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WORLD FOOD SUMMIT - ANGOLA FIVE YEARS LATER

TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................3
II. DESCRIPTION OF ANGOLA ....................................................................................................5
2.1 - GEOGRAPHY ................................................................................................................................ 5
2.2 DEMOGRAPHIC IINDICATORS................................................................................................. 6
III. POLITICAL SITUATION ...........................................................................................................7
IV. POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGY .....................................................................................8
V. ECONOMY ................................................................................................................................9
5.1 GOVERNMENT ECONOMIC PROGRAMMES (MAIN OBJECTIVES, PROGRAMMES AND
RESULTS)............................................................................................................................................... 9
5.2 POLCIES AND PROGRAMMES OF THE ECONOMIC SECTORS .......................................... 11
5.3 PROGRAMME OBJECTIVES OF THE GOVERNMENT............................................................ 12
VI. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SECTORS ..........................................................................12
6.1 AGRICULTURE, LIVESTOCK AND FORESTS.......................................................................... 12
a) Current Situation ........................................................................................................................... 13
b) Evolution of the Food Situation..................................................................................................... 14
c) Land Access and Availability......................................................................................................... 14
d) Distribution of Massive Technical Assistance and Assistance to Displaced Persons .................. 14
6.1.1 SECTORAL STRATEGY FOR FOOD SECURITY .................................................................. 15
6.1.2 POLICIES AND PROGRAMMES TO INCREASE FOREST PRODUCTION ......................... 16
a) Development of Institutional Capacity .......................................................................................... 17
b) Sustainable Use and Management of Forest Resources................................................................ 17
c) Production and Marketing of Forest Products .............................................................................. 17
d) Programmes Under Way ............................................................................................................... 17
6.1.2.1 Fighting Drought and Desertification .................................................................................. 17
6.2 FISHING AND THE ENVIRONMENT ......................................................................................... 18
6.2.1 ENVIRONMENTAL SECTOR.................................................................................................... 21
6.3 INDUSTRY ..................................................................................................................................... 22
6.3.1 INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK ............................................................................................ 24
6.3.2 FOOD AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRIES ................................................................................... 25
6.3.3 PRIORITY FOOD AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRIES ................................................................ 25
a) Cassava Industrialization .............................................................................................................. 25
b) Maize Industrialization.................................................................................................................. 25
c) Wheat Flour Production ................................................................................................................ 25
d) Food Oil Production and Refinery ................................................................................................ 25
e) Sugar Manufacture ........................................................................................................................ 25
f) Manufacture of Canned Meat and Milk.......................................................................................... 25
g) Manufacture of Canned Fish ......................................................................................................... 26
6.4 HEALTH ......................................................................................................................................... 26
6.4.1 REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH SERVICES ................................................................................... 27
6.4.2 BREASTFEEDING AND WEANING NUTRITION.................................................................. 28
6.4.3 NUTRITIONAL SITUATION ..................................................................................................... 29
a) Acute and Severe Malnutrition ...................................................................................................... 29
b) Micronutrient Deficiency............................................................................................................... 29
c) Vitamin A ....................................................................................................................................... 30
d) Iodine Deficiency........................................................................................................................... 31
e) Iron Deficiency .............................................................................................................................. 31
f) Other Micronutrients...................................................................................................................... 32
6.4.4 NUTRIITON AND HIV/AIDS..................................................................................................... 32
6.4.5 TUBERCULOSIS......................................................................................................................... 32
6.4.6 WATER AND SEWAGE ............................................................................................................. 33
6.5 EDUCATION .................................................................................................................................. 34
6.7 ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL REINTEGRATION ....................................................................... 38

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6.8 FAMILY AND PROMOTION OF WOMEN ................................................................................. 39


6.8.1 INSTITUITONAL MECHANISMS FOR PROMOTION OF WOMEN..................................... 40
6.8.2 MAIN PROGRAMMES ............................................................................................................... 40
6.8.3 ACTIONS ..................................................................................................................................... 41
6.8.4 WOMEN AND POVERTY.......................................................................................................... 41
6.9 ENERGY ......................................................................................................................................... 41
VII. ANNEXES .............................................................................................................................42

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WORLD FOOD SUMMIT - ANGOLA FIVE YEARS LATER

I. INTRODUCTION
The problems of hunger and food insecurity have a global reach and, to a
certain extent, tend to increase dramatically if we consider the staggering
population growth worldwide and the pressure placed on natural resources.
Conflicts, environmental degradation, natural catastrophes and the lack of a
stable political, social and economic enviro0nment, have contributed greatly to
food insecurity at various places across the planet.
Despite some improvement in recent years in certain countries, the worldwide
food and poverty situation is still a real concern. The main factors and causes
contributing to food insecurity remain, and at increasing levels. Some of the
many significant factors and causes include:
-

Deterioration of economic situation


Domestic and regional conflicts
Natural catastrophes
Disease

In 1996, the Heads of State or Government of 185 countries or their


representatives met in Rome and adopted a Plan of Action in which they agreed
to devote their political will and dedication to the pursuit of food security for all
and to make ongoing efforts to eradicate hunger in all nations. As an immediate
goal the 1996 World Food Summit aimed to reduce by half (400 million) the
number of malnourished people by 2015 and to do periodic reviews .The
number of malnourished people in the world was calculated as 800 million. In
Africa 34% of the population is malnourished.
His Excellency, the President of the Republic, Jos Eduardo dos Santos,
participated in the 1996 World Food Summit and said the following in his
speech:
Our objective is the rational development of agricultural and fishery
potential in Angola within the framework of an economy in transit to a
market economy, guaranteeing support to the small farmer and
stimulating private investment. To achieve these objectives, significant
public and private investment will be necessary for the reconstruction and
rehabilitation of the production, trade and investment infrastructures, so
assistance from the international community and foreign partners is
needed urgently.
Five years later, the goal of achieving an annual reduction of 20 million in the
number of malnourished is far from having been met. Available data indicate
that this reduction is occurring at a rate of 8 million a year, far below the target
number.

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The World Food Summit five years later to be held in Rome from June 10 to
13, will bring together Heads of State or Government from throughout the world,
and its objectives include, among others:
(i) Review advances made in application of the Plan of Action from the 1996
World Food Summit;
(ii) Assess the situation in order to guarantee the necessary action is taken to
accelerate progress until reaching the objectives set and compliance with the
commitments made in the Rome Declaration and in the Plan of Action;
(iii) Mobilize the necessary political will and guarantee that the leaders in a
position to influence the sectors of economic life and groups from all of society
make timely decisions.
As a result, the Heads of State or Government will be invited to announce the
policies and programmes they are implementing to achieve the objectives set
by the Rome World Declaration on Food Security and the Plan of Action from
the World Food Summit , containing 7 (seven) commitments.
For organizational and structural reasons, Angola recently was experiencing
war and., accordingly, the other main factors contributing to malnutrition,
namely: degradation of the socio-economic situation, disease, poverty and, from
time to time, natural disasters. Intensification of the war in 1998 strongly
affected the overall application of the economic and social programmes aimed
at eradicating hunger and poverty.
Fortunately, the personal efforts undertaken by His Excellency, the President of
the Republic and by the Government culminated in a durable honorable peace
for all Angolans.
The war not only destroyed the main agricultural production, industrial and
social infrastructures, but it also caused a massive displacement of rural
populations, turning millions of people into displaced persons depending on
domestic and international humanitarian assistance, with the number of
displaced persons currently estimated at 4 million.
Rehabilitation of agriculture, industry, fishing and the social sectors, the
eradication of hunger and poverty, and the protection of the environment require
a political will but also considerable internal and external financial resources,
the mobilization of which requires involvement on an international scale, at the
highest political level where political people participate from many countries and
international institutions, many of them potential donors and investors in
development and emergency projects and programmes.
With a view towards guaranteeing a favorable political, social and economic
environment for the eradication of poverty, the Government of Angola has
obtained a guarantee and reinforcement of peace, maintaining national integrity,
with the participation of all of the driving forces of the Nation, embodied in the

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creation of a Democratic State based on Rule of Law, promoting tolerance and


respect for all citizens.
The guarantee of stable economic conditions has been favored to the extent
possible, through reformulation of economic and social policies, namely with the
Government programme to End the Crisis, the creation of Agroindustrial
Development Areas and the reinforcement and improvement of the bank
financing mechanisms or through Support Funds specializing in socioeconomic
projects.
The World Food Summit: five years later to be held in Rome, Italy from June
10 to 13, 2002, appears to be an excellent forum where Angola will have the
opportunity to present progress made in reaching the objectives set by the 1996
World Food Summit, and to present once again the efforts made to achieve
peace and to consolidate democracy, implement economic reforms, respect
human rights, and individual freedoms, all essential to the commitments under
the Plan of Action.

II. DESCRIPTION OF ANGOLA


2.1 - GEOGRAPHY
The Republic of Angola is on the western coast of the African continent, south
of the equator, bordered to the north by the Democratic Republic of the Congo
(formerly Zaire) and the Republic of the Congo, to the east by the Republic of
Zambia, to the south by the Republic of Namibia and to the west by the Atlantic
Ocean. Angola has a surface area of 1,246,700 square kilometers, an Atlantic
coastline of 1650 Km, with land borders measuring approximately three times
that number. The icy Benguela current passes off the coast, running south to
north.
The dominant feature of the relief comes from the series of inland plateaus
descending gradually to the east and southeast and in the coastal strip in steps
to the ocean. Generally speaking, there are three major areas starting from the
west: the coastal zone, relatively narrow, from the shore and highlands by the
ocean to the hills, 400 m high, with a breadth varying between several dozen
meters and hundreds of kilometers (as an example, the border of the Kwanza
Bay reaches approximately 200 Km); the subplateau area, along the coastal
strip, with a much more greatly differentiated relief; the vast area of plateaus is
monotonous with broad horizons. To the west the inland plains are bordered by
reliefs with higher elevation, considered as marginal mountains.
Stretching between 5 and 18 latitude south, with plateaus having elevations of
greater than 1,500 m, Angola has a mosaic of landscape encompassing areas
from highly dense equatorial forest (in Maiombe, Cabinda, and some more
humid parts of the northeast), to the discontinuous cover of shrubs and brush
distributed irregularly over the land, to the bare expanses of Namibe, where
"odres" [wineskins] and other species grow that are able to take in humidity
from the coastal fog, and the rare species "Welwitchia Mirabilis". In a relatively

