
and rice showed maximum increase in ETc against temperature rise of +2C i.e. 8.6% and 6% as compared to average.
Results showed that at temperature rise of +3C, wheat would require 1.83% less irrigation water than that of +2C
indicating a reduction in crop growth span. Results also indicated that under dry rainfall conditions IWR could rise up
to 14.24% and 29.41% for wheat and rice crops. Monthly analysis showed that March & April and August & September
were the months with maximum IWR for both wheat and rice respectively.

Prediction of corn yield based on climatic scenarios in Dangbe district of


Ghana using Aqua crop model.
George, Blay Twumasi1, Kyung-Sook Choi2
1

Graduate student, Dept. of Agricultural Civil Eng., Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea, E-mail :
twum143@gmail.com
2
Member, Professor, Dept. of Agricultural Civil Eng., Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea, E-mail :
ks.choi@knu.ac.kr

Keywords: Aquacrop model; climatic scenarios; corn; Ghana


ABSTRACT
Corn is the major cereal crop grown as staple food under rain fed conditions in Ghana. The study predicted corn yield
based on designed climatic scenarios by using yield data from 1992 to 2002 for calibration and 2003 to 2013 for
validation with the help of Aquacrop model. The model showed satisfactory predictive power with an R squared (R2)
of 0.83 and Nash-Sutcliff Error (NSE) of 0.25. First, relation between yield and climatic parameters was observed using
sensitivity analysis. Rainfall and temperature were found to be most influential climatic factors affecting the corn yield.
Corn yield was then simulated based on two climatic scenarios; scenario1 involves temperature rise with rainfall
reduction and scenario2 involves reducing temperature with increasing rainfall. Results showed that temperature rise
would have negative whereas increasing rainfall would have positive impact on yield. The average yield reduction under
scenario1 was 76% while under scenario2 a 54% increase in yield was recorded. The highest yield reduction (80%) was
observed under hypothetical future climatic conditions of maximum rainfall reduction and highest temperature increase
(-20% Rainfall and +7oC). Modeled results also indicated that yield would be highest (70%) if there were 20% increase
in average rainfall. Availability of water in terms of rainfall or irrigation was the main factor limiting corn yield in study
area. It can be inferred from the results that yield could be significantly increased if water is made available through
supplementary irrigation.

Assessment of climate change impact on water footprint of paddy rice using


AquaCrop 5.0
Bu-Yeong Oh1, Jin-Yong Choi2*, Sang-Hyun Lee3, Seung Hwan Yo4
1

Department of Rural system Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
Department of Rural Systems Engineering, and Research Institute for Agriculture & Life Sciences, Seoul National University,
Seoul, Republic of Korea
3
Texas A&M University, Biological and Agricultural Engineering, United States of America
4
Department of Rural and Bio-system Engineering College of Agricultural and Life Science, Gwangju, Republic of Korea

Keywords: AquaCrop 5.0; Climate change; GCM Scenarios; Water footprint


ABSTRACT
Climate change is expected to increase climate variability, and agricultural production is vulnerable to changes in the
rainfall, radiation and temperature patterns caused by climate change. This study investigates the trends and uncertainty
of the impacts of climate change on water footprint of paddy rice. Water footprint indicates the used water for production,
thus it considers the inter-relationship between water use and crop yield. The downscaled climate data from General
Circulation Model (GCM) outputs was applied as climate change scenarios, and temporal scales were set to base line
(1980-2009) and three future periods (2020s, 2050s and 2080s). A yield of paddy rice, crop water requirements, effective
rainfall, and irrigation water were estimated using AquaCrop 5.0, which is a water-driven model.
The means of water footprint were projected increase by 55%(2020s), 51%(2050s) and 48%(2080s), respectively, from
the baseline value of 767/ton in Suwon. In case of Jeonju, total water footprint was projected to increase by
46%(2020s), 45%(2050s), 12%(2080s), respectively, from the baseline value of 765/ton. However, the climate change
data include uncertainty of GCMs, thus the uncertainty of estimated water footprint was analyzed.
Water footprint could be used the barometer of climate change impacts on water and food security, and this study
contributes analyses for other crops and regions.

Estimation of future agricultural water requirement of Nak-Dong watershed


under climate change
JeHong Bang1, Jin-Yong Choi2*, Sung-Hack Lee3
1

Department of Rural Systems Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
Department of Rural Systems Engineering, and Research Institute for Agriculture & Life Sciences, Seoul National University,
Seoul, Republic of Korea
3
Department of Rural Systems Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea

Keywords: Climate change; water requirement; future


ABSTRACT
Climate change has been a global issue. Especially, climate change has impacts on agricultural field. Agricultural water
requirement is considered to be sensitive to the annual climate variation. Uneven rainfall distribution can influence crop
yield and productivity. In this study, we calculated crop water requirement with five GCM scenarios based on RCP 4.5
scenario, CCSM4.0, CESM1.0-BGC, CESM1.0-CAM5, HadGEM2.0-AO, MRI-CGCM3, which were known to be
adequate for the region of South Korea. For the future land use plan, we adopted national plan, the Water Vision 2020
from Ministry of Construction and Transportation. Results showed that agricultural water requirement of Nak-Dong
river watershed would increase gradually in all scenarios. In 2020, water requirement was estimated at 41.5 billion tons
with HadGEM2.0-AO which was biggest value among all scenarios, and it is about 96.4% of realistic water needs. In
other scenarios, agricultural water requirements in 2020 were 40.6, 39.6, 40.4, 37.6 billion tons in CCSM4.0, CESM1.0BGC, CESM1.0-CAM5, MRI-CGCM3 respectively. This study shows variability of estimating future water needs
depending on different GCM models, but can be utilized as a basic reference data for national plan decision.

Investigation of the Effects of RCPs on Rice Water Requirements for ChiaNan Irrigation Area in Taiwan
Shih-Wei Chiang1*
Associate Research Fellow, Engineering Division, Agricultural Engineering Research Center, Taiwan

Keywords: Climate Change; RCP; Rice Water Requirements; CROPWAT


ABSTRACT
Climate change on hydrological character will cause variations in rainfall pattern and intensity, which would further
increase possibility of consecutive dry days, drought frequency and water shortages in the future. The purpose of this
study is to investigate how rising temperature and changing rainfall condition may influence the rice water requirements.
In this study, Chia-Nan irrigation area in southern Taiwan was selected as a study case. The climate-related factors
including rainfall amounts and temperature used for investigation are sourced from the fifth Assessment Report (AR5)
by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) are used to
describe possible range of greenhouse gas concentration in the future. The four statistical downscaling RCPs named
RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6 and RCP8.5 scenarios were provided by the Taiwan Climate Change Projection and Information
Platform (TCCIP). The changing values in temperature and rainfall could be obtained depending on baseline period of
19862005. The rice water requirements would be estimated by applying the CROPWAT model developed by the Food
and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). The effects of RCPs on rice water requirements for the study
case were investigated by modeling with climate-related parameters corresponding different RCPs.

