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SCIENCE MODULE

GENERAL SCIENCE
Science has two branches:
Physical Sciences study of non-living things
Astronomy study of celestial objects
Geology study of physical matter that constitutes Earth
Meteorology study of weather processes and forecasting
Pedology study of soils
Biological Sciences study of living things
Biology study of life
Botany study of plants
Zoology study of animals
Sub-branches of Zoology:
Anatomy study of the structure and parts of the body
Cytology study of living cells
Entomology study of insects
Genetics study of heredity
Ichthyology study of fishes
Microbiology study of bacteria and viruses
Physiology study of the functions and activities of the parts of the body
The Scientific Method has at least six steps:
1.) Observation and Statement of the Problem the problem must be thoroughly
described and presented based on actual or theoretical observations
2.) Gathering of Information background research must be done to provide
preliminary information and to back-up possible explanations and outcomes of
the experiment
3.) Formulation of Hypothesis a hypothesis is a smart, suggested explanation of a
phenomenon
4.) Experimentation a fair experiment tests whether the hypothesis is true or false
Independent Variable the variable that is changed or controlled in an
experiment (e.g. amount of sunlight)
Dependent Variable the variable that depends upon the change
brought about in the independent variable (e.g. growth)
5.) Interpretation and Analysis of Results Gathered data can be presented in
graphs, charts, or plain statements which present certain trends or patterns.
These data are then backed-up and explained through researched information.
6.) Statement of Conclusion the conclusion is a judgment statement of the
hypothesis as being wrong or right
Certain instruments are used to measure specific quantities, such as:
Spring Balance used to measure weight
Barometer used to measure air pressure
Graduated Cylinder used to measure liquid volume
Upper Meniscus Mercury, colored liquids
Lower Meniscus - Water

Machines are devices that are designed to ease work. There are two types of machines;
Simple Machines uses a single applied force to do work
The Six Simple Machines:
Lever
a. Fulcrum point of support
b. Resistance force the lever work against
c. Effort force exerted on lever
Inclined Plane sloped object to assist movement along different
elevations
Wedge two inclined planes put together to cut
things (e.g. knife)
Wheel and Axle grooves wheel with a rigidity attached
Pulley the wheel spins freely on its axle
Screw inclined plane wrapped around a circle or cone to fix things
together
Compound Machines two or more simple machines put together
e.g. airplane, typewriter
Atoms are the smallest particle in an element.
It has three basic subatomic parts:
Electron
negatively charged

Proton positively
charged

Neutron no
charge

The nucleus is the central body of the atom where the protons and the neutron are
located. The electron spins around the nucleus in certain energy levels. In a neutral atom,
the number of protons is equal to the number of electrons. The number of protons defines
the atomic number, and the sum of the number of protons and neutrons gives the atomic
mass. Isotopes are atoms of the same element with different number of neutrons.
Molecules are the smallest particle of matter.
Motion of Molecules:
Diffusion spreading of molecules through a medium
Brownian Movement also known as random movement observed in colloids
Attraction of Molecules:
Adhesion attraction between different kinds of molecules
Cohesion attraction between same kinds of molecules
Brownian Capillarity rising of liquids within fine tubes
Surface Tension tendency of water molecules to stretch out in water
surfaces

Energy is defined as the ability to do work. There are two basic forms of energy, the
potential energy (energy at rest) and the kinetic energy (energy in motion).
Forms of Energy:
Mechanical potential and kinetic energy
Chemical matter changes from one form to another
Thermal causes change in temperature
Electromagnetic given off by the sun and appears in the
form of electromagnetic waves (radio, gamma, UV)
Electrical flow of electrons in conductor
Nuclear results from the nucleus of an atom
Types of Energy:
Wind

Geothermal

Natural Gas

Coal

Water
Renewable Energy

Solar

Non Renewable Energy

Biomass

Oil

Nuclear

EARTH SCIENCE
The earth is basically composed of four parts: lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and
biosphere.
Lithosphere part of the earth which is composed of rocks and soil.
Composition of Rocks and Soil:
Geothermal Energy heat obtained from beneath the ground
Petroleum fossil fuels, pumped out as crude oil
Minerals naturally-formed solid elements and compounds with molecules
arranged in definitive shape
Metals- metallic minerals that are subjected to smelting
Kinds of Rocks:
Igneous rocks that are from hardened magma and lava
(e.g. granite, basalt)
Sedimentary formed by the deposition and accumulation of fragments of
rocks (e.g. limestone, shale, sandstone)
Metamorphic undergone changes due to heat and pressure (e.g. marble,
slate, gneiss)

