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# 1

ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION
(FORM 1)
Example:
1. Solve
a. 7a+2a = 9a
b. -3b+9b = 6b
c. 4c +3c -2c =5c
Soalan:
1. Solve
a. 3a + 3a + 3a =
b. 2b + 2b + 2b =
c. -3x + x =
Example:
1. Simplify each of the
following
a. 3x + 9 -2x 1
b. 5b + 10 + b 9
Solution:
a. 3x + 9 2x 1
3x 2x + 9 -1
x+8

ALGEBRAIC
EXPRESSION II
(FORM 2)
1. Identify the unknows in each of
the following algebraic terms.
6ab 2
a.
1
efg
3
b.
4
pq
5
c.
2xy
d.
Identify the coefficient of
x
Terms
a. 2x
b. -5x
c.
49x

d.
6x 2

b. 5b + 10 + b -9
5b + b + 10 9
6b + 1

e.

Soalan:

f.

following
1.
2.
3.
4.

3a + a
-4c + (-3c)
3d + (-10d)
7k+(-9k) + 11k

6xy

3xy 2
g.
xy
5
h.
3
xy
4

i.

i.

3 pq 4 p 2 r

3 2
x y
4

5 xy 6 x3
j.

## 2. Identify whether the following

pairs of terms are like terms or
unlike terms.
a. 5xy, 3yx
m 2 n nm
,
3
3
b.
c.
2bcde,5bcd
3ab, 2
d.
e.

a
b

k.

l.

3
r2
pqr
4
6

## 4. Find the quotient of each of the

following

5m 2 n,6nm 2
a.
3. Find the product of each of the
following
x x
a.
x y
b.
2 p
c.
2 p
d.
4(3 x)
e.
1
4q
2
f.
1
xy 9 yz
3
g.

1
ab 4a
8

b.

5mn n2
12ab 4ab

c.
3st (12 s 2 )

d.
12 pq 4q 2 p 2

e.
10a 2bc 5ab 2 c

h.
5 pq 6 p 2 q

f.
16 xy 2 z (2 yz 2 )

a.

## 6. Determine the number of terms

in each of the following
algebraic expressions.

9 xy 2 3c 27abc

a. 2xy
b. P + qr + 4
c. 5 + 9ab
7. Simplify each of the following
expressions.

b.
4 p 2 q 2 pr 8r 2

a.

(6 pq 2 r ) ( 2r 2 ) (3r )

b.

4 xy 3 3 xy 7

c.
pq 2 pqr 6rpq qp

d.
12 xy 2 4 x 2 yz

c.
(3 xy 5) ( xy 2)

e.
3 pqr 9 p 2 q 2 pr

d.
(5ab 4bc) (2ab 4bc)

j.
(5 p 4) ( p 2)

e.
8 x (4 x 8)

k.

f.

(2 z ) (2 y 6 z )

6x 9
3

l.

g.
(3m 15) 3

1
1
(a 4b 8c) (1 9b 6c)
2
3

h.
(4a 12b 20c) 4

m.
8 y 10

4(3 x 4)

i.
( x 3) ( x 4)

n.
7(3 p 4)

10 p 8
2

( x 2)( x 1)

a.

ALGEBRAIC
EXPRESSION III
(FORM 3)
Expansion of Algebraic
Expression.

(2k 3)(k 1)

b.

Example:
Expand each of the
following expressions.
3( x 4)

4(2 x)

c.

a.
b.
3a ( a 4b c)
(2 y 1)(2 y 4)

c.

d.

5
k (4k 2h)
2

Solution:
Question a.
4(2 x )
(4 2) (4 x)
8 4x

e.

m
(6m 3 p 12)
3

Question b.
3a (a 4b c)
(3a a ) (3a 4b) (3a c)
3a 2 12ab 3ac
Question c
(2 y 1)(2 y 4)
2 y 2 y 2 y 4 1 2 y 1 4

4 y2 8 y 2 y 4

( x 2)( x 4)

f.

(3m 5)( m 4)

g.

4 y2 6 y 4
8. Expand each of the following
expression.

## 9. Find the common factors and

HCF

3a, 27

81 y 2 36

a.

f.
9 p 2 12 2
g.
(3 p ) 2 12

10k 2 ,5hk 2

h.

b.

64 x 2

i.
2

3 xy ,9 y , 6 x y

j.
11. Factorize

c.

x 2 64

xy y
a.
2

8 xy, 4 y z , 6 xyz
d.

3 x 27

b.

15 x 2 20 xy
c.
6abc 18b 2c

d.

16hk 2 4k

e.

x 2 2 xy 4 x 2

Factorization

f.
a 2 b 2 (a b)(a b)

Example:
Factorize
Solution:
x 2 16

x x
2

x 2 16

( x 4)( x 4)

a 2 2a 1

g.

k 2 16k 64

h.
12. Simplify

(3x 1) 2 (7 x 4)
a.
b.
(2 p q ) 2 q (4 p q )

10. Factorize
p 4

3(2 p 5) ( p 3) 2

a.
b.

x 2 49

q2 4
c.
d.
e.

m 2 25
4 9n 2

c.

q (2 p )

d.
(3m n) 2
e.

ALGEBRAIC

9 x2 6x 1

EXPRESSIONS

(7 x 4)

[EXPANSION]
Example:
Simplify
(3 x 1) 2 (7 x 4)
Solution:
Step 1: Expand

## Step 4: Remove the

bracket. However once
you remove the bracket,
you need to be aware that
you must multiply the
integer outside the bracket
with the integer inside
bracket.
9 x2 6x 1

(3 x 1) 2

(7 x 4)

Step 2: Multiply
(3 x 1)(3x 1)

become
9 x2 6 x 1 7 x 4

as
following

## Step 5: Put all likely terms

(3 x 3 x) (3 x 1) (1 3 x) (11) closer together.