Participatory Evaluation of Indicators of Resilience and Strategic Planning


of Paddy-Dominated Landscapes: A Case Study of an Indigenous Rice
Paddy Cultural Landscape in Taiwan
Kuang-Chung Lee
Associate Professor, National Dong-Hwa University, kclee2000@gmail.com

Keywords: indicators of resilience; paddy-dominated landscape; participatory evaluation; collaborative


planning
ABSTRACT
The National Dong-Hwa University worked with the Hualien County Cultural Affairs Bureau and conducted a two-year
project on conservation of a rice paddy production landscape in the indigenous Fengnan village in 2011-2013. In the
end, stakeholders jointly designated the site as a legal Cihalaay Cultural Landscape, drew up a mid-term Cultural
Landscape Conservation Plan in line with the three-fold approach to Satoyama Initiative and set up a Local Committee
for implementation of the Plan. In order to help local stakeholders to monitor the progress of the implementation of the
Plan, the research team worked with the indigenous community again from 2015 to 2016 on participatory evaluation of
indicators of resilience and strategic planning of the Cihalaay Cultural Landscape. The research team adopted the
indicator system and evaluative procedure from UNU-IASs toolkit for the Indicators of Resilience in Socio-ecological
Production Landscapes and Seascapes (SEPLS).
On the first stage from June to August 2015, the research team recruited an indicator development working group
composing six key local people. In total 6 working group meetings were conducted to review the suitability of UNUIASs 20 indicators of resilience and to evaluate the indicators for the current situation of the Cihalaay Cultural
Landscape. Second, the research team invited the whole 25 households in the Cihalaay Cultural Landscape to participate
a village meeting. The outcome of the evaluation of the resilience indicators for the Cihalaay Cultural Landscape were
explained and discussed in the village meeting. On the second stage from October 2015 to January 2016, 5 working
group meetings and the second village meeting were held by the research team. The meetings were designed to help
residents come to strategies to enhance each indicator based on the outcomes acquired during the first stage. In total, 36
enhancement strategies were figured out by the the working group members and then explained to and discussed with
the whole villagers in the village meeting.
The findings show that the recruitement of a small local working group can be an effective for the reserch team to
explore more in-depth understandings of local people about the indicators of resilience of the area. By conducting a
series of working group meetings, participants learnt different aspects of local knowledge from each other, built up
partnership among them, carried out the evaluation of 20 indicators of resilience and developed 36 enhancement
strategies for the future management of the area. In generally the participants agreeed that the indicator system of
resilience of the local area based on landscape scale were workable and the outcomes would be helpful to the future
management of the Cihalaay Cultural Landscape.

GCM-BASED PRECIPITATION CHANGE ESTIMATES FOR


MAEKLONG BASIN THAILAND
Pennapa Perawongsakul1 and Aksara Putthividhya2*
1

Graduate Student, Department of Water Resources Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok,
Thailand 10330; email: pennapa.pera@yahoo.com
2
Assistant Professor, Department of Water Resources Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok,
Thailand 10330; email: dr.aksara.putthividhya@gmail.com
*Corresponding Letter

Keywords: Precipitation maps; GCM, climate uncertainties; Mae Klong river basin
ABSTRACT
Precipitation is the one important climate parameter in the hydrological model and water resources management. The
main purpose of this work is to evaluate six Global Climate Model (GCM) simulations based on capability to replicate
1980-2005 mean total precipitation for the Mae Klong river basin in Thailand. The seasonal and annual magnitudes
and spatial patterns of the GCM climates were compared to those of real observed data sets. The results demonstrated
that most of the GCMs selected in this work simulated the observed climate behavior (i.e., magnitude and spatial patterns)
reasonable well based on the coefficient of determination (r2) and the root mean square errors (RMSE). However, all
GCMs seemed to over-predict the total annual precipitation by some degree. Two GCM runs were also used for an
intercomparison of modeled future precipitation scenarios for the near future (2016-2039) period, only responses to the
RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5forcing scenarios from AR5. These results will contribute to an improved understanding of both
present day and future GCM-simulated climate in the study area.

The 15th PAWEES Conference of Sustainable Paddy Water


Management in Water-Energy-Food NEXUS
Poster Session
Date: 20 October, Thursday
Location: Damoa Hall, 1st floor
No. Presenter(Affiliation)
Fumi Okura
1

(Tokyo University of
Agriculture and Technology)

Nova Anika
2

(Tokyo University of
Agriculture and Technology)

5
6

10

11

Systems in Bali
Structural Equation Modelling of Rice Production Development
In Sumani Watershed, Sumatera Barat, Indonesia
Demand and supply analysis in irrigation development in Kenya

(Tokyo University of

An irrigation based model and simulation of Mwea Irrigation

Supattra Visessri
(National Taiwan University)

Tai-Yi Liu
(National Taiwan University)

Scheme, Kirinyaga County, Kenya


Effective

Rainfall

Capture

as

Affected

by

Irrigation

Management
Mangroves ecosystem management model in Danshui river
wetland

Kazuyoshi Nakata

Evaluation of fish habitats by using an easy investigation

(Okayama University)

method in an agricultural channel, western Japan

Seong Nam Ham


(Okayama University)

Factors affecting distribution of the endangered bitterling fish


Rhodeus atremius suigensis in an agricultural channel,
southern Okayama Prefecture, western Japan

Mohammad Raihanul

EFFECTS OF HAND MADE PLASTIC HORN TO MEASURE THE

Islam

ARITHMETIC MEAN ROUGHNESS OF CONCRETE SURFACE BY

(Mie University)

Agent-based Modeling for Water Allocation Scenarios of Subak

George Akoko
Agriculture and Technology)

Title

N. Koizumi
(National Agriculture and
Food Research Organization)

Yohei ASADA
(University of Tokyo)

Masaomi Kimura
(University of Tokyo)

TRANSCEIVER TYPE AERIAL ULTRASONIC SENSOR


Trial investigation to estimate relationship between
environmental DNA and fish distribution in agricultural canals
Measurement of Flow around Leakage Point in Experimental
Pipeline Using PIV

Mathematical models for two-dimensional distribution of


thermal environment in paddy field considering ponding
water flows

12
13
14

Yuka Kubota
(Okayama University)

of an agricultural channel, western Japan

Seung-Yeon Jung

Computational Fluid Dynamics for Performance Evaluation of

(Seoul National University)

Yasuhiro HONDA
(Niigata University)

Wen-Tsun Fang
15

(Agricultural Engineering
Research Center)

16

17

18

Akarapol Amto
(Chulalongkorn University)

Thao Ngo
(Chulalongkorn University)

(Bogor Agriculture

Operation

during

Drought

with

Consideration of Electrical Conductivity Change for Water


SPATIAL

PRECIPITATION

MAPPING

BASED

ON

GEOSTATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF CO-LOCATED ELEVATION