Rock Cycle:

Weathering breaking down of


rocks
Erosion carrying away of rock
fragments by wind or water
Compacting cementing or
hardening of rock fragments

Characteristics of Soil:
Soil Texture:
Sandy no water
Clay fine; poor drainage and aeration
Loam mixture of sand and clay; best for farming
Soil Color:
Black rich in organic matter
Red rich in iron
Gray not fertile
Cross-section of the Earth:

Earthquakes and Volcanoes:


Earthquakes are effects of the movement of the tectonic plates along a fault
or through a volcanic activity.
Epicenter point of earths crust where an earthquake originates
Richter Scale measures the magnitude of the earthquake
Modified Mercalli Scale measures the intensity of the earthquake
Volcanoes are the outlets when hot molten rock materials, or magma, are
pushed up to the surface of the earth.
Crater mouth of the volcano
Magma molten material inside the volcano
Lava molten materials at the surface of the volcano

Hydrosphere it refers to the liquid component of the Earth


Salinity degree of saltness of water
The Water Cycle:
Evaporation heat from the sun evaporates water
from different water bodies
Transpiration evaporation of water from plants
Condensation water molecules liquefy and cling
to dust particles in air to form clouds
Precipitation results from gravitational pull as
water droplets get heavier
Zone of Aeration part of the water table where pore spaces in soil and rock
contain air and water, and water is prevented from moving deeper by water tension
Zone of Saturation the upper limit zone is the water table. The pore spaces
in rock and soil now contain groundwater.
Aquifer body of rock that can store and transmit significant quantities of
water
Hot Springs springs that bring water to the surface that s at least 6.5 o C
higher than the mean air temperature
Geysers hot springs which periodically emit columns of water and steam
with great force
Upwelling movement of cold, deep, often nutrient-rich water to the surface
mixed layer
Downwelling - movement of surface water to deeper depths
Atmosphere composed of the air surrounding the earth
Atmospheric Gases are composed mostly of nitrogen (78%) and oxygen (20%).
The remaining percentage is composed of methane, carbon dioxide, and other inert
gases.
Greenhouse Effect is the warming of the earths surface due to trapped energy
from carbon dioxide and methane.
Layers of the Atmosphere:

Troposphere - it composes more than half


of the atmosphere; weather and life forms
occur
Stratosphere where the ozone layer is
contained
Mesosphere meteors and rock fragments
are present
Thermosphere auroras are present
Exosphere thin, upper limit of the
atmosphere

The ozone layer is designed to screen the earth from ultraviolet rays emitted by the
sun. However, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) from aerosols destroy this ozone layer.

Weather refers to the general condition of the atmosphere over a particular place
on a day-to-day basis. Climate refers to the condition of the atmosphere during a long
period of time over a particular place.
Low Pressure Area created when warm air rises leaving partially empty space
behind where there are few air molecules
Convection Current movement of cold air to low-pressure area
Coriolis Effect curved path of winds caused by Earths rotation
Sea Breeze motion of air from sea to land during the day
Land Breeze motion of air form land to sea during the night
Amihan northeast
Habagat southwest
Matter Cycles:
Carbon and Oxygen Cycle:
Carbon dioxide is trapped in the leaves of the plants
for photosynthesis, having oxygen as the byproduct. Humans and animals breathe-in this oxygen
for metabolism and give off carbon dioxide as a byproduct.

Nitrogen Cycle:

Nitrogen in air is converted to


nitrate, through lightning, and
is absorbed by plant roots.
Denitrifying bacteria processes
this nitrate to escape back into
air. Nitrogen is found meaty
foods, so when man and
animals excrete, they also
produce nitrogen back into the
soil.

ASTRONOMY
The Solar System:

Solid Planets

Asteroid Belt

Gas Giants

Sun composed mostly of


hydrogen and helium

Stars:
Hottest Star: Blue>White>
Yellow>Orange>Red
Galaxy group of stars
Nebula gas, dust, and
debris from star explosions
Pulsar rotating neutron
stars that emit
electromagnetic waves

Eclipse an event where one celestial body moves into the shadow of another:
Types of Eclipse:
Solar - occurs the moon passes between Sun and Earth
Lunar - occurs when the moon passes behind the Earth