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narrow strip from the Canda mountains to below N'dalatando, in small spots
from Malanje and Kwanza. South there are "laurisilva" type forests where the
coffee tree grows spontaneously.. Intermingled with the forest there are
savannas. Specifically, between Malange and Lunda the savannas occupy vast
areas. Much of the rest of the territory of Angola has pasture land and
savannas of various types; on the coast, there are various trees, most
significantly, the baobab, with its oversized trunk and thin branches, palm trees
with palm nuts and numerous cacti . In the inland plateau, dense forest brush
called "mato de panda" predominates, with various species. Over vast
expanses in the east, the "chagas de borrachas" [flood plains with trees and
low grasslands}] (Lunda) and anharas de ongote (Moxico and Bi) constitute
other physiognomies with rich Angolan vegetation. At much higher elevations
(Chela Mountain, Bailundo and others) terraces are predominant. The same
cover is found in lower areas, such as at the edge of the desert.
The fauna is rich and varied, with the presence of the rare giant saber antelope
(Hipotragus Niger Varianni) There are national parks such as Quissama,
Kangandala, Kameia and Iona, among others, for conservation of existing
resources.
The most important rivers descend from the interior, with deep valleys of
irregular river beds, with rapids and waterfalls, widening a great deal near the
ocean. Many times they end in wide estuaries, with cordons of sand on the
banks (river banks), running from south to north. Behind these are sheltering
bays and the best ports (Luanda, Lobito; Namibe and others). Among the main
rivers are Zaire, Kwanza and Cunene.
The combination of the latitude and the type of relief, the effects of the cold
ocean current and the continental factor provides significant climatic
diversification. The climate is tropical in the north and subtropical in the south,
and temperate in the highest elevation zones. There are two distinct seasons,
one hot and humid, when it rains more, and another colder and dry, called
cacimbo.
Considered one of the most beautiful countries in Africa, Angola has enormous
tourism potential, although tourism is almost nonexistent today.
2.2 DEMOGRAPHIC IINDICATORS
The population of Angola, its geographic distribution and the annual variation
rate are not known precisely due to a lack of complete, reliable censuses, with
the most recent one having been done in 1970. However, it is estimated that
Angola has a population of 14.6 million. This number indicates a population
density of approximately 11.7 people per square kilometer, considered low
compared to the average for the African continent (21 per square kilometer) and
the average for southern Africa (17 per square kilometer).
The vast territory of Angola contains a fairly unequal population, with densities
varying from 0.6 people per square kilometer in the Province of KuandoKubango to approximately 640 per square kilometer in the Province of Luanda.

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All of the other provinces have population densities near or below 20 per square
kilometer.
It is believed that the annual growth rate increased from 1.6% in the 1950s to
2.8 to 2.9 percent in the 1990s. The increased annual growth rate can be
explained by the historical decline in the gross mortality rate from 34 per
thousand in 1950 to an estimated 19 per thousand in 1996.
Longevity, measured from life expectancy at birth according to the MICS
[Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey], is currently estimated at 42.4 years for the
general population, with 40.7 for men and 44.5 for women. Both levels are
clearly under the known averages of 51 years for sub-Saharan Africa and 62
years for developing countries.
As is generally the case on the African continent, the Angolan population is
young, with 45% under 15 years old, 70% under 30, and the average age being
19.
The war in Angola has had direct impacts on its demographic structure. A large
part of the population was forced to abandon its areas of origin, leading to a
major exodus of populations from the rural zones to the cities.
This population movement took place in two stages: The first, in which rural
population moved to the cities, took place gradually, and a second, more
accelerated stage, resulting from the outbreak of war at the end of 1992.
The urban population growth rate is estimated at approximately 6%, and that of
the rural population at approximately 0.8%. There are an estimated nearly 3.8
million people living in concentrated urban areas either seeking a more stable
social situation or seeking employment and physical security, some 2.5 million
of whom live in the city of Luanda, (approximately 70% in the outlying areas)
The ethnic groups of the Ovimbundos, Umbundos and Bakongos together make
up approximately three-fourths of the Angolan population, where there is little
homogeneity, since each ethnic group is subdivided into smaller groups with
varying dialects. In addition to these largest ethnic groups, there are various
small ones such as the Lundas-Chokwe, Nganguela, Kuanhama, Nyanecas,
etc., and a small white and mixed race community.

III. POLITICAL SITUATION


The action of the government has been aimed at continuing to put in place the
Global Strategy to End the Crisis adopted in 1999, agreed on at the beginning
of the 1998-2000 Programme for Medium Term Economic Recovery and with
the fundamental objectives being the socio-economic recovery and stabilization
of Angola.
The economic and social situation in Angola continues to be a concern. As a
factor, there is a large number of displaced persons, currently 4.1 million, 44%
and 30% of whom are children and women, respectively, without the means and

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opportunity to manage revenue for self-sufficiency who depend on the State,


preventing productive activity and the movement of people and property, due to
land mines and explosive objects located in the streets and fields.
At the end of 1994, the Government signed the Lusaka Peace Protocol. This
opened up an outlook of political and social stability, so necessary for economic
growth and development. As the process of implementing this protocol did not
prove to be harmonious, over time the political, military and social tension
increased, creating an unstable environment that ruined initial expectations for
peace.
The consequence of development of military action, in addition to deaths, was
the concentration of displaced persons in the main urban centers in search of
security, needing assistance. On the other hand, the roads and farms were
mined, making it hard to get involved in production and to move people and
property around, due to unsafe conditions.
Faced with the new political and military situation in Angola, the Government of
Unity and National Reconciliation of the Republic of Angola, spared no effort in
announcing the peace plan and the end of all military movement
In order to achieve peace, the Government defined an agenda that necessarily
includes a resolution of all military questions resulting from the armed conflict
that arose after formation of the Angolan Armed Forces under the terms of the
Bicesse Accord and the Lusaka Protocol.
On April 4, 2002, in Luanda, in the presence of foreign and domestic
organizations, the memorandum of understanding was signed, a
complementary document to the Lusaka Protocol, signed by the military Heads
of the Government and UNITA [National Union for the Total Independence of
Angola] basically addressing the immediate end to military hostilities throughout
the national territory of Angola, the demilitarization of UNITA under the terms of
the law, having been an important step towards peacemaking in Angola and
consolidation of the democratic process.
The Government has made various efforts, creating mechanisms aimed an
establishing a peaceful, stable and favorable political, social and economic
environment in Angola. The Government created the Fund for Peace and
National Reconciliation, with an endowment of USD twenty million.

IV. POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGY


The economic and social impact of poverty is enormous in Angola, affecting
68.2% of the population, with 26.3% in extreme poverty.
Poverty in Angola is closely tied to poor human development, but the main
purpose should be the improvement in the Human Development Index [HDI] in
Angola and a reduction in the existing poverty level.

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The Government assumed the commitment to fight poverty and to make a


substantial reduction over the next several years. This involves establishing a
Poverty Relief Strategy for a three-year period, in the context of which it will
ensure consistency among the macroeconomic stabilization, the structural
market reforms and the reduction in poverty through economic growth and by
establishing national human capital.
This programme will have the support of Angolan civil society and the
international community a concrete process for consulting these organizations
will be implemented in order to show the Government commitment in this
staggering national task in particular with the assistance of the International
Monetary Fund and the World Bank, which should help in developing the
financial conditions needed to implement the programme.
The Poverty Reduction Strategy is to be drawn up within the context of a
process of participation by the sectors and provinces institutional participation
and involvement ensured by the existence of an Inter-Ministerial Technical
Committee and of an Inter-Ministerial Committee of Vice Ministers from the
areas involved that are considered to be key for subsequent implementation.
A preliminary version of the Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy was submitted
for review by the organizations of the United Nations system, the Bretton
Woods institutions, specifically the World Bank and International Monetary
Fund, the continental financial and cooperation institutions, such as the
European Union and the African Development Bank, during review of Monitored
Programme Implementation, resulting from a conjunction of comments and
contributions.
The Government is pursuing the following objectives:

Reestablishment of the macroeconomic equilibrium..


Sustained, balanced growth.
Competitive economy integrated into the region and the world market.
More equitable distribution of revenue.

V. ECONOMY
5.1 GOVERNMENT ECONOMIC PROGRAMMES (MAIN OBJECTIVES,
PROGRAMMES AND RESULTS)
Macroeconomic management was difficult in 2000 due to the poor security
situation, the even more insufficient control of public spending in view of the
inadequacy of mechanisms being used, and the monetary expansion.
Furthermore, high inflation levels and high currency depreciation rates continue
to characterize the macroeconomic environment. The inflation rate reached
329 percent in 1999 and 268 percent in 2000.
After the market price Gross Domestic Product [GDP] increased by 3,4 percent
over prior year at constant prices, there was a 3.1 percent deceleration in 2000.

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The sectors of agriculture, forestry and fisheries, the manufacturing industry and
construction showed growth rates of 1.3; 7.1; and 5.0 percent, respectively, in
1999, with higher growth rates in 2000: 9.3; 8.9; and 7.5 percent, respectively.
Considering the low production levels in these sectors, however, these growth
rates seem even worse.
Food production in the agricultural sector, traditionally provided to a great extent
by rural production (household farm businesses), has been affected by the
instability in the rural environment due to the war, which has prevented the rural
population from having the settled life needed to develop agricultural and fishery
activities. On the other hand, in those cases in which it is possible to develop
said activity, problems related to movement of people and property impact the
possibility of raising production above subsistence levels.
The inadequacy of the macroeconomic policies lead to development of an
informal economic sector strengthened with the deepening of the economic and
social crisis. The existence of an environment fostering short-term applications,
associated with bureaucratic constraints on formalizing the exercise of
economic sectors, leads to expansion of the informal goods and services trade
sector. In addition, given the high concentration of population in urban centers,
arriving in search of security, and unable to be absorbed into the public
administration or formal business sector, development of informal business
activities is the only opportunity for employment.
To revitalize and increase the supply of goods and services, there are projected
investments under EGSC [Global Strategy to End the Crisis] for the
rehabilitation of roads, irrigation canals, water and power supply systems, the
construction and rehabilitation of health units and schools with projects involving
central government and provincial government responsibility. These actions are
intended to ensure better living and health conditions for the population and to
reduce the private sector transaction costs in the productive activity.
In the last four years, because of inland migration to the cities, resulting from
the outbreak of way, there was growth in the informal sector absorbing a vast
proportion of the population concentrated in outlying urban areas, with minimum
subsistence managers prevailing over small business. Under the Self
Employment Development Programme, 18,000
jobs were created, with
approximately 60 percent of the employees having had on-the-job professional
training or training at specialized centers over the past three years.
With establishment of the Fund for Economic and Social Development [FDES]
the Government intends to provide the productive sector with a source of
resources to finance its investments, which are medium- and long-term, which
do not currently qualify for credit under the banking system. In this manner, 17
projects have already been financed backed by approximately USD 6.74 million,
approximately USD 4.67 million of which were awarded by FDES.
Separate from the structural constraints noted during the Investment
Programme are some noteworthy actions taken in the area of economic
services and the infrastructures:

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Rehabilitation of the hydro-agricultural productive infrastructures in the


Provinces of Luanda, Bengo, Kwanza South, Benguela, Cabinda,
Namibe, Cunene, Huila and Kwanza North:

"

Construction of pumping stations, reservoirs and ducts in the Bita and


Sequel communities

"

Reconversion of the sugar cane production units for horticulture and fruit
processing in Bom Jesus and Caxito, in the Provinces of Luanda and
Bengo; and water supply for agriculture in the Bero and Giraul valleys, in
Namibe;

"

Reactivation of the construction work on the Kapanda Hydroelectric


Dam;

"

Completion of phase one of rehabilitation of the hydroelectric station at


Matala;

"

Installation of the 9.6 MW emergency diesel station de at Lobito;

"

Recovery of the Lubango thermal station;

"

Completion of construction on the memorial to King Mandume in


Cunene;

"

Rehabilitation of various sections of urban streets in the main cities in


Angola;

"

Completion of the Master Plan for Urban Transport of Passengers in the


city of Luanda,

"

Drainage of an area of 3000 hectares to make it possible to establish an


agricultural and industrial growth center in the Province of Cabinda.

5.2 POLCIES AND PROGRAMMES OF THE ECONOMIC SECTORS


At the economic sector level, the Government policy will continue to be focused
on creation of basic infrastructures for efficient and low cost development of
productive, trade and service activities. Government will be fundamentally in
market regulation and control, in providing facilitation and technological
disclosure services and in offering financial and tax incentives on investments,
mainly those in the agriculture, fisheries, civil engineering, and mining industry
sectors, and on the capacity to manage large numbers of employees.
On the other hand, development of formal economic activities, with the resulting
disincentive on informal activities, will be another watershed in the Government
actions. The creation of micro and small businesses will be favored in the area

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of agriculture, fisheries, the manufacturing industry, construction and transport.


INAPEM {National Institute for Support of Small and Medium Scale Businesses]
will be at the side of FDES to act as potential entrepreneurs in identifying
projects, preparing required technical documents, training in the areas of
business and financial management and accounting, and facilitating legal
affairs. Preparation of standard low-cost projects that can be financed through
FDES will also be promoted by INAPEM.

5.3 PROGRAMME OBJECTIVES OF THE GOVERNMENT


"

To guarantee national security and to protect the territorial integrity

"

To cover the entire national territory with state administration;

"

To ensure resettlement of the displaced person population in their zones


of origin and/or elsewhere.

"

To seek macroeconomic stability by slowing inflation and reducing the


price levels;

"

To create microeconomic conditions (infrastructure, investment incentive,


sources of financing, access to technology and to production factors,
etc.) for the reinitiation of productive activity and the creation of jobs;

"

To improve health and education services and to expand their coverage;

"

To ensure minimal social assistance to the most disadvantaged


segments of the population, broadening the scope and increasing
coverage

"

To improve services from State institutions and the public administration


and to ensure full exercise of the rights of citizens by reinforcement of the
assumptions of a Democratic State by Rule of Law; and

"

To begin preparing conditions to hold the next general elections.

VI. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SECTORS

6.1 AGRICULTURE, LIVESTOCK AND FORESTS


The activities in this sector are aimed at environmental protection and at
providing raw materials for small food industries at low cost, in addition to
rational exploration of forest resources.

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The fundamental objective in the area of agriculture and livestock continues to


be the reactivation of the production processes for basic foods, aimed at food
self-sufficiency, specifically, cereals, rice and tubers, legumes, horticulture and
fruit growing, ruminants, poultry farming and meat production, forestry and
continental fishing.
The main programmes in the area of agriculture and livestock and forestry are:
i) Agricultural Production Programme This programme includes the cereal,
rice and tuber, legume, oil and industrial crop subprogrammes.
ii) Livestock Production Programme Embodied in the animal-drawn small
ruminant development and traditional poultry farming development
subprogrammes.
iii) Forestry, Fauna and Continental Fishing Programmes. With the rural
repopulation, beekeeping development, continental fishing, desertification
fight and the prevention and fight against gullies subprogrammes.
iv) Production and Support Programme. Integrated with the production
factor acquisition and distribution, infrastructure rehabilitation, technical
assistance in agrarian research extension, agricultural mechanization and
seed production subprogrammes.
Before independence, Angola was a self-sufficient country in all major food
crops, except for wheat, and it exported coffee, maize, sisal, bananas, beans,
sugar and palm oil.
Angola was the fourth leading producer of coffee worldwide with exports of
218,700 tons of commercial coffee In 1973. Coffee was the main export
product until that year, when petroleum took its place. Cultivation was done
mainly in the provinces of Uge, Kwanza North and Kwanza South. With the
outbreak of war in 1975, the coffee crop was abandoned, resulting in a
vanished commercial structure and thus substantially reduced production, with
the estimate that in 1995 production was at approximately 3000 tons of
commercial coffee .
a) Current Situation
Agriculture overall is on a clear course, with an increase in production of the
majority of crops in the latest crop years. There was a general increase in
production of cassava from 4,433,000 to 5,394,322 tons in the 1999-2000 and
2000-2001 crop years. The sweet potato is also up from 224,000 to 353,228
tons respectively in the two most recent crop years. The groundnut went from
12,800 tons in the 1999-2000 crop year, to 27,055 tons in 2000. Beans were up
from 75,100 tons in 1999-2000 to 89,030 tons in 2000-2001.
These trends also hold true for cereals Maize has a production increase from
395,000 tons in 1999-2000 to 482,769 tons in 2000-2001. Production of

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massango and massambala was up from 44,412 to 148,016 tons in the 19992000 and 2000-2001 crop years, respectively.
This pattern continues over the past five crop years. Some of this production
increase can be explained by the population growth index combined with other
factors, such as the increase in total and average areas per family, greater
availability of seeds, fertilizers and production tools, among other things.
b) Evolution of the Food Situation
In the 1999-2000 crop year, the estimated cereal deficit was 693,448 tons, or
57% of needs, and then the supply, approximately 532,614 tons, would be
enough to exceed 43%. The maize with a supply of approximately 409,607 tons
was to cover 56% of the need for the product.
c) Land Access and Availability
In recent years, a substantial overall improvement has been seen in availability
of and access to land, due mainly to the improvement in security, more
aggressive action by the Central Government in handling the issue, more
consistent programmes for land leasing at the province level and joint
intervention between the NGOs and the Province Government structures.
Overall, there was an increase in total farmed area and in average area held by
resident and displaced person families. Government approval of a tool to
regulate distribution of land to displaced person populations also affected this
matter, since in recent crop years there was greater national sensitivity about
the importance of land in food security; a clearer policy from the Central
Government about this matter, decentralization of resources to the provinces,
leading to greater sensitivity by the province governments regarding availability
of land for the populations; formulation of specific provincial programmes for
land leasing; effective and efficient hiring of NGOs connecting the distribution of
inputs and land access.
d) Distribution of Massive Technical Assistance and Assistance to
Displaced Persons
There are still problems in terms of availability and accessibility of inputs and
agricultural tools to displaced persons. This fact has more to do with
management and distribution than with scarcity itself.
Starting in 2000 there has been significant improvement in the supply of
agricultural inputs. The Government, through the National Programme for
Emergency Humanitarian Assistance, PNEAH, decentralized funds for the
provinces to assist displaced persons, especially in providing agricultural tools
and inputs. With the assistance of the main Donors, the NGOs improved their
interventions in this area significantly, a total of 2,126.5 tons of maize, 1,273
tons de beans, 37.7 of massango, 527.4 of massambala and 468.6 of
groundnuts were distributed, with approximately 204,655 families receiving
assistance.

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Fertilizers also represent an important element contributing to the improvement


of production. They existed in reasonably quantities compared to the prior year,
but there are still serious distribution problems.

6.1.1 SECTORAL STRATEGY FOR FOOD SECURITY


The Government of Angola is currently in the process of creating the Interim
Poverty Reduction Strategy [EIRP] document. Noting that food insecurity is
closely related to poverty, it decided to prepare the Food Security Strategy,
which is part of the Poverty Reduction Strategy.
The overall objective of the Food Security Strategy is to promote the approach
that basic foods are regularly available on time and at accessible prices.
The food security strategy is grouped into four main principles: Availability,
Stability, Accessibility and Usage. The priority areas of intervention in the Food
Security Strategy for the agricultural, forest and pasture sector are::
1. Continental Agriculture, Livestock, Forests and Fisheries;
2. Emergency Preparation and Stabilization of the Market;
3. Nutrition and Food Quality Control.

The agricultural, forest and pasture sector is extremely important in the


economy and in food security in Angola, since approximately 60% of the
population, or approximately 8 million people, live in a rural environment and
nearly 90% of this population depends on the agricultural, forest and pasture
sector as a source of food and revenue The sector includes nearly 1.8 million
household farm businesses and thousands of small and medium sized
businesses.
IN addition to the constraints affecting the entire Angolan economy
(insufficiency of the roadway infrastructure, a dearth of social services, absence
of a financial system in the rural environment, low capacity in the private sector,
etc.), the agricultural sector is fighting against these specific constraints:
(i)

Market distortion and segmentation, collapse of rural trade and


demonetization of the rural environment;

(ii)

Low production levels in household farming due to dependence on


the distribution of rainfall, low technical and economic level, weak
involvement of productive energy, extensive use of natural resources
and little use of agricultural intensification factors;

(iii)
(iv)

Insufficiency of tools, seeds, and fertilizers;


Limited Technical Assistance

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(v)
(vi)
(vii)
(viii)
(ix)

Lack of credit;
Insufficiency of rural infrastructures;
Displacement of populations from their zones of origin;
Absence of economic activities outside of farming in the rural
environment;
Limited capacity of support institutions.

The basic principles followed in defining the policies, strategies and plans of
action for development of the agricultural, forest and pasture sector and for
improvement of the food security sector are:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)

Priority on rural sector development;


Rural sector participation in decision-making, implementation and
review process;
Decentralized, integrated approach to promote synergy, with the
municipality as strategic intervention core;
Promotion of private sector in providing economic services;
Cooperation with the various partners (Donors, Humanitarian
Agencies, Private Sector and NGOs);
Attention to the target issues such as: women, displaced persons,
community development and the environment.