AND HUMIDITY IN SPARSELY GAUGED BASINS
ANALYSIS OF LANDUSE PATTERN CHANGE, RAINFALLRUNOFF, AND RUNOFF-SEDIMENT RELATIONS IN YOM RIVER
BASIN THAILAND

Availability and Rice Productivity in Indramayu District


ANALYSIS ON SEASONAL CHANGE AND ITS CONSEQUENCE
TO RAINWATER AVAILABILITY
Effectiveness of Coordinated Water Management among

(Civil Engineering Research

Neighboring Dams in Addressing Future Changes in Snowmelt

(Tokyo University of
Agriculture and Technology)

Wonho Nam
(Hankyung National
University)

24

Irrigation

NAKAMURA Kazumasa

KURODA Hisao

23

Optimal

Adaptation in Agricultural Sector: Climate Change, Water

Institute for Cold Region)

22

Analysis

(Bogor Agriculture

University)

21

Evaluation of Flow Field in Model Pipeline by AE Parameter

Utilization of Crop Growth Model to Support Climate Change

Budi Indra Setiawan

20

Disk Filter in Drip Irrigation System

Anria
University)

19

Seasonal migration of freshwater fish in restoration areas

So-Ra Ahn
(Konkuk University)

Keitaro Hara
(Kyoto University)

Runoff
The relationship between the Moso bamboo density and the
water resource
The extreme 2015 drought event in North and South Korea and
their impacts
Assessment of Watershed Health, Resilience and Priority
Considering Climate Change for the Han River Basin in South
Korea
EVALUATION OF WATER MIGRABILITY IN PORE- AND GRAINNETWORKS OF POROUS MEDIA BY PERCOLARION THEORY

Agent-based Modeling for Water Allocation Scenarios of Subak Systems in


Bali
Fumi Okura1, Tasuku Kato2
1

United Graduate School of Agriculture Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology
2
Institute of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology

Keywords: water allocation; agent-based model; PIM


ABSTRACT
Adequate irrigation water management can improve water allocation through rescheduling cropping patterns or
controlling irrigation operations. In many case studies of Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM), potential water
resources are enough to irrigate the whole planted area. However, generally, water allocation issues arise where water
supply is insufficient to meet demand, and the issues should contain not only physical but also social factors. Therefore,
this study aims to analyze water allocation mechanism considering physical and social factors by agent-based modeling
in Saba Irrigation Project area, Bali, Indonesia. Bali has farmers organizations named Subaks, and in Subak level, paddy
field area, numbers of farmers, numbers of gates, labor power, cropping patterns and relationships between Subaks were
investigated. Additionally, rainfall data and flow data from Saba weir intake were collected. An agent-based model was
developed by modifying Lansing and Kremer model. In the model, agents represent Subaks or sub-Subaks, and each
agent has a cropping plan governed by water availability and social factors. Agents are yearly evaluated by the water
withdrawal for land preparation, and, if any, select a better cropping plan to optimize yield. Primary data suggested that
the frequency of exchange of information, the range of communication networks and cost and population of labor power
for land preparation have relations with flexibility in water allocation. Therefore, we examined how agents interactions
and labor power changed water allocation. This study shows that both physical and social factors influence water
allocation system.

Structural Equation Modelling of Rice Production Development


In Sumani Watershed, Sumatera Barat, Indonesia
Nova Anika1, Tasuku Kato2
1

Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tokyo University
of Agriculture and Technology
2
Institute of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology

Keywords: Structural Equation Modelling; Rice Production; Agricultural Management Practice


ABSTRACT
Rice is a crucial commodity in Sumani Watershed, West Sumatra, Indonesia. Rice production is determined by several
factors such as climatological, hydrological, agricultural input, agricultural practice/management, technology and
social/economic condition that are mutually related with each other. As objectives of this research, Structural Equation
Modelling is applied to identify the key factors and constraints that effect the rice production in this research location.
Based on theoretical formulation and data collection analysis, the hypothesis of the model is developed : (1) the
increasing rice production have been caused through intensification approach on high input of resources and labor forth,
(2) five no observed factors potential plant growth, production technology, irrigation system, demand of rice, and postharvest facilities are assumed to connect with observed index. The result shows irrigation system is the key factor that
effect paddy production. While insufficient technology of pest control is a constraint for paddy production in this area
that decreasing yield and increasing cropping index. The existing market only stimulate the increasing yield, because
farmers income provide incentive to increase the agricultural input for yield improvement. Demand also stimulate the
increasing yield due to high dependency for cultivating rice of small holder farmers who consume their own rice
production and sell the surplus.

Demand and supply analysis in irrigation development in Kenya An


irrigation based model and simulation of Mwea Irrigation Scheme,
Kirinyaga County, Kenya
George Akoko1, Tasuku Kato2
1

Department of International Environmental and Agricultural Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo,
Japan
2
Institute of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo, Japan

Keywords: Irrigation scheme; Hydrological modelling


ABSTRACT
Mwea Irrigation Scheme is an irrigation scheme located in Kirinyaga County, central Kenya that was established in
1950s and predominantly cultivates rice. This irrigation scheme is managed by the National Irrigation Board (Kenya)
which is entrusted with water management, maintenance of irrigation infrastructure and making of cropping program.
In field water management in the tertiary units, in field infrastructure maintenance (except main roads) and ensuring
farmers payment of operation and maintenance fees is handled by Mwea Irrigation Scheme Water Users Association.
This scheme supplies over 60% of the rice to the domestic rice market in Kenya, making it of utmost importance. Over
the years, the scheme has undergone several infrastructural improvements. However, the scheme still faces several
problems such as water shortages that have stemmed from low flow levels from its main rivers, low rainfall and
expanded irrigation (out grower) areas. Currently, the scheme is undergoing infrastructural development and expansion
projects (which include a dam component) to try and address the aforementioned problems. However, the proposed
projects have stalled for several years and construction is yet to commence. This research sets out to assess the current
and future (after the proposed dam is complete) water resources availability for the scheme using hydrological modelling
tools, SWAT (Soil Water Assessment Tool). In future scenario, demand and supply of water is evaluated by intermittent
irrigation management at scheme level for improvement of rice production.