9 x11 3x 3x 1

9 x2 6 x 7 x 1 4

9x2 6 x 1

(3x 3x )
means

## Step 6: Solve any likely

terms by applying your
9 x2 6 x 7 x 1 4

(3 x1 3 x1 )
.

become

[Note that

9 x 2 13x 3

a m a n a m n

9 x 2 13x 3

Step 3: Combine
9x2 6x 1

with

(7 x 4)

because
the original question is
(3 x 1) 2 (7 x 4)
.

SOLUTION

(3 x 1) 2 (7 x 4)
(3 x 1)(3x 1) (7 x 4)
9 x 2 3x 3x 1 (7 x 4)
9x2 6x 1 7 x 4
9x2 6x 7 x 1 4
9 x 2 13x 3
Actually we also can also
(3 x 1) 2

15. Simplify

solve
by
using algebraic formula

3(2 p 5) ( p 3) 2

(a b) 2 a 2 2ab b 2
(3 x 1) 2
a 3 x, b 1
(3 x) 2 2(3 x)(1) (1) 2
9 x2 6 x 1

SOLUTION
(3 x 1) 2 (7 x 4)

## 16. Expand each of the

following expression
q (2 p )
a.

( a b) 2 a 2 2ab b 2
a 3 x, b 1
(3 x) 2 2(3 x)(1) (1) 2 (7 x 4)
9 x 2 6 x 1 (7 x 4)

(3m n) 2
b.

9x2 6x 1 7 x 4
9x2 6x 7 x 1 4
9 x 13x 3
2

QUESTIONS
14. Simplify
(2 p q ) 2 q (4 p q )

17. Simplify
2 p 3q ( p 5q)

## 18. Expand each of the

following expression
2 g (5 k )
a.

## 22. Expand each of the

following expression:
a.
5 p 3(4 2 p )

b.
(h 5)(3h 2)

## 19. Simplify each of the

following expressions:
a.
2(n 5) 3

b.
(3h 4)(2h 5)

b.
3(4m 3k ) (5k m)

c.
3 x ( 4 x 2 y )

3(2 x 1)

20. Expand

(5 x y )2
d.

21. Simplify
( h 2k )( h 2k ) h 2

p(3 pq)

e.

10

f.
(3 p m)( p 2m)

## 23. Simplify each of the

following expression
a.
3x ( x 2 y ) (3x y ) 2
g.
7 n((2m n)

b.
( x 4 y )( x y) ( x 2 y ) 2
h.
(2 x 3)( x 5) 7(2 x)

c.
(2e 1)(h 3) (e 3)(2h 1)

i.
5 pq 2(1 pq )

ALGEBRAIC
EXPRESSIONS
[FACTORIZATION]

j.
(2 x y ) 2 4 x( x y )

Example:

11

Factorize completely:
9 xy 3 x 2

c.

a.
b.

12 3x 2

2y 6

p 2 6( p 1) (8 p)

d.

3 x 2 48

c.

e.

5 20k 2

Solution:
9 xy 3 x 2
a.

5 p 10

f.

3 x(3 y x )

g.

b.

3 x 2 12 x 12

p 2 6( p 1) (8 p)
p2 6 p 6 8 p
p2 6 p p 6 8
p 2 5 p p 14
p 2 5 p 14
( p 7)( p 2)

h.
c.

100 k 2

3 x 2 48

3( x 16)
3( x 2 42 ) a 2 b 2 (a b)(ai. b)
3( x 4)( x 4)

p 2 3 p 3q pq

QUESTIONS
24. Factorise completely each
of the following
expressions:
4e 12ef
a.
j.
b.

50 2m 2

9 x2 1

12

ALGEBRAIC
FRACTION

k.
pq q 2 4q 4 p

Example:
Express
1 m2

2 m 6m 2

as a

simplest form.
l.

81 64d 2

m.
3 x 2 2( x 1) 7

n.

Solution:
1 m2

2m 6m2
1 3m
m 2

2m 3m 6m2
3m m 2

6m 2 6m 2
3m m 2
6m 2
2m 2 2( m 1)

6m 2
2(3m2 )
m 1

3m 2

x2 6 x 9

QUESTIONS

2m 2 n( m n)
o.

## 25. Express each of the

following in its simplest
form:
1 5 2v

5m 15mv
a.

13

b.

5 2 3w

3n
6n
f.

c.

1 n4

n 3n
g.

d.

3 k 15

5m 10mk

3 2p 7

4q
12 q
e.

h.

2( h 1) 4 e

eh
2e

3
1 x
2
x2 x 4

6
5

x3 x

14

1
1 p
3
2

2m mp

4y 3
2
y p

i.

26. Given

y
,express

in terms

p
of

ALGEBRAIC
FORMULAE

Example:

27. Given

Given that
2( p 3)
5
k

,express
,

of

3n nk
5

in terms

p
express

in terms
k

of

Solution:
2( p 3)
5
k
2( p 3) 5 k
2 p 6 5k
2 p 5k 6
5k 6
p
2

QUESTIONS.

r2 7 p
28. Given
,express r in terms of
p
.

15

qr s p

29. Given

express

p
of

,
s

in terms
q
and

3 m
4
k

32. Given

,express

terms of

ky
30. Given

3 y
5

y
,express
of

31. Given
,express
of y.

in

2t
3
n 1

in terms
k

33. Given
,express n in terms of
t

k2 7
y
3
k

in terms

34. Given
2m mn 2 3n 2
n

press
m

,ex

in terms of