The development objectives for the rural sector seek to increase production and
sale of cereals, rice and tubers, legumes, coffee, and other items, as well as
livestock species within the framework of the poverty reduction strategy, the
implementation of which must be stratified according to the short-, medium- and
long-term, over a horizon of three, five and over ten years respectively. As with
promotion of conservation and sustainable management of the environment, the
promotion of pilot activities to create conditions to address other productive
sectors with microfinancing, irrigation, milk production, hog raising, , poultry
farming, continental fishing and beekeeping.

6.1.2 POLICIES
PRODUCTION

AND

PROGRAMMES

TO

INCREASE

FOREST

Angola has immense diversity of ecological conditions and, consequently, a


great number of forest and natural formations ranging from the desert to the
dense, humid forest.
Although the deforestation rate is not very high, in the areas of highest
population concentration there are localized processes of degradation of certain
natural resources, mainly related to the energy demand, coming from the
biomass, already needing urgent treatment.
The best use o the vast forest potential could be to increase production of
woody and non-wood forest products, thus contributing to the creation of more
jobs and more revenue, to increasing the supply of products to meet the energy

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demand, to increase the value through transformation and sale of the products,
to increase the volume of exchange income and recouping of investments.
The forest resources, being renewable, must be managed in a sustainable
manner compatible with environmental conservation. The following actions are
being taken in this vein:
a) Development of Institutional Capacity
1 Development of adequate institutional tools and structures in the political
and planning, legislative, extension and research aspects;
2 Development of human resources through training at the various levels.
b) Sustainable Use and Management of Forest Resources
1 Development of actions seeking knowledge of the forest potential through
inventorying;
2 Putting into effect research seeking management planning and use of forest
resources in view of better exploitation;
3 Development of programmes seeking the participation of all stakeholders,
including the rural populations, in actions related to forests, taking into
consideration their local needs and cultural values;
c) Production and Marketing of Forest Products
Increased participation by private sector in forest sector programmes;
Guarantees and creation of a favorable environment for investment in the
sector, over the short, medium and long term;
Maintenance and/or creation of plantations and development of the primary
and secondary wood manufacturing industry;
Creation and application of financial incentive mechanisms for investment in
the sector;
d) Programmes Under Way
National tree planting programme
Programme to plant community forests for production of fuel wood.
6.1.2.1 Fighting Drought and Desertification
Desertification is a process of environmental degradation that depends on a
multiplicity of factors, and it can lead to irreversible environmental degradation

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conditions. Its manifestations include accelerated soil erosion, increased soil


salinization, increased surface runoff from decreased water retention, reduced
diversity of species and productivity, leading to impoverishment of the human
communities depending on these ecosystems.
In Angola in particular, in the southern region, there are weak ecosystems
resulting from the influence of the desert in Nambe (Kalahari) so the worsening
trend is even greater.
In addition to the traditionally known natural factors (droughts and climatic
variations), there are relevant anthropogenic factors related to the destruction of
vegetal cover and the sparse trees, the poor use of the soil, excessive grazing
and demographic pressure on risk zones.
To fight this phenomenon, the following actions were taken at the institutional
level:

The United Nations Convention to Combat Drought and Desertification


was ratified;
The National Multisector Committee to Combat Desertification was
formed;
The National Desertification Combat Action Programme [PANCD] is
being formed;
In addition, a project to combat desertification in being implemented in
the Province of Namibe, in partnership with domestic and foreign NGOs.

6.2 FISHING AND THE ENVIRONMENT


In the area of fishing, favoring the activities of the private economic
stakeholders, the Government is acting in a manner that will indirectly influence
an increase in catches, the rehabilitation of the refrigeration chain, the
rehabilitation of the navy yards and the production of packaging. The identified
Government programmes are:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

Artisan Fishing Support Programme


Marine Research Programme;
Maritime Inspection Programme;
Approachable Infrastructure Programme

Over the last five years the increase in the catch from 131,815 tons to 232,356
tons was the cause of greater availability of fish to the population with
consumption indexes of approximately thirteen kilos per inhabitant. It also
contributed to the national economy in terms of employment with 50,000 jobs,
23,000 of which were in artisan fishing.

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The continuation of investments in terms of the fleet, whether with acquisition of


new boats or with recovery of others from navy yards, that now shows weak
function due to the linkage of the payments and the financial system established
between the small rigger and the navy yard and vice versa, with thoughts of
service being provided by another, translate into an even greater increase in the
catches.
Table 5.3.1 EVOLUTION OF CATCHES BY PROVINCE

PROVINCE
CABINDA
ZAIRE
BENGO
LUANDA
K.SOUTH
BENGUELA
NAMIBE
SUBTOTAL
ARTISAN FISH.
TOTAL

1996
1.703.9
400
259.0
27,0692.5
10,925.,5
27,501.5
18,333.6
86,815.5
45,000,.
131,815.5

1997
548.3
734.5
1,026.1
34,023.0
8,799.0
28,860.8
26,312.0
100,303.7
40,000,.
140,303.7

U.M:TON
1998
1999
2000
645.6
619.1
536.4
560.2
256.4
314.0
167.0
87.4
1.814.0
42,796 59,723.0 42,722.0
5,109.3 10,714.1 15,906.6
29,017.5 29,249.7 29,531.4
54,489 38,194.8 101,637.0
132,617/6 138,844.5 192,461.4
24,531.2 30,954.9 39,889.8
157,148.8 169,799.4 232,351.2

The manufacturing industry was involved in a diversified manner, having


produced 80,328 tons of fresh fish, 49,580.4 of frozen fish, 15,818 dry, 16,046
flour and oils and 47,169 tons de salt.
Through the Artisan Fishing Development Institute, mechanisms and
programmes were established to improve the quality of life of the fishing
communities, seeking above all the organization of the fishing communities, the
creation of production infrastructure and support for artisan fishing, and the
management of resources for sustainable development.
These programmes contain projects seeking the creation of microbusinesses,
creation of cooperatives and associations, extension agents, construction of
integrate support, centers maintenance and repair for community access roads,
health stations and schools, especially for the most vulnerable population in the
coastal zones.
Numerous actions were developed to provide the fishers with new motorized
boats, fishing arts and artifacts, resulting in a considerable increase in the
catch levels in this subsector, thus contributing to improving the diet and
increasing household income.
In this subsector some 5000 small artisan fishing boats have been counted,
providing employment for over 21,000 fishers and providing sustenance to their
families.

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An effort has been made to guarantee the quality of the fishing products and
their byproducts, observed through joint regulations from the Fishing and
Environment and Health Ministries about the quality of the products and their
entry onto the market, regulated by Joint Executive Decrees 13/99 and 14/99
dated January 15 and by Law 20/92. To guarantee food safety, labs are being
built to be equipped with modern equipment for the various kinds of analysis.
There were also standards regulated about the preparation and distribution of
salt for human consumption, with the incorporation of iodine to eliminate
diseases caused by iodine insufficiency mainly in the inland areas of Angola,
where many populations suffering from this condition live. A major investment
was made to expand the production and salt iodization capacities, the values of
which went from 34,143 tons in 1998 to 47,169 tons in 2000.
In view of better use of the abundant fishing resources and the low commercial
value, the Marine Research Institute has conducted studies on the incorporation
of these products into other foods products of high protein and nutritional value.
The participational and sustainable policies and practices of fishing
development, in high and low potential areas, have allowed adequate and
secure growth of food provisions at a household and national level embodied in
implementation of the Cone of Conduct for Responsible Fishing, including the
participation of industrial and artisan riggers and respective local associations,
in application of legislation pursuant to exploration of natural resources within
the limits of biological sustainability.
A programme is being studied to replace harmful fishing practices, such as
beach trawling, among others, to avoid catching young specimens and
overfishing.
An investigation vessel is to be purchased for better understanding of the
fishing resources and to study the Angola ocean shelf resources, while creating
conditions to improve oversight and inspection of the fishing activities, including
satellite monitoring.
For food products and commercial policies in general to contribute towards
supporting food security for all through a fair, market-oriented commercial
system, the fishing sector, together with other sectors, has sought to modernize
and expand the commercial circuit, including inland zones.
Sale of the fish products and byproducts on the export market is done in
accordance with the international standards and guidelines and in consideration
of the worldwide market prices ands fluctuations.
Regional cooperation has been developed with neighboring countries,
especially Nambia and South Africa, in view of common management of the
shared fishing resources. In this vein, two regional programmes are going to be
implemented to study the Benguela ecosystem, thus increasing the technical
and scientific capacities nationally and regionally, taking into account the need
for joint management of shared resources.

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6.2.1 ENVIRONMENTAL SECTOR


At the environmental level, various international conventions were ratified, some
of which apply through preparation of specific programmes/plans and
strategies. To ensure protection and preservation of the environmental
components, and maintenance of the ecosystems of recognized ecological and
socioeconomic value, the Government maintains Environmental Protection
Areas, established by the colonial authorities, and is in the process of defining
new areas to represent all biogeographic units in Angola up to 15% of the
surface area within the territory.
The Environmental Management Programme; the National Environmental
Policy Strategy and the Environmental Education and Awareness Raising
Programme were also established.
The national Lets Clean Angola campaign held in the last two years has
mobilized and engaged all of the Provinces in Angola, allowing removal of the
trash from suburban zones, thus preventing disease and improving the quality
of life for citizens in those areas.
Considering natural disaster prevention, such as pollution from oil spills, the
National Contingency Plan Against Oil Spills was created together with the
Ministry of Petroleum and the Oil Industry and other agencies involved in the
area.
The Environmental Law was created, which generally establishes the markers
not only to protect the environment in general but also for the liability of potential
infractors. The law regulating exploration of oil activity and the mining
exploration law are good test the national will for prevention of natural disasters.
The sector in general has sought recently to promote an optimal allocation and
use of public and private investments, to promote technical and scientific
training of human resources and to simplify the business operations and
procedures.
The followup and monitoring of the Plan of Action to eradicate poverty is done
through an interministerial committee coordinated by the Ministry of Agriculture
and Rural Development and its Technical Secretariat.
To the extent possible, the FAO and other international organizations have
provided technical assistance to the sector for the implementation of timely
actions in view of food security and an improvement in the life of the populations
with the impact of the Human Resources Training and the financing of Projects,
especially those tied to artisan fishing, the improvement in quality control of
fishing products and the adaptation of the Fishing Law.
In the sense of contributing better to food security, the Fisheries Sector
continues to follow up and to participate in the work of the international

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organizations specializing in fisheries seeking the conservation


management of fishery resources and its rational, responsible exploration.

and

In this context, Angola has implemented recommendations from the


International Commission for Conservation of the Atlantic Tuna [ACCAI, the
Regional Conservation on Fisheries Cooperation among African States
Bordering the Atlantic Ocean and other international organizations of which it is
considered an observer, such as the Regional Fisheries Committee of the Gulf
of Guinea [COREP]. With the same objective, Angola recently co-founded the
Regional Organization for the Conservation and Management of Fishery
Resources in the Southeast Atlantic Ocean [SEAFO].
Within the scope of the programmes seeking to increase the catches, improve
the supply of fishing products to the population and reduce poverty, with the
cooperation of Angola, various projects under way and under study were
identified with a view towards the scope of the objectives of the Regional
Conference on fisheries cooperation, among which the following are
noteworthy:

The project of support to the eastern Atlantic fisheries system, with


technical assistance from FAO;
Tripartite cooperation project with Morocco and Japan and other African
countries, seeking to develop competencies in the African countries
about processing and recovery of the fisheries products and quality
control;
Tripartite cooperation project with Japan and other African countries
about promoting artisan fishing.