Effective Rainfall Capture as Affected by Irrigation Management


Supattra Visessri1, HsinI Hsieh2, Ming-Daw Su2*
1

Department of Water Resource Management, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand


Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
* sumd@ntu.edu.tw

Keywords: Irrigation Management; Effective Rainfall; Application Depth; Irrigation Frequency


ABSTRACT
As the new water supply sources are more difficult to develop due to environmental concerns, the agricultural sector is
facing with more urgent competition in water supplies from other water use sectors. Irrigation can be considered as a
supplement to natural water supply deficits in the soil water moisture, the effective rainfall capture will be an important
issue in regional water management. Since the rainfalls are natural random events, it is difficult to precisely predict the
time and amount of rain events. If the rain comes right after the farm is irrigated, most of the rainwater will be wasted
and considered ineffective. The application depth and frequency are important factors in irrigation management. The
irrigation operations will be less frequent if more water is applied each time if the soil property and root zone is adequate.
It is also assumed that more chances of the random rainfall may be caught due to more chance of in the soil reservoir
spaces from less frequent irrigation.
A simulation model will be developed for soil moisture tracking. The crop ET was estimated by modified Blaney
Criddle equation using the input weather data, and soil moisture balance will be computed with input of historical rainfall
records and irrigation operations. Scenarios with different application depths will be simulated and effective rainfall
captured will be calculated. The crop and soil types are characterized by parameters such as Kc, FC, and PWP in the
model and may be changed for sensitivity analysis studies. It is found that the overall effective rainfall capture rates will
be improved with larger application depths and longer irrigation intervals.

Mangroves ecosystem management model in Danshui river wetland


Tai-Yi Liu1, Ming-Che Hu1*
1

Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan
* corresponding author: Ming-Che Hu (mchu@ntu.edu.tw)

Keywords: mangrove ecosystem management; spatial multi-attribute simulation model; tradeoff


ABSTRACT
A mangrove management model is built in this research. In the model, multi-attributes of mangrove ecosystems are
simulated including carbon fixation, ecological diversity, flooding deduction, contamination removal, and recreation. A
case study of mangrove ecosystem management in Danshui River is conducted. The mangrove ecosystems are simulated
under alternative management scenarios. Accordingly, the tradeoff between attributes under scenarios is presented.

Evaluation of fish habitats by using an easy investigation method in an


agricultural channel, western Japan
Kazuyoshi Nakata* , Yuki Kadowaki, Yuka Kubota
Affiliation: Graduate School of Environmental and Life Science, Okayama University, Japan
* Poster presenter and corresponding author

Keywords: Freshwater fish; Fish investigation method; Agricultural channel; Restoration; Biodiversity
ABSTRACT
Farmland consolidation projects often damage fish habitats in agricultural channels and lead to loss of local fish
population. In Japan, the plan 'Agricultural Multi-functionality Payment' has been started from 2015 by Ministry of
Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries and consequently the farmers who conduct investigations of living organisms in
rural areas have become to receive the subsidy payment. Thus, we need to evaluate the positive effects of maintenance
of agricultural channels by farmers on the improvement of biodiversity in the channels. We also need to propose an easy
investigation method, which can be conducted even by the farmers, of living organisms inhabiting agricultural channels.
In this study, we focused on freshwater fish as an indicator animal to evaluate biodiversity of channels. We conducted
fish surveys by using two different methods: 1) a simple and easy investigation method only by using fixed fishing nets
(Method 1) and 2) a professional method by using an electric fish shocker (Method 2) in an agricultural channel,
Okayama, western Japan, in July, October and December 2015, and compared the results between the two methods.
The number of fish individuals captured was significantly more by Method 2 compared with Method 1 in October and
December. In July, however, significantly more individuals were collected by Method 1. Our results indicate that we
can evaluate fish diversity of agricultural channels by the easy investigation method around July (after rice transplanting)
because in this season fish can actively migrate and be easy to enter the fixed fishing net.

Factors affecting distribution of the endangered bitterling fish Rhodeus


atremius suigensis in an agricultural channel, southern Okayama
Prefecture, western Japan
Seong Nam Ham*, Yuta Miyatake, Kenta Kawai, Kazuyoshi Nakata
Graduate School of Environmental and Life Science, Okayama University, Japan

Keywords: Habitat preference; Agricultural channel; Endangered species; Rhodeus atremius suigensis
ABSTRACT
Rhodeus atremius suigensis is an endangered bitterling fish species designated as a Nationally Endangered Species of
Wild Fauna and Flora by the Ministry of Environment of Japan. This bitterling mainly inhabits agricultural channels
only in two prefectures (Okayama and Hiroshima). However, since 1970s, many earth channels have been changed to
concreted channels by farmland consolidation projects, consequently causing damage to the habitats of this bitterling in
agricultural channels. The present study investigated environmental preference of the bitterling inhabiting an agricultural
channel in southern Okayama Prefecture, western Japan, through monthly surveys of fishes and physical environments
between June 2014 and May 2015, to clarify environmental factors affecting the occurrence of the bitterling.
Submerged macrophyte coverage (%) in the locations with the bitterling occurrence was higher than the areas without
the bitterling occurrence during the summer to autumn period and in spring. In addition, during the summer to autumn
period, significantly higher percentage of submerged macrophyte coverage was recognized in the locations with the
bitterling occurrence. The positive effects on the bitterling occurrence included presence of above-water cover during
the winter. Furthermore, mean water velocity at the locations with the bitterling occurrence was less than 6 cm/s
throughout the study period.
Our findings insist on the importance of the areas with low water velocity, in addition to covering materials represented
by submerged macrophyte coverage and above-water cover, when creating preferable microhabitats for the bitterling in
agricultural channels.

Effects of Hand Made Plastic Horn to measure the Arithmetic Mean Roughn
ess of Concrete surface by Transceiver Type Aerial Ultrasonic Sensor
Mohammad Raihanul Islam1, NAGAOKA Seiya1, OKAJIMA Kenji1, ISHIGURO Satoru1, ITO
Ryouei1, WATANABE Ken2 and ITO Tesu3
1

Graduate school of Bioresources, Mie University, 1577 Machiyacho, Kurima, Tsu, Mie 514-8507, JAPAN
2
Maruei concrete industry Co., Ltd., 1518 Majima, Fukujyu-machi, Gifu 501-6293, JAPAN
3
X-ability Co., Ltd., 4-15 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, JAPAN

Keywords: Aerial ultrasonic; Peak to peak value; Arithmetical mean roughness; Horn; Performance evaluation
ABSTRACT
In the present study was conducted to select one or more pattern of horn to measure the arithmetical mean roughness of
concrete surface by transceiver type aerial ultrasonic sensor. The plastic made different types of horn was used to control
the measuring range of the sensor. Total three types and nine patterns of horn were used in this study. One cylindrical
type and two circular-tapered-conical shape types horns were used. Height of the horns was 2, 5 and 7 cm. The
individual horn was placed in front of the measuring side of the aerial sensor. A digital oscilloscope was used to measure
the measurement value and to get the measurement in wave form. The sensor was placed at 1m height from the
measuring surface. We evaluated the amount of the reflective wave with the peak to peak value. When the arithmetical
mean roughness was small, the peak to peak value was large. We considered the high peak to peak value, considerable
variation of the measured peak to peak value and clear out range data to evaluate the performance of the used horns`.
The cylindrical horn with the height of 7cm was preferred for the clear outrange value and the circular-tapered-conical
shape horn with 5cm height was preferred for the high peak to peak value. These two horns controlled the measuring
range of the used sensor effectively.

Trial investigation to estimate relationship between environmental DNA and


fish distribution in agricultural canals
Koizumi, N.1, Mori, A., Watabe, K., Takemura, T., Mineta, T. and Yamaoka, M.
Institute for Rural Engineering, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization
1
Oral presenter and corresponding author

Keywords: Environmental DNA; PCR assay; Rural ecosystem; Biodiversity; Agricultural canal
ABSTRACT
Trial investigation for estimating the relationship between environmental DNA (eDNA) and fish distribution was
performed in agricultural canals in Isawa Nanbu area, Iwate Prefecture, Japan, to develop a method to help estimate fish
distribution using eDNA analysis. Water samples for extracting eDNA were collected from six sites in agricultural canals.
After the water collection, Amur minnows that represent the indigenous fish species in this area were trapped with small
fixed nets to examine the fish distribution at each site. DNA volumes of this fish species contained in the eDNA samples
were measured through polymerase chain reaction, PCR amplification with species-specific primer and electrophoretic
profile assay. Statistical data analysis was applied to investigate the relationship between the fish DNA volumes obtained
and the number of the fish tapped. The analysis results showed that the fish DNA volumes had significantly positive
correlation with the fish numbers at the sites. This finding suggests that the eDNA analysis method can help to estimate
fish distribution. Therefore, by implementing similar investigations in many other canals including modifications of
water collection and PCR assay methods, it is expected that the accuracy of this method will increase in the near future.

Measurement of Flow around Leakage Point in Experimental Pipeline Using


PIV
ASADA Yohei1, KIMURA Masaomi1, AZECHI Issaku2, IIDA Toshiaki1, and KUBO Naritaka1
1

Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, the University of Tokyo


Institute for Rural Engineering, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization

Keywords: Detection of leak; flow visualization; PIV


ABSTRACT
Detection of leak of agricultural pipelines is getting more important as the accident by leak or destruction of them is
more increasing. Existing methods of detecting the leak do not satisfy all requirements such as accuracy, cost, and safety.
For the purpose of the improvement of them, we measured the flow around the leakage point by using PIV (Particle
Image Velocimetry) technique in this study. PIV is an optical method of flow visualization, which produces twodimensional vector fields. The experiments were conducted in an experimental pipeline which is made of transparent
acrylic. The hole on the wall of the pipe was manufactured so that it could simulate the leak. The tracer particles which
follow the flow speed were seeded in the water in the pipe. The water body in the pipe was irradiated by a laser sheet so
that the tracer particles were visual. The water body motion of the seeding particles was captured by using a high speed
camera. Then two dimensional flow vector fields around the leakage point were calculated from the motion of the tracer
particles. The measurement of flow was conducted at three sectors downstream of the leakage point by changing leak
ratio respectively. Consequently, two things were turned out; the downstream flow of the leakage point was directed
toward the leak side and the bias of the flow distribution depends on the leak ratio. The length of the range where the
flow distribution keeps biased is shorter as the leak ratio is larger.

Mathematical models for two-dimensional distribution of thermal


environment in paddy field considering ponding water flows
Masaomi Kimura1, Satoru Kobayashi2, Toshiaki Iida1, Naritaka Kubo1
1
2

Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, JAPAN
Rural Development Bureau, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, JAPAN

Keywords: Thermal environment in paddy field; 2-d flow field of ponding water; Mathematical model
ABSTRACT
Recently high temperature damage of rice grains has become a big concern. One of the simplest ways for famers is spillover irrigation, in which paddy fields are simultaneously irrigated and drained over a certain period after rice heading.
This method is considered very effective and is now attracting much attention. However, it has not been fully understood
how ponding water condition (water depth, irrigation amount, intake water temperature, etc.) affect the thermal
environment in paddy plots, that is, how to manage the ponding water in paddy field for better efficiency of spill-over
irrigation.
In this study, a mathematical model for calculating distribution of thermal environment in paddy field was developed
by following steps; numerically solving the two-dimensional shallow water equations for ponding water flows
considering resistance by rice plants in paddy field, then applying mathematical models describing vertical thermal
balances among soil, ponding water, vegetation layer, and atmosphere. This model can simulate two-dimensional
distribution of the temperature of ponding water and vegetation layer under arbitrary given water management style in
paddy field and weather condition. The proposed model was applied to simulate the effect of spill-over irrigation on the
temperature decrease of ponding water and rice plant in paddy field.

Seasonal migration of freshwater fish in


restoration areas of an agricultural channel, western Japan
Yuka Kubota1*, Yuki Kadowaki1, Shigeki Sanuki2, Kazuyoshi Nakata1
1

Graduate School of Environmental and Life Science, Okayama University, Japan


2
Wesco Co., Ltd., Japan

Keywords: Freshwater fish; Seasonal migration; Agricultural channel; Restoration


ABSTRACT
About 100 years ago, agricultural channels in Japan were earth channels, which can provide suitable habitats for
freshwater fish. However, since 1970smany earth channels have been changed to concreted channels by farmland
consolidation projects to enhance productivity, which have caused damage to fish habitats in agricultural channels. After
the Land Improvement Law was revised in 2001, restoration methods have been introduced in a part of agricultural
channels in Japan to conserve aquatic animals (mainly fish). We need to evaluate the effectiveness of the restoration
methods for fish, but few studies on monitoring investigations of the restoration methods have been conducted.
Especially, there has been little information on seasonal utilization of fish habitats in the restoration areas according to
their life stage. In this study, we conducted fish samplings at five study stations of restoration areas in an agricultural
channel, Okayama, western Japan during July 2014 and December 2015. In the samplings, we carried out mark recapture
investigations of six fish species to evaluate the habitat utilization and seasonal migration within the restoration areas.
In the restoration areas, we recaptured 133 marked fish individuals with all six species during the investigation period.
In five species, the number of individuals recaptured at the same study station was significantly more compared with
the number of fish that migrated to other study station. These results indicate that the restoration areas provide suitable
habitats for fish in this study channel and that each fish species may prefer and utilize the specific restoration areas.