Of the projects identified under the Southern African Development Community


[SADC], which will contribute toward protecting fishing resources in Angola and
therefore to improving its management and rational exploration, with
connections to the large monitoring, followup and inspection project, the fishing
activities and the Benguela Environment Fisheries Interaction and Training
[BENEFIT] and [Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem BCLME] projects.

6.3 INDUSTRY
Light industry, as with other areas of the economy, is strongly affected by the
instability in Angola at present, and production over the past decade is
characterized as follows:

Table 5.3.1 Industrial Production


Products
Food
Veg. Oil
Wheat flour
Maize flour
Bread

UM

1991

1992

1993

1994

Ton
ton
ton
Ton

82121
2378
18949
21157
39637

53373
984
10257
14833
27299

12564
193
2476
543
9352

25794
109
4831
8392
12462

1996

1997

1998

1999

70663 248654
133
206
12528 25349
1070
1133
56932 221966

1995

219555
39302
3334
176919

254348
417
35164
164
218603

272586
500
23047
1133
247906

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Beverages
Beer
Tobacco
Processed
tobacco
products
Textiles
Cloth
Shoes
Leather
shoes
Chemicals
Soap
Cement
Metal
and
elect. prod
Electrodes
Elec.wiring
Batteries
Radios
Source: MIND

Htl

484363 345224 251012 283442 164833 731850 1148551 1189469 1094876


484363 345224 251012 283442 164833 731850 1148551 1189469 1094876
1243
813
2056
319
103
522
556
440
457

Ton

1243

813

2056

319

103

522

556

440

457

M2

5626
5626
99

6096
6096
54

4463
4463
9

3169
3169
46

781
781
3

3200
3200
11

1790
1790
5

946
946
8

848
848
5

99

54

46

11

4741
4741

4920
4920

1519
1519

446
446

386
386

3528
3528

209643
8298
201345

303224
6688
296536

185029
2664
182365

58498

33916

12946

6189

1395

2503

2614

2491

50

112
6428
51958

223
4228
29465

70
4437
8439

62
6127
0

41
1354
0

5
2478
0

42
2572
0

64
2427
0

50
0
0

Mpa
Ton
Ton

Ton.
Ton
Und
Und

In the period under analysis, emphasis is on the food and chemicals areas:
Food shows signs of recovery since 1993, up by approximately 15.8% and
7.2%, during the periods 1997-1998 and 1998-1999; respectively
Among the various productions, bread and vegetable oil stand out due to their
performance over the past three years, although the 500 tons of vegetable oil
produced in 1999 only represents 21% of the 1992 production levels, while
bread also showed the highest production in the decade in 1999, representing a
5255% increase over the 1992 level. In chemicals, only soap and cement were
recorded, with cement showing better results.
Soap, after seeing its lowest level of production in 1995 with 386 tons, or barely
8% of production recorded in 1991, began an "illusory recovery process" in
1996 and the following year recorded the highest production of the decade with
8298 tons, representing an increase of approximately 75% over the beginning
of the decade under analysis, witnessing an ongoing process of a significant
drop in production in 1998 and 1999.
In the areas of tobacco, textiles, shoes and material and electrical products, the
table shows the dire situation of the industry. The nonexistence of steel
production should be noted.
In the extraction industries, except for the oil industry, there was almost no
participation in contributing to the national product, despite the known mining
potential. This is due basically to the political and military situation in the areas
in question.
Very low installed capacity and a drop in industrial employment due in large part
to the prolonged conflict, inadequate economic policies, physical and technical
obsolescence of the equipment, unavailability of spare parts, insufficient supply
of raw materials, poor hygiene conditions and weak labor environment.

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Manufactured products in general and food products in particular have trouble


competing with the imports due to factors such as high price, inferior quality, the
lack of appropriate know-how and technology, deficient customs protection and
reduced incentives for local industry.
Despite recent efforts undertaken by the Government, the economic situation in
Angola is characterized by the rigidity of aggregate supply, a deficit in the
balance of payments high inflation rates, high political and economic risk for
productive investments and a finance-banking system that is not well adjusted
to the productive sector needs, especially in the manufacturing industry.
The recent creation of the Economic and Social Development Fund aims in
part to address this problem.
The Ministry of Industry identified as priorities in its Master Reindustrialization
Plan the relaunch of viable industries, especially the food agricultural industries,
as an area whose main inputs are supplied internally by basic activities, not
very dependent on imports, with a generalized, rigid supply of outputs, as widely
consumed products.
Despite the structural and conjunctural constraints, the food sector of the
industry today is responsible for approximately 20% of the industrial product at
an average growth rate in recent years (1996-1999), of 5.6%, with a
participation in the GDP of approximately 4%.
6.3.1 INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK
With the support of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization
[UNIDO], soon a n Institutional Training Programme will begin to rehabilitate the
food industry in Angola, estimated at USD 1,000,000,00 (one million US
dollars), to last 3 years, the objective of which is the creation of national
capacity and development of abilities to reinforce competitiveness and create
jobs.
The project will contribute specifically by :
"

Establishment of a reliable food protection system, including food


inspection and quality control and food protection guarantee based on
the Hazard analysis and Critical Control Point [HACCP].

"

Strengthening and development of the normalization and measurement


infrastructure, quality management, quality guarantee and ISO 9000.

"

Reinforcing the capacity of national support and technical assistance


institutions specializing in providing adequate service for the
rehabilitation and modernization of the food industry, as well as micro
and small food industries capable of using alternate energy, producing at
accessible prices for the local and export market contributing to
managing revenue and jobs, especially for women.

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6.3.2 FOOD AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRIES


Given the impact, especially for creating gross added value, development of
jobs, savings on foreign exchange, and other direct, indirect and induced
effects, we consider the food agricultural industrial sector as the one eligible for
short- to medium-term expansion of internal supply and replacement of imports
of some basic food products from the diet .
6.3.3 PRIORITY FOOD AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRIES
a) Cassava Industrialization
With development of the cassava crop, it will be possible to observe high levels
of cornmeal (flour) production),as well as alcohol extracted from the cassava.
b) Maize Industrialization
This task will be driven by development of the maize crop, allowing for added
value with the industrial production of maize cornmeal (flour), food oils and
animal rations.
c) Wheat Flour Production
Bread and other food products derived form flour and semolina hold an
important position in the diet in urban areas. With the launch of the programme
to increase supply and stabilize prices for bread it was possible in 1996 to
increase the supply of this product.
Recent investments (2000-2001) in this area led to an increase in domestic
supply of this product of approximately 450 tons/day.
d) Food Oil Production and Refinery
As of development of the traditional oil crops in Angola, especially groundnut,
sunflower seed, palm oil, and coqueiro palm oil, tied to the investments made
and under way in the area of oil refinery and production, it is possible to
increase domestic production of food oils over the medium term.
e) Sugar Manufacture
Implementation of sugar production subprogrammes, where the sugar cane
crop is resumed, must confirm the potential for domestic production of sugar
and reduce imports of the product.
f) Manufacture of Canned Meat and Milk

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The increased domestic supply of products derived from meat (canned


conserves, cured meat, etc.) and milk (butter, cheese, yogurt, powdered milk,
etc.) will comply with a subprogramme for development of this very kind of
industry in traditional areas (Hula, Cunene, Kwanza South) and others where
conditions allow. The rehabilitation programme for the river bed basin in Cela
(Waco Kungo) was recently presented
g) Manufacture of Canned Fish
Fishing and its byproducts hold a significant place in the Angolan diet,
especially in the coastal strip where it is consumed fresh and frozen and dried
and half-cured inland, with priority going to reactivation of the industrial fish
processing units for conservation as well as development and attraction of new
capacities in the essentially fishery provinces.

Food Industry Production Indicators (1996-2000)


Product
UM
Canned fruit
Ton
Fig paste
Kg
Food oil
Klt
Pasteurized Milk
Klt
Pasteurized milk
Ton
Wheat flour
Ton
Bread
Ton
Sweets
Ton
Dough
Ton
Cookies/crackers
Ton
Table Salt
Ton
Source: DEI-GEP/MIND

1996
93
-ND
206
ND
1,133
25,349
221,966
191
503
213
2,739

1997
121
11,138
ND
1,119
3,334
39,302
179,919
206
379
66
6,096

1998
5
15,986
417
816
164
35,164
218,603
154
90
260
6,556

1999
24
16.625
500
185
1.133
23.047
247,906
68
49
198
3,476

2000
2
24,398
0
788
1,101
14,408
257,398
32
2
224
3,854

6.4 HEALTH
Over the past 20 years the food situation in Africa has been gradually declining,
affecting children in particular . The level of food production continues to
decline, mainly as a result the political and economic instability, natural
disasters and the civil and military conflicts.