Computational Fluid Dynamics for Performance Evaluation of Disk Filter in


Drip Irrigation System
Seung-Yeon Jung1, Won Choi1, Jin-Yong Choi2*
1

Department of Rural Systems Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
Department of Rural Systems Engineering, and Research Institute for Agriculture & Life Sciences, Seoul National University,
Seoul, Republic of Korea

Keywords: Drip Irrigation System; Disk Filter; Diving Blade; CFD


ABSTRACT
Drip irrigation system is an irrigation method which can efficiently save and supply water by dropping water slowly on
the crops root zone during crop growth. In the drip irrigation system, disk filter takes an important role to physically
remove impurity particles which can cause emitter clogging. For the purpose, both top-and-bottom surfaces of the disk
are grooved in micron size flowing from outside to inside. However, the disk configuration incurs the head loss of inflow
water, and the velocities decrease depending on operation time due to the head loss. Therefore, this study is to find the
appropriate cross-sectional shape of the disk groove to minimize the head loss by using computational fluid dynamics
based on finite element method. The shape of diving blade to control the whole flow stream inside the filter chamber
before the inflow water enters the disk was also examined. For the simulation, the 3D solid models according to the
specific cross-sectional shape of the disk groove and the various angles of the diving blade were made by using
AutoCAD software. The computational simulations to consider turbulent fluid dynamics were conducted at the transient
state, and particle tracking technology visualized the stream flow. When the cross sectional shapes of the disk grooves
follow the elliptical type modified from isosceles triangle, the maximum velocities were observed and the local velocities
at each area were uniformly distributed. When the angle of the diving blades was 14 degrees, the simulation showed the
uniform stream flow pattern inside the chamber without any local eddies.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This research was supported by Advanced Production Technology Development Program for Agriculture and Forestry
(Project No. 315058-03-1-SB010), Ministry for Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Republic of Korea

Evaluation of Flow Field in Model Pipeline


by AE Parameter Analysis
Yasuhiro HONDA1, Tetsuya SUZUKI2, Tatsuo NAKA3 and Hiroyuki TARUYA3
1

Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Japan


2
Faculty of Agriculture, Niigata University, Japan
3
National Institute for Rural Engineering, Japan

Keywords: Acoustic Emission; Pipeline; Particle Image Velocimetry; Secondary Flow


ABSTRACT
The optimum agricultural water use is need to be construction of irrigation facilities in rural fields. In recent years,
health monitoring techniques for diagnostic inspection are in great demand in agricultural engineering. The degree of
damage in service structures is, in most cases, evaluated only from the decrease in physical properties, such as material
strength. For effective damage estimation of structures, it is necessary to evaluate not only the physical properties but
also hydraulic conditions. In recent researches, it was reported that elastic wave method (e.g. acoustic emission (AE),
ultrasonic (UT)) is effective for evaluation of water- flow conditions in an agricultural pipeline system. The AE method,
that is passive technique for detection of elastic wave from civil structures, is available because it is shown to be able to
evaluate pressure wave by AE. In this study, AE method is applied to be detecting a flow conditions in inner improved
pipeline. This paper reports quantitative method for evaluation of flow conditions in pipeline system using AE
parameter analysis and PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) methods.

Optimal Irrigation Operation during Drought with Consideration of


Electrical Conductivity Change for Water Pond Systems
Wen-Tsun Fang, Chuan-Pin Chien, Shu-Chen Chen, Lan-Hsiang Chen
Agricultural Engineering Research Center, Chungli, Taoyuan, Taiwan

Keywords: Water Pond; Electrical Conductivity; Optimization


ABSTRACT
In response to the frequent drought caused by climate change, water pond irrigation systems for paddy field
in the northern Taiwan usually reduce agricultural water or adopt irrigation suspension. A water pond irrigat
ion system requires water from reservoirs, interception weirs and pond catchment area. With optimization pl
anning, this study seeks irrigation operations for the system which can supply minimum total amount of irrig
ation water failing to meet water quality standards for a cropping year. Among water quality standards, elec
trical conductivity (EC) is concerned in the study. The optimization models are established by a commercial
software package LINGO. The nine water ponds (total maximum effective capacity of the ponds is 2,123,91
1m3) and their corresponding rotational areas (954.1 hectares) of Lateral 10 for the Taoyuan main canal are
investigated. With various values of minimum utilization capacity ratio r (=assumed minimum effective pon
d capacity/total effective pond capacity), the optimization planning results are obtained and analyzed. This st
udy observes that ponds under certain conditions are drawing more water of poor quality from interception
weirs or effective rainfall as r is decreasing. This will cause more irrigation water which fails to meet EC
standard, flowing into the system. A useful operation for systems is to adjust the assumed minimum effecti
ve capacity for different irrigation periods. It is to increase r at the period of supplementary water EC bein
g large, and to decrease r at the period of EC being small. Results are expected to provide irrigation mana
gement agents integral and practical allocation analyses during drought.

SPATIAL PRECIPITATION MAPPING BASED ON GEOSTATISTICAL


ANALYSIS OF CO-LOCATED ELEVATION AND HUMIDITY IN
SPARSELY GAUGED BASINS
Akarapol Amto1 and Aksara Putthividhya2*
1

Graduate Student, Department of Water Resources Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok,
Thailand 10330; email: tanadol_amto@hotmail.com
2
Assistant Professor, Department of Water Resources Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok,
Thailand 10330; email: dr.aksara.putthividhya@gmail.com
* Corresponding Letter

Keywords: Geostatistics; precipitation mapping; co-kriging; sparsely-gauged basin


ABSTRACT
This paper serves 2 objectives: i) to establish a spatial representative rainfall stations from existing nextwork in Northern
Chao Phraya river basin; and ii) to use of multivariate geostatistical algorithm for incorporating relatively cheaper
elevation, humidity, and temperature data into the spatial prediction of rainfall at the study site. Ping, Wang, Yom, a
nd Nan basins are located in the upstream Chao Phraya river basin and serve as an upstream control for the
main Chao Phraya river basin. The technique was illustrated using monthly and annual rainfall observations
measured at 326 rain gauge stations covering the entire basin and its vicinity. The precipitation prediction
maps, generated by Thiessen polygon, inverse square distance, and ordinary Kriging were used t o determine
the sensitivity of the rainfall data to the prediction results by constructing the covariance surface map. Digit
al elevation, humidity, and temperature models were incorporated into the spatial prediction of rainfall using
multivariate geostatistical algorithms. The prediction performance of geostatistical interpolation were cross va
lidated with the straightforward linear regression of rainfall against elevation, humidity, and temperature. The
results revealed that the multivariate geostatistical algorithm outperformed the linear regression approach, stres
sing the importance of accounting for spatially dependent rainfall observations in addition to the co-located e
levation. The digital elevation data were highly correlated to monthly monsoon-induced precipitation in the
study area. Humidity and temperature data exhibited a lower degree of correlation to the monthly precipitati
on data, especially when the basin size is considerably larger.

ANALYSIS OF LANDUSE PATTERN CHANGE, RAINFALL-RUNOFF,


AND RUNOFF-SEDIMENT RELATIONS IN YOM RIVER BASIN
THAILAND
Thao Ngo1 and Aksara Putthividhya2
1

Graduate Student, Department of Water Resources Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok,
Thailand 10330; email: thaongo1109@yahoo.com
2
Assistant Professor, Department of Water Resources Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok,
Thailand 10330; email: dr.aksara.putthividhya@gmail.com

Keywords: SWAT; GIS; Landuse; Water Balance; Sediment Loading


ABSTRACT
This research aims to investigate i) the effects of landuse pattern on rainfall-runoff and runoff-sediment relations in Yom
river basin of Thailand, and ii) estimate the water balance and water yield of Yom river basin. From 1990-2006, many
forests have been changed into farmland and irrigation area, especially in high slope positions away from the river.
The change of landuse pattern has altered the rainfall-runoff and runoff-sediment relationships, and led to higher slope
of trend curves of annual rainfall-runoff mass curve and runoff-sediment mass curve in 1990s than that in 2000s,
implying that more soil and water loss yielded in 1990s. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) interfaced with
Geographical Information System (GIS) is additionally applied as a tool to predict water balance and water yield of Yom
river basin in Thailand. Data on the observed flow are collected and compared with simulated flow using SWAT. The
correlation between the two data sets was evaluated using statistical measures, such as Nasch-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE)
and coefficient of determination (R2). The model output shows a good agreement between the observed flow and
simulated flow in every sub-basin as indicated by NSE and R2, which were greater than 0.7 for both calibration and
validation period. A total of 42,733 mm of water was predicted by the calibrated model as the water yield potential
of the basin for a simulation period between 1985 to 2010. Changing in landuse pattern in the area of interest results
in increasing sediment loading in Yom river course and its tributaries based on SWAT simulations. With continuously
reduction of forest fraction results in the higher sediment loading, thus leading to a more degrading river water quality
and potential decrease in river capacity for flood protection.

Utilization of Crop Growth Model to Support Climate Change Adaptation in


Agricultural Sector: Climate Change, Water Availability and Rice
Productivity in Indramayu District
Anria1,2, Akhmad Faqih2,3, Rizaldi Boer2,3, Gito Immanuel2, Ade Nurjaman3
1

Graduate School of Natural Resource and Environmental Management, Bogor Agriculture University, Indonesia, 16143,
pspsl.ipb@gmail.com
2
Center for Climate Risk and Opportunity Management in Southeast Asia and Pacific (CCROM-SEAP), Bogor Agriculture
University, Indonesia, 16143, ccromseap.ipb@gmail.com
3
Department of Geophysics and Meteorology, Bogor Agriculture University, Indonesia, geomet@ipb.ac.id

Keywords: APSIM; rice; IR 64; calibration; validation; climate adaptation


ABSTRACT
Climate change adaptation action is a need in order to ensure the sustainability of rice production. Adaptation action can
be successfully done through proper farming management practice. A crop growth model, such as APSIM, which had
been calibrated and validated can be utilized to set several scenarios in farming management, simulate them and give
useful information. This information is expected to support decision making of proper farming management in order to
successfully adapt with climate change. Indramayu district, a national granary which is located in West Java, is set as
research area in this study. More than 70% of rice field in this regency is irrigated. IR64 is the most widely planted rice
variety during 1980-2005 in Indramayu. By using observation data from 1994-2000, calibrated APSIM-Oryza module
can give good estimation for IR 64 rice production (n=14, R2 = 0.75, RMSE = 312 kg/ha). Long term simulation by
using RegCM 3 data, with 10 km resolution, shows that reduction of rice productivity in future (2011-2040 and 20412070) compare to 1981-2010 as baseline varies up to 20%. The reduction of productivity is caused by high temperature.
As the temperature increase more than 32 0C, which is the optimum temperature, rice development growth is affected
and finally leads to the reduction of water availability and productivity. In order to adapt with this condition, drought
tolerant rice variety which has higher limit of optimum temperature is expected to reduce the decrease of rice
productivity in the future.

ANALYSIS ON SEASONAL CHANGE AND ITS CONSEQUENCE TO


RAINWATER AVAILABILITY
Budi Indra Setiawan, Septian Fauzi Dwi Saputra, Chusnul Arif, Masaru Mizoguchi
Professor at the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia.
Advisor to the Ministry of Agriculture for Agricultural Infrastructure, Indonesia

Keywords: Climate change; seasonal period; rainwater availability; rice cultivation


ABSTRACT
Indonesia is a one of the countries prone to natural disasters. In the context of climate change, flooding and drought
recently have been occurring more intensive since the first El Nino hit the country in 1997 that lasted about 268 days.
The severe was in 2015 that lasted more than 350 days affecting hundred thousand rice fields failed to harvest. Climate
change has certainly caused seasonal period. For example, Indramayu Regency of West Java Province known as one of
rice production centers in 2015 experienced dry period longer 2 months than the usual with its peak from August to
December 2015 causing water crises in more than 100 villages. The local government distributed clean water 2 million
liters with 8000 liters per day. About 3000 ha of rice fields failed to harvest and rice transplanting in the following wet
period was delayed 2 months. This study was aimed to evaluate the common rice cultivation season applied so far by
the government; to identify seasonal period and available water in wet period; and to determine more secured season
for rice cultivation, irrigation water needed and possibility to harvest rainwater. Based on the analysis in the period of
1983-2015 (32 years): seasonal period changed with time significantly; in average, daily temperature increased 1.68 C,
dry period was longer the before with the longest 348 days in 2015, wet period was rather stable but rainwater availability
decreased, the onset of wet period started from 315th day with its length of 170 days (from mid of November to April)
and rainwater availability was 1096 mm. Rice cultivation would be possible in two seasons with earlier transplanting in
the second season. Irrigation water is still necessary because there is a possibility that rainwater availability sums to 529
mm. Rainwater harvesting would be possible since stormwater in any chance would reach 1981 mm. From this study, it
is clear that there is a significant shift of seasonal period that occurs locally that needs to be considered in determining
the right time for rice cultivation.

Effectiveness of Coordinated Water Management among Neighboring Dams


in Addressing Future Changes in Snowmelt Runoff
NAKAMURA Kazumasa1, ITO Nobuo2, SAKAI Miki1, KOSHIYAMA Naoko1
1

Civil Engineering Research Institute for Cold Region, PWRI


Rumoi Development and Construction Department, Hokkaido Regional Development Bureau

Keywords: snowmelt runoff; paddy field irrigation; coordinated water management among reservoirs
ABSTRACT
In snowy and cold Hokkaido, which is the northernmost of Japan's four major islands, snowmelt runoff has been used
as an important water resource for paddy field irrigation. Snowmelt water, which originates in mountainous areas, starts
to be stored in reservoirs in early April, and it is used for irrigation during periods when the river water level is low.
Some previous studies that used climate models to predict future runoff suggested that droughts in irrigation systems
that rely on reservoirs would tend to be intensified, because the snow water equivalent would decrease and the period
of snowmelt would shift earlier. The predicted changes in the amount and period of snowmelt water that flows into
reservoirs differ depending on the elevation distribution of the catchment area of each reservoir. Therefore, it is possible
to mitigate the drought tendency by conducting coordinated management of the water storage of multiple neighboring
reservoirs whose catchment areas have different elevation distributions. This paper reports on the results of predictions
of the effectiveness of coordination among reservoirs for which an operational curve of drought storage requirement
was used.