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In Angola, the nutritional situation of newborns and children remains critical, as


a result of constant displacement of people, lack of food, changes in food habits
and culture, and socio-economic imbalances, and it is aggravated by the current
HIV/AIDS pandemic disease.
As is known, the emergence of most of the diseases is supported by the
deficient immunity status of the populations due to deficient food ingestion and
nutrients.
Protein-caloric malnutrition is associated in most cases with other pathologies
such as malaria, acute diarrhea and respiratory disease, tuberculosis, measles,
and parasitic diseases, among others.
The Health Ministry, together with the partners WHO, UNICEF, WFP, domestic
and foreign NGOs, are working to improve the quality of medical assistance and
medicine and to feed the populations, as well as to define policies and
strategies to reduce overall morbidity and mortality, that of mother-child, in
particular.
The gradual improvement in management of health programmes, both curative
and preventive, is reflected in better results from health indicators and in
ongoing staff training as priority with a view towards increasing technical
intervention capacity.
Some useful indicators presented in this document for analysis of the health
situation in Angola and review of the impact of health actions, are based on the
results of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey [MICS] done in 1997 aimed at
producing estimates of the basic indicators of the well-being of children and the
general population at the national level, taking into account the urbanization
characteristics Although they may appear to be relatively overreaching, they are
not so different from the 2000 MICS results, which were not officially disclosed.
Other data were gathered from the Research, Planning and Statistics Office of
the Health Ministry (GEPE) and the National Public Health Directorate
Programmes.
6.4.1 REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH SERVICES
The Programme of Action from the Cairo International Conference on
Population and Development, adopted by consensus in September 1994,
acknowledged that reproductive health needs were critical requirements for
human and social development. It also acknowledged that there is an urgent
need to implement effective policies and strategies to reduce the high mother
and child mortality rates, verified mainly in the poor countries.
In December 1995, with support from the United Nation Population Fund, the
Health Ministry issued Policies and Procedures for Providing Reproductive
Health Services, contributing towards:

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Integrating the priority reproductive health services, facilitating the


planning, administration, service and monitoring process at the various
levels.

Adapting training through adjustments to curricula of the various types of


training.

Expanding and promoting raising the quality of reproductive care


provided (public and private sector) in a structure that also contributes to
coordination and optimization of international assistance.

The priority areas of intervention are summarized below:


-

Prevention of mother and infant mortality (and morbidity ).


Broad access to family planning services.
Prevention and treatment of STDs, including HIV/AIDS and HPV/colon
cancer.

The majority of the population does not have access to health care services at
their place of residence, which explains the persistence of high birth weight, and
mother and infant mortality rates, among others. Out of live births in 2000,
approximately 17.3% had low birth weight, according to the report from the
Health Ministry Research, Planning and Statistics Office.
6.4.2 BREASTFEEDING AND WEANING NUTRITION
The new Infant Disease Care Strategy promotes breastfeeding exclusively up to
six months and weaning by 2 years old. This strategy addresses the five main
causes of death in children under 5 (acute respiratory disease, acute diarrhea,
malaria, sweeter malnutrition, anemia and measles) in order to reduce morbidity
and mortality in this age group. Depending on the specific characteristics of the
country, these diseases could include tetanus and HIV/AIDS.
Breast milk has positive effects on the nutritional status of children, their growth,
physical and psycho-affective development, and immune status and in reducing
infant morbidity and mortality.
In Angola a high percentage of children (90%) are breastfed, starting after birth
upon demand. (MICS), however, the continuing practice of introducing other
liquid and semi-liquid foods continues to be an obstacle to exclusive
breastfeeding prior to 4 to 6 months of age. Just over 12% of children are
breastfed exclusively up to 3 months and 6-7% up to 6 months.
The breastfeeding rate up to 20-23 months is 49% and the prevalence of the
use of bottles remains high, at 23%. The differences between the duration of
breastfeeding in urban and rural areas is small, with children from urban areas
breastfeeding for two months fewer (MICS). Urbanization generally has a
negative effect on the duration of breastfeeding.

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Significant steps have been taken to promote exclusive breastfeeding, through


training of health care personnel involved in the community about the
importance of breast milk and the impact on survival of children. The
Breastfeeding Promotion Committee was formed, involving health care workers
and NGOs, some of them members of IBFAN Africa. This initiative already
allowed or the training of approximately 12 physicians and 60 nurses in
maternity wards and maternity and infant centers.
In 1998 in three provinces (Luanda, Benguela and Cabinda) three hospitals
were declared Friends to Children, and more are expected soon .
Since 1992 the Health Ministry has successfully commemorated the World
Breastfeeding Week, which has contributed to the increase in breastfeeding
with the participation of NGOs, churches, private businesses and the
community .
6.4.3 NUTRITIONAL SITUATION
a) Acute and Severe Malnutrition
The probability of dying of a given disease could double in cases involving
moderately malnourished children and triple for severe malnutrition. Malnutrition
is an important factor in approximately 1/3 of 13 million deaths of children under
5 throughout the world. (UNICEF- Worldwide Infancy Situation, 1994)
Defined on the basis of the height/age index, chronic malnutrition refers to
malnutrition resulting from cumulative distortions in the nutritional status of the
child as he grows. It is malnutrition in the more structural domain, with a difficult
overall recovery, according to MICS. Approximately 53% of the infant population
suffers from chronic malnutrition and approximately 27% reaches a severe
state.
Faced with the severe nutritional situation, the Health Ministry, in collaboration
with tits partners, pledged to create Therapeutic Nutritional and Supplemental
Centers to follow up on cases of malnutrition, with a total of about 36 for the
entire country.
To standardize techniques for handling the malnourished, the Acute Malnutrition
Management Protocol was tested and reviewed with the support of UNICEF
and it is ready to be used successfully, putting Angola into the group of poor
African countries with infant care protocols and standards.
In order to learn about, monitor and analyze systematically the nutritional
situation in Angola, the National Technical Survey Team is about to be formed.
b) Micronutrient Deficiency
Nutritional deficiencies, especially in Vitamin. A, iodine, niacin and iron are
public health problems in the vast majority of developing countries. Their

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importance is felt in terms of magnitude as well as specific distribution in


population groups, preferably mother-infant.
Prevention and control of this deficiency are part of the commitment undertaken
by the heads of developing states, in effecting compliance with the health goals
for all, by controlling Vitamin A deficiency, reducing disease due to iodine and
iron deficiency, and other steps.
c) Vitamin A
Avitaminosis A, the main cause of preventable blindness in infancy, has been
associated with various pathologies, with greater emphasis on the population
with food penury. Information on the prevalence and distribution of Vitamin A
deficiency and its clinical manifestations are rare, but the ocular signs and
symptoms are the indicators with the greatest sensitivity and specificity.
Nevertheless, a study on Assessment of Vitamin A Deficiency and Iron
Deficiency Anemia in Chidden under 5 in Angola in February 2001, included
analysis of serum retinol levels and demonstrated a extremely low distribution
curve. The plateau and the coastal region have average levels of serum retinol
that are significantly lower than those in the inland region.
Breast milk is the main source of Vitamin A during the first year of life, and is an
indispensable food to test the hepatic reserves of Vitamin A, especially in the
first six months. When concentrations of serum retinol in breast milk are low, as
is the case in those breastfeeding in Angola, exclusively breastfed children are
exposed to avitaminosis A.
Consumption of food sources of Vitamin A, according to the aforementioned
basic study, is low, 17% of animal origin and 31% of vegetal origin, and the age
group of children under 18 months showed a very low weekly consumption of
food sources of Vitamin A.
To prevent clinical injury, taking into account verified data, as a result of an
imbalanced and poorly adjusted diet, strategic measures were adopted to
combat disease due to Vitamin A deficiency.
The massive distribution of Vitamin A during the National Polio Immunization
Days was the most effective and practical way to overcome the Vitamin A
deficiencies in chidden of 6 to 59 months in age
The number of children reached during those 3 consecutive immunization days
(1999, 2000, 2001) was 2,311,422 (10 %), 2,499,649 (96%) and 2,604,643
(77%), respectively. The gradual reduction in goals met is presumably
connected to the calculations of population estimates, the target on one side
and access constraints on the other.

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Data on routine distribution of Vitamin A are still lacking but the strategy is
based on incorporating Vitamin A into the PAV, distribution at the Therapeutic
Nutritional and Supplemental Centers and in the immediate periphery.

d) Iodine Deficiency
In 1990 at the World Conference for Children held in Geneva with the
participation of 70 countries, the commitment was made to eliminate iodine
deficiency disorders by the year 2000 with implementation of Universal Salt
Iodization Programmes.
In 1995 a preliminary salt iodization programme was developed nationally with
the support of UNICEF. The Government of Angola, in compliance with the
project, and to address the serious situation it was experiencing, approved in
March 1996 Executive Law 24/96 on Standards for Processing and Selling
Iodized Salt for human and animal consumption.
On the basis of this executive law, the National Technical Salt Iodization
Committee [CNTIS] was created in 1997 by Interministerial resolution number 7
-8/97 from the Ministries of Fishing and the Environment, Health, Agriculture
and Commerce, salt producers and UNICEF, with the main role of coordinating
and supervising all of the iodized salt production, distribution, promotion and
utilization activities throughout the territory of Angola. In the process of
implementing the project, provincial commissions [CPTIS] were formed in
Benguela, Huambo and Namibe.
The average gross sale production is approximately 40,000 tons with a
maximum peak of 75,000 tons in 1990. This situation may be due to natural
disasters, deficient saltworks infrastructures, obsolete production equipment
and poor management of available resources. The production of iodized salt
has varied, reaching a maximum peak of 9,757 tons in 2000,representing
approximately 1/5 of the national needs.
The impact of the National Salt Iodization Programme is reflected in the
increased production and consumption of iodized salt according to the results of
the surveys done in Huambo.
e) Iron Deficiency
The current iron deficiency situation in the general Angolan population is not
well known, but the high indexes of the prevalence of malaria and other
infectious, contagious and parasitic diseases, together with the low purchasing
power of the population, food penury mainly for the refugee population, growth
in the deficient level of knowledge about food, lead one to think that the problem
is serious.
Data from the Assessment of Vitamin A Deficiency and Iron Deficiency Anemia
in Chidden under 5 in Angola reveal a global prevalence of anemia of 29.7%,

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predominantly the mild form of anemia.


Children, especially in their second year of life, are more vulnerable to iron
deficiency anemia, probably due to the after-effects of early weaning, food
monotony, and the occasional introduction of formula in this age group, causing
the appearance of intestinal microhemorrhaging. On the other hand, the
greater susceptibility to infectious and parasitic diseases makes the situation
even worse.
The consumption of foods rich in iron is very low in Angola. Ingestion of organic
iron was 22% and inorganic iron was 44%. The lower consumption of animal
origin iron was in the rural area of the central plateau. Approximately 34% of
the children under 5 years of age do not consume foods rich in iron on a regular
basis.
f) Other Micronutrients
Another situation that is still endemic in some areas of the country is pellagra,
deficiency of Vitamin PP or Niacin. The B complex distribution campaign is
done for the affected population and in come cases with the support of NGOs.
Pellagra continues to prevail in the central region of Angola (Bi and Huambo)
where food is basically maize and beans. Since July 1999 the Province of Bi
has seen an increase in cases of pellagra and since August 2001, the total
number of cases diagnosed at the Provincial Hospital is 1,796 (source: MSFBelgium).
A study on the disease situation, definition of strategic courses of action, was
done in March 2001, in collaboration with USAID and the results are expected
soon.
Preventive measures for pellagra consist of consumption of food rich in niacin,
tryptophane and other B complex vitamins, such as the groundnut.
6.4.4 NUTRIITON AND HIV/AIDS
HIV/AIDS is identified as one of the major causes of increased malnutrition in
Africa. In Angola, although there is a national policy/guideline about the problem
of breastfeeding by daughters of mothers carrying the HIV/AIDS virus.
It is known that the number of new cases continues to climb alarmingly (19952000 perspective attached). Many activities have been developed to promote
disease prevention measures.
6.4.5 tuberculosis
Tuberculosis is one of the biggest health problems, due to the high morbidity
and mortality it causes, especially in the economically most productive age

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group. According to statistical data from the 2001 Annual Report, 83% of the
new cases are in people aged 15 to 54, with 60% bacciferous. (data attached)
The high seral prevalence of HIV/AIDS in diseases such as tuberculosis, almost
4 times higher than in the general population, is one of the main factors
responsible for worsening the situation.
Expansion of the DOTS [Directly Observed Treatment Short-Course] strategy is
the major challenge facing the Health Ministry, to control the situation, allowing
for high cure rates and cutting off the chain of transmission of the disease.
6.4.6 WATER AND SEWAGE
According to MICS, the great deficits in basic sewage and in basic
infrastructures in addition to the poor coverage of the potable water supply
systems allow one to say that the social situation of the population is a concern
In addition to water treatment before drinking, an important factor in the health
of the population, another component is basic sewage for displaced persons.
As in the sectors, there are great limitations and deficiencies at the level of
water supply and sewage, and those services experienced a negative evolution
since independence (1975), worsening as of 1992 with the renewed outbreak of
civil war (after the elections), causing destruction of many water catchment
systems and the exacerbated migration of the population, from the inlands to
the major cities, with the resulting abandonment of many water supply systems
or bridges and the overloading of others, most with already saturated capacity
The coverage rates tend to decrease in view of the population growth and the
lack of bulk investments in the sector, and the overall water supply situation can
be considered a largely deficit situation, since barely 16% of the total
households receive piped water. In Luanda, the tank and the tank truck are the
main sources of water supply (42%) and only 25% of households have piped
water.
Compared to other urban areas only 8.5% of households have access to
potable water, with the source used most often being an unprotected well and a
public watering place. For rural areas, the water supply is from man-mane
and/or natural sources, with 36% of the population using the river or a pool as
their main source of water supply.
Estimates from DNA/MINEA currently indicate total coverage of the population
(estimated for 2000 at 13.5 million people) with potable water and sewage, 33%
and 39% respectively.
Until 1987 the main urban water supply systems were run by Empresa Nacional
de gua and Saneamento [ENAS], at which point that company ended and was
transformed into Empresa Provincial de Agua de Luanda [EPAL], promoting the
creation of state companies in the provincial environment, which, in practice,
never worked, and since then the various systems have been run by
Directorates in the respective provinces.

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The Government established a development strategy in the sector, the basis of


which is to be implemented between 2001 and 2005, based on the following
objectives and principles:
a) Increase the coverage rate of the population with adequate potable water
and sewage services;
b) Make rehabilitation and expansion of the system feasible, and ensure its
consistency and sustainability in technical, operational and financial terms;
c) Improve operational capacity of management and of water supply and
sewage services;
d) Reinforce the legal and institutional perspective in the water supply and
sewage sector.

6.5 EDUCATION
The Angolan education system is divided into three subsystems: basic
education, technical vocational education and higher education, in addition to
pre-school education.
Basic education covers eight years of education, subdivided into three levels
level one (4 years), level two (two years) and level three (2 years):
There is also an abbreviated version of basic education (6 years) intended for
adults attending night school.
Technical vocational education offers three options to students who completed
basic education successfully: pre-university (3 years); technical studies (4
years); and teacher training (4 years). Until 1992 technical studies could be
pursued at approximately 10 institutes and teacher training at 13 institutes,
located throughout Angola.
Higher education can be pursued at 3 universities and one Higher Institute of
Educational Sciences. Lasting from four to six years, higher education offers
programmes in the fields of education, medicine, economics, engineering, law,
agricultural sciences, etc..
The Angolan education system has always had major problems in operations.
The quantitative and qualitative scarcity of teachers, the insufficient facilities
and the lack of financial resources to provide an adequate education, are
factors contributing to the problems achieving normalcy in much of the Angolan
education system.
The outbreak of war in 1992 and destruction of the national infrastructures
exacerbated the problems, resulting in a severe blow to the system. The
schools that survived the war could not escape the indirect repercussions of the

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conflict. After a massive exodus of populations towards the urban areas, many
schools fell victim to looting and sabotage. The vast majority of existing schools
have no equipment and are in an advanced state of disrepair and/or
destruction.
As for the socio-educational structures of the kindergartens and pre-school
centers, accessibility is limited since only about 1% of children of pre-school
age have access to these centers. In the 1998 school year the Angolan school
age population from 6 to 14 years old was estimated at approximately
2,811,000 children, only some 30% of whom were in level one, that is, nearly
70% of the population in this range was running the risk of illiteracy. As for
Basic Education levels two and three, they showed enrollment rates of only
6.5% and 3.5% respectively, meaning that the overwhelming majority of
children between 5 and 18 years of age are in the primary classes of basic
education.
The level of lack of academic success measured by the failure and dropout
rates is very high. more than 50% in level one, 50% and 42% in levels two and
three of basic education, leading to the conclusion that only 4.35% of school
age children complete level three of basic education (8th year).
The illiterate population was estimated in 1998 at 4.9 million people (42% of the
population), 2.8 million of whom are women.
Despite the fact that in recent years there have been significant improvements
in the supply of education in response to a growing demand, the national
education system still has various structural problems limiting quality service
and acceptable patterns of efficiency and effectiveness. The various rates
characterizing the situation in this important sector that shapes our national
human capital are very low. The primary and secondary enrollment rates
(34.7% and 31.2% respectively) that translate into an enormous negative
investment of the school age population and a failure to take advantage of the
productive potential. In the same vein of wasted potential in Angola is the gross
school enrollment rate combined, barely totaling 25%.
The adult illiteracy rate is still very high (nearly 58%, 75% of whom are women),
constituting a severe handicap to the growth of productivity and to the
introduction of new production technologies to increase the Angolan
competitiveness index.
The education sector, despite its importance for the sustained development of
Angola, has not had a budget worthy of its role in shaping human capital. The
scantiness of the allocations (2.0% of the GDP and no more than 4.8% of the
total budgetary expenditures) has not allowed for the conditions necessary to
meet the growing demand for education at every level. The private supply of
education is occupying a given segment of the market in place of the State, only
in many cases without the guarantee of quality and efficiency.
The national education system is suffering from weaknesses and dysfunctions
that have significantly affected its management and administration:

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"

A level of administrative centralization, still relatively high despite the


process of recentralization experienced in many of the administrative
and managerial functions;

"

Deficient tools and mechanisms for management of human, financial and


material resources allocated to the sector;

"

Insufficient allocation of resources, making it difficult to make allocations


efficiently and under optimal usage conditions;

"

Weakness in the information transmission systems between the central,


sectoral and provincial structures.

Since 1995 the Education Ministry had a National Plan to Rebuild the Education
System to cover the period from 1995 to 2000. This document, prepared
according to a programme hierarchy, sought to govern activities in the national
educational system and identified various key principles:
"

Primary education protects citizens who become literate;

"

Literacy programmes are one of the main components of the campaigns


and of the programmes to reduce poverty in Angola;

"

Technical and vocational education play a key role in meeting the needs
of the industrial sectors and in increasing productivity in the rural
economy;

"

Secondary education, as an intermediary between primary and higher


education, must be governed by clear principles of efficiency and quality;

"

Higher education, as the peak of the system is responsible for providing


Angola with managers, administrators, a d high level technical managers
for the priority development areas.

It is in this context that the Education and Culture Ministry has defined the
following sectoral objectives over the next three years:

Expand access to basic education


Improve internal efficiency and applicability of courses:
Improve school management;
Reduce adult illiteracy rate;
Revitalize the process of acquiring literacy within the context of combat
and poverty.

The following policies were defined


!

Expand access to basic education, projecting that by the year 2000 the
liquid enrollment rate will reach 58.5% for young men and 57.5% for young
women;

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Increase the literacy index until reaching 58.5% for men and 40% for women
by the year 2000;

Expand access to basic vocational training for young people, adults, and
people demobilized and displaced due to war;

Improve management and quality of education

In 1996, pre-school had a total of 109,265 students This number passed


250,000 students in 2000. In basic education in 1996, there were 1,028,641
students. In 1998, that number reached 1,609,815, an increase of 56.5%,
having reached approximately two million students in 2000. The number of
basic school graduates increased from 103,656 to 148,474 students, an
average annual growth of 9.4%.There were activities in the fields of vocational
training and teacher training. In 1996, for 1708 people were trained in vocational
education and 1156 teachers were trained. In 2000, these numbers were 2,049
and 1,931 respectively.
In the area of literacy, the government made efforts in partnership with civil
society, churches, NGOs, the armed forces, businesses, unions, community
organizations, political parties, etc. In 1996 almost 11,764 adults achieved
literacy, 41 of whom were women. With the new dynamic in play in the war
against illiteracy, in 2000, 498,376 adults achieved literacy with nearly 50%
participation by women.
Despite these efforts by the Education Ministry, the Government still has not
achieved enrollment for all school age children.
The number of classrooms in basic education was 10,000 in 1996 and 19,964 in
1998. This number could reach more than 20,000 classrooms in view of the
current partnership with the churches, philanthropic organizations, the
population and national and international institutions. The Ministry developed,
with support from UNCEF since 1999, project seeking to expand awareness off
families, especially in the rural areas, to enroll young women.
Since 1999, a school lunch programme with the support of the World Food
Programme is about to be implemented in the Luanda and Benguela provinces
for an academic population of 205,357 primary school students. The hope is to
expand the programme to all provinces in Angola by the next school year.
The school health programme began in 1987, coordinated by the Health
Ministry. In 1996, the programme covered 6,420 students in the provinces of
Bengo, Benguela, Hula, Kwanza South, Luanda, Namibe, Malange and
Huambo. With 178 trained teachers, the programme actions affected the
awareness raising about the risks and consequences of sexually transmitted
diseases, early pregnancy, the use of alcohol and tobacco, the lack of basic
sanitation in schools and elsewhere. A manual was created entitled Promoting
Health at School that included the following topics: techniques and means of
communication, health and disease, holistic approach to health and health