The relationship between the Moso bamboo density and the water resource
KURODA Hisao1, LIN Xiaolan2, MAEDA Shigeya1, YOSHIDA Koshi1
1

College of Agriculture, Ibaraki University


United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology

Keywords: water resource; Moso bamboo forest; underground level; clear-cutting


ABSTRACT
We were investigated of water resource changes in the Moso bamboo forest from October 2012 to September 2014. The
Moso bamboo forest was divided into the clear-cutting plot 190 (0.51 bamboo m-2) and the non-clear-cutting plot 201
(0.49 bamboo m-2). And, it was clear-cutting of the clear-cutting plot in October 2013. The underground water level
change before and after the clear-cutting of the clear-cutting plot was calculated using the model. As a result, the amount
of evapotranspiration of the Moso bamboo forest was greater than the amount of precipitation. Therefore, in order to
obtain the Moso bamboo density that affect the water resources, it was the thinning investigation. The investigation was
from October 2013 to May 2016. The thinning until the 156 (0.38 bamboo m-2) during from June to July in 2015 was
carried out in the non-clear-cutting plot. In addition, we compared survey from November 2013 in the slope without
bamboo. As a result, the underground water level has increased in the Moso bamboo forest in clear-cutting effect. During
thinning period, groundwater level change was small. Groundwater level changes in the comparison plot and the Moso
bamboo forest from December 2015 has been similar. As a result of clear-cutting and thinning in the forest that has been
invade bamboo, the groundwater level change has been guessed to be similar in about 2.5 years.

The extreme 2015 drought event in North and South Korea and their
impacts
Won-Ho Nam1, Eun-Mi Hong2, Jin-Yong Choi3, Michael J. Hayes4, Mark D. Svoboda4, Brian A.
Fuchs4, Tsegaye Tadesse4
1

Department of Bioresources and Rural Systems Engineering, Hankyong National University, Anseong, Republic of Korea
USDA-ARS Environmental Microbial & Food Safety Laboratory, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, MD, USA
3
Department of Rural Systems Engineering and Research Institute for Agriculture & Life Sciences, Seoul National University,
Seoul, Republic of Korea
4
National Drought Mitigation Center, School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, USA

Keywords: Drought; Drought Indices; North and South Korea; Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration
Index (SPEI); Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI)
ABSTRACT
For both 2012 and 2015, North and South Korea have experienced widespread severe drought conditions. In 2015, both
North Korean and South Korean officials identified the extreme drought event as the worst in one hundred years, but
was this truly an unusual event? The objective of this study was an assessment of the extreme drought event in 2015
and associated impacts and to calculate drought indices for both North and South Korea. Characteristics of extreme
drought events during the last 40 years are identified using a weekly- and monthly Standardized Precipitation
Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) and Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). The drought characteristics illustrated by
the SPEI and SPI results are compared with drought impact to understand how these indices can characterize the drought
conditions within the country. These results demonstrated that the SPEI, SPI can be effective tools to provide improved
spatial and temporal drought conditions in order to inform management decisions for drought policy.

Assessment of Watershed Health, Resilience and Priority Considering


Climate Change for the Han River Basin in South Korea
So Ra Ahn1, Chung Gil Jung2, Ji Wan Lee3, and Seong Joon Kim4*
1

Ph.D., Konkuk University, Dept. of Civil and Environmental System Eng., 1 Hwayang dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701,
South Korea, ahnsora@konkuk.ac.kr
2
Ph.D. Candidate, Konkuk University, Dept. of Civil and Environmental System Eng., 1 Hwayang dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul
143-701, South Korea, wjd0823@konkuk.ac.kr
3
Doctoral Student, Konkuk University, Dept. of Civil and Environmental System Eng., 1 Hwayang dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul
143-701, South Korea, closer01@konkuk.ac.kr
4*
Professor , Konkuk University, Dept. of Civil and Environmental System Eng., 1 Hwayang dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701,
South Korea, Corresponding author: kimsj@konkuk.ac.kr, Tel: +82-2-450-3749, Fax: +82-2-444-0186

Keywords: Watershed health; Resilience; Protection and restoration priority; SWAT; Climate change
ABSTRACT
The future impact of climate change on the resilience and priority of the watershed in the Han River basin (34,148 km)
of South Korea was assessed by evaluating the health and vulnerability of the watershed. To investigate the watershed
health (the basins natural capacity), six components of the watershed landscape (stream geomorphology, hydrology,
water quality, aquatic habitat condition, and biological condition) were used. For the hydrology and water quality
components, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was established for the study basin using 237 sub-watersheds
(designated as a standard watershed on the Korea Hydrologic Unit Map) and applied to assess the impact of climate
change on the watershed hydrology and water quality based on the downscaled HadGEM3-RA future weather data of
the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenario. To examine the watershed vulnerability to an artificial
stressor, four components (future impervious area, future climate condition, future water use, and recent land cover)
prepared by the Conservation of Land Use and its Effects at Small regional extent (CLUE-s), as well as RCP climate
change scenarios, Korea government water demand scenarios, and statistical data, were used. Three components of
financial stability, the gross regional domestic product (GRDP), and the number of water management public officials
were considered for each sub-watershed as social factors relating to watershed management. We assigned resilience
rankings and an order of protection and restoration priority from the evaluation matrix based on this evaluation of the
watershed health and vulnerability level. These results indicate possible directions for watershed management and an
adaptation strategy to guide restoration priorities for predicted changes in a vulnerable watershed resulting from climate
change.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This research was supported by a grant (14AWMP-B082564-01) from Advanced Water Management Research Program
funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

EVALUATION OF WATER MIGRABILITY IN PORE- AND GRAINNETWORKS OF POROUS MEDIA BY PERCOLARION THEORY
Keitaro Hara1, Junichiro Takeuchi1 and Masayuki Fujihara1
1

Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Japan

Keywords: percolation theory; pore network; grain network; film flow; hydrophobic grains
ABSTRACT
Currently, salt damage is one of the serious agricultural problems in arid arias by salt accumulation, which occurs
resulting from water migration of salts resolving groundwater and/or irrigated water up to or near the soil surface by
capillary force and evaporation. Generally, to predict fluxes of water, vapor and salts or to evaluate the effect of
countermeasures such as leaching, numerical calculation based on a physical model is used. In this study, a new approach
based on the percolation theory, which is a field of applied mathematics that analyses connectivity of networks, is
proposed. In this approach, porous media are regarded as two types of network: pore-network and grain-network, and
these correspond to our experimental results. In a shallow groundwater table case where capillary water reaches the
ground surface, the connectivity of pores, namely, pore-network, plays an important role to transport salts through
capillary water. On the other hand, in a relatively deep groundwater table case where hygroscopic water on grain surface
reaches the ground surface, the connectivity of thin films on grain surface, namely, grain-network, plays an important
role. The main idea for prevention of salt accumulation in this study is to break the connectivity of the networks by
mixing hydrophobic grains, and its effect were investigated through laboratory and computational experiments. From

the experimental results, it was found that hydrophobic grains have potentialities to prevent salt
accumulation, but meticulous care is needed for availability as farm lands