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promotion, health promotion by the school, water, health and sanitation,


diarrhea, paludism, immunization, whooping cough, measles, introduction to
food and nutrition, bilharziasis, scabies. Oral hygiene, prevention of diseases of
the mouth and teeth, AIDS, prevention of road accidents, instruction about
vision, hearing, posture, rest and physical exercise problems. The financial
resources are needed to revitalize this programme in the remaining provinces
in Angola and to integrate other dimensions such as psycho-social support .
Angola has three agricultural institutes in the provinces of Uige, Hula and
Huambo. The school of agricultural sciences is closed due to military instability
in Angola. The academic network is insufficient and does not meet the needs of
the country. This situation is creating major and severe problems, seriously
compromising technological, economic and social development and putting
Angola in a position of dependency on outside technology. There were 46
students trained in the institutes, compared to 64 in 1996
The National Institute for the Removal of Obstacles and Explosive Devices
(INAROEE), in partnership with UNICEF and the Education and Culture Ministry
(MEC) developed a programme for students in the first level of basic education
and the displaced population from the Bi, Huambo, Lunda South, Malange,
Moxico, Uige, Kuando Kubango, Hula, Benguela, Kwanza North and Cunene
provinces. An introduction to protection from landmines was integrated into the
academic curriculum of the first level and a teacher was trained for this purpose.

Curricular reform in general education, begun in 1995, offers various disciplines


from the first to the twelfth year classes including environmental issues. In
coordination with the Education ad Culture Ministry, the NGO Juventude
Ecolgico Angolana is conducting environmental education through fun
activities. In order to provide incentives for environmental activities at school, by
November 2000, seventy-five middle education teachers received training in
environmental education.
An emergency programme was formulated in the area of reconstruction of the
education system to meet the immediate rehabilitation and construction needs
in the provinces most affected by the war (lower rates of school enrollment).
This programme is to be implemented at an unsatisfactory rate due to a lack of
financial resources.

6.7 ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL REINTEGRATION


The year 2000 ended with an increase in the number of displaced persons, a
worsening of the humanitarian situation and an increase in the poverty levels,
caused by the increased intensity of the military conflict. Also in this year we
began a new strategy of procedures for this population with the objective of
resettling the populations in areas allowing them to develop productive activities

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with a minimum of security, guaranteeing an improvement in their quality of life,


and the Government began to draw up a proposal to establish common
procedures in care for displaced persons and other at risk groups.
From 1999 to 2001 the Government spent nearly USD 50 million for the three
phases of the National Programme for Emergency Humanitarian Assistance
with the acquisition of priority assets for emergency and resettlement support.
The year 2002 began with signature of the Moxico Memorandum of
Understanding between the Government and the UNITA military forces. This
step towards peace allowed he populations living in UNITA territory to begin to
move to the Government territory in search of food support and return to their
areas of origin. It was during this time that the humanitarian situation became
critical, because of these people appearing in seriously malnourished
conditions.
The number of displaced persons is estimated at 4.1 million people, with
approximately 55 thousand soldiers from the UNITA armed forces and their
respective families numbering around 300 thousand people. It is also expected
that some eighty thousand Angolan refugees will return this year from
neighboring countries Out of all of the displaced persons, it is estimated that
20% return spontaneously without needing the support of the Government or its
partners
To address this situation the Government approved USD 60 million to support
Humanitarian Assistance and the UNITA military forces, 15 million of which
were made available.

6.8 FAMILY AND PROMOTION OF WOMEN


The situation of women in Angola, as in most underdeveloped countries in
general and African countries in particular, is characterized by slowness in
socio-economic problem solving.
Various factors can be pointed out as causing this attitude, with the main ones
being reverting to the traditional status of procreator and cheap labor in labor
activities, and in the field, and the most recent political, economic and social
distortions caused by the long war the country has endured for over thirty years.
As a result there was an increase in female heads of household, with low
income to sustain their families and enormous problems confronting social
problems, including the absence of health protection, the fight against disease
and extreme poverty.
The health situation is devastating. Economic adjustment measures needed for
the transition from a centralized economy to a market economy have had a

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negative impact on the neediest people. Thus, Angola has the lowest health
indicators of all African countries.
Various initiatives have been instituted to try turn the situation around, such as
implementing the First Aid Health Care policy, where the family planning
mother-infant service is one of the priorities.
With the socioeconomic crisis, the goal is to adopt different strategies to the
current situation in an attempt to guide the peoples actions in a difficult
situation, pregnancy and children under 5 years of age.
Despite difficult living conditions for Angolan women, we also believe it is
possible to develop a broad-based campaign to protect her health, her family
and their community.
6.8.1 INSTITUITONAL MECHANISMS FOR PROMOTION OF WOMEN
The Angolan Constitution guarantees the same rights and responsibilities to
men and women.
Among the governmental actions aimed at guaranteeing the functions of women
and on April 11, 1997, the Government issued the Statute of the Office of the
Secretary of State to the Ministry of Women, and on September 1 of the same
year designated the Ministry of the Family and Promotion of Women
[MINFAMU], where the Minister sits on the Cabinet.
For development of its activities, the Ministry works in partnership with NGOs,
associations, churches, state organizations and other partners.
The formation of a Coordination Board is planned, the objective of which will be
coordination of actions related to civil society.
It should be noted, however, that the available resources to carry out its activity
are not sufficient to achieve the objectives of the Ministry of the Family and
Promotion of Women.. Aid from some partners allows for other opportunities
and the participation of team members in various events in the interior or
exterior of Angola, in view of their training.
6.8.2 MAIN PROGRAMMES
The priority actions of the Ministry comply with the following
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Creation of family policies;


Protection of womens rights;
Support for rural women;
Support for women in business;
Micro credit;
Other training (gender) and Development

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6.8.3 ACTIONS
-

Creation of the National Strategy to Promote Women by the year 2000;


Disclosure of the African Action Platform and the Global Action Platform;
Holding a Seminar on Women and Development in the Communities
(financed by the United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM]);
Implementation of three projects with financing from the Embassy of the
Kingdom of Sweden in Angola:
Studies on violence against women
Survey of gender statistics.
Establishment of Womens Network in decision-making locations (Network
of Female Ministers and Parliamentarians of Angola);
Holding a National Seminar on violence against women in Angola;
Seminar on forming associations to the benefit of the family and women;

In June, 1998, the gender unit of SADC was created with the Secretariat of
Gaberone- Botswana the Government and NGOs also created the gender focal
points, with a representative of this Ministry having been named a focal point of
the Government.
In December 1998, the meeting of Ministers responsible for gender issues
concluded among many things that each member should create as coordination
board at a national level with their partners, including United Nation agencies,
the media, individuals, etc., to exchange experiences, information, and
suggestions about gender questions at a national level. This board will report on
gender activities in the country to be presented in the annual meeting of
Ministers.
6.8.4 WOMEN AND POVERTY
In accordance with the war on poverty, a multisector commission was created
for formulation of a national programme and strategy for implementation of
microcredit projects seeking to create a framework for access to credit for the
poorest segments of the population, especially women. This programme is
under way in its experimental phase, having already benefited a total of almost
1,500 families in the Luanda, Bengo and Cabinda provinces and gender actions
resulting from various provinces in Angola at the initiative of local Government.

6.9 ENERGY
In the energy sector Angola has substantial hydroelectric power and is rich in
petroleum and natural gas reserves.
Petroleum has been the main support for the Angolan economy since 1983
when Angola was second in petroleum production in Sub-Saharan Africa after
Nigeria. On the African continent, in 1994 Angola was in fifth position following
Nigeria, Libya, Egypt and Algeria.

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After the independence the Government considered it a priority to formulate a


national petroleum policy. This policy was started in 1976, through creation of
the Petroleum Ministry and a state company called "Sociedade Nacional de
Combustveis de Angola - Sonangol" , which was granted the exclusive
exploration and production concession, with the authorization to form
partnerships with foreign companies to obtain the necessary technical and
financial resources.
Crude oil is currently responsible for approximately 90% of exports, with it being
estimated that the new deposits discovered will guarantee their exploration over
a horizon of more than twenty years.

VII. ANNEXES
Provisional Table of General Indicators

Population
Estimated Population in 2000......................................................................................14,6 million
Growth ............................................................................................................................2,9
Female Population...............................................................................................................51%
Population 15 and older. .....................................................................................................55%
Rural Population (1992) ........................................................................................................ 73%
Population 0-4 years old...........................................................................................................18%
Population 5-14 . .................................................................... ........................................27%
Active Population .................................................................................................................51%
Population Density................................................................................11.7/square kilometer

Administration
Number of Provinces ................................................................................................................18
Number of Municipalities..........................................................................................................163
Number of Communities.......................................................................................................... 532
Public Officials (1998) ............................................................................................220.460

Economy
Economic Growth, 1992-1999 ................................................................................................. 8 %

Other Indicators
People displaced by war.....................................................................................4,.7 million
General Poverty Index (pop.) ...............................................................................................67%
Absolute poverty.. (pop.) .........................................................................................................26%
At risk children .......................................................................................+ 100,000
Orphans and abandoned children......................................................... ..........................+ 50.000
Physically challenged due to landmines.............................................................. .+ 120,000

Human Development
H.D.I. (1999) ....................................................................... 0,430

(Education)
School enrollment, basic education (1999) ................................................ ..........................46%

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Teacher/student ratio .. .........................................................................................................34


Access to basic education (1999) ...................................................................................... 26,2%
Failures. .....................................................................................................................28,7%
Literacy in those > 15 (1998) ..................................................................................42%
Literacy in women +/o 15..........................................................................................24%

(Health)
Life Expectancy at Birth.. .......................................................................................... 42.4 yrs
Fecundity for mother .............................................................................................................6.8 f
Birth.. ..............................................................................................................................49%
Mortality. .............................................................................................................................19%
Maternal mortality. ............................................................................................................... 2%
Infant mortality. ................................................................................................................17%
Mortality under 5 years if age. ..........................................................................................29,2%
Malnourished children.............................................................................................................35%
Rural pop.w/ access to potable water ( 1996) .....................................................................31.2%

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