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The transmission line model is very limited in its description of the real processes taking place when a

patch is excited and the performance of the patch is also affected by higher-order modes.

The cavity model is a more general model of the patch which imposes open-end conditions at the side

edges of the patch. It represents the patch as a dielectric - loaded cavity with:

- Electrical walls (above and below), and

- Magnetic Walls (around the perimeter of the patch).

At the magnetic wall

n H 0 (The

n E 0

If we treat the microstrip antenna only as a cavity, we cannot represent radiation because an ideal lossfree cavity does not radiate and its input impedance is purely reactive. To account for the radiation, a loss

mechanism is introduced. This is done by introducing an effective loss tangent, eff .

The wave generated and propagating beneath the patch undergo considerable reflection at the edges of the

patch. Only a very small fraction of them is being radiated. Thus, the antenna is quite inefficient. The

cavity model assumes that the E field is purely tangential to the slots formed between the ground plane

and the patch edges (magnetic walls). Moreover, it considers only TM x modes, i.e., modes with no H x

component. These assumptions are, basically, very much true.

The TM x modes are fully described by a single scalar function Ax - the x- component of the magnetic

vector potential:

A Ax x

(5.17)

2 Ax k 2 Ax 0

(5.18)

For regular shapes (like the rectangular cavity), it is advantageous to use the separation of variables:

2 Ax

x

2 Ax

y

2 Ax

z

k 2 Ax 0

(5.19)

Ax X x Y y Z z

YZ

2 X

x

XZ

2Y

y

XY

(5.20)

2Z

z

k 2 XYZ

1 2 X 1 2Y 1 2 Z

k 2

X x 2 Y y 2 Z z 2

d2X

dx

k x2 X 0,

d 2Y

dy

k y2Y 0,

(5.21)

d 2Z

dz

k z2 Z 0

(5.22)

k x2 k y2 k z2 k 2

(5.23)

A cos k x A sin k x ,

Y ( y ) B cos k y B sin k y ,

Z ( z ) C cos k z C sin k z .

X ( x)

c

n

xn

s

n

xn

c

n

yn

s

n

yn

c

n

zn

s

n

(5.24)

zn

When the functions in (5.24) are substituted in (5.20), that give the general solution of (5.18). The

particular solution of (5.18) depends on the boundary conditions.

In our case, there are electric walls at x = 0 and x = h. There, the tangential E-field components must

vanish, i.e., E y E z 0 x 0,h

Ex

1

j

2 Ax

1

2

k

A

, Ey

x

2

x

2 Ax

xy

1

, Ez

2 Ax

xz

(5.25)

Ax

x

x 0, h

(5.26)

For all the side walls, we set a vanishing normal derivative for Ax :

Ax

x

z 0, L

Ax

y

0,

y 0,W

(5.27)

W (magnetic walls).

H x 0, H y

1 Ax

1 Ax

,

H

(5.28)

It is now obvious that the solution must appear in terms of the functions

k xn n

,

h

B cos k y ,

yn

k yn n

,

W

k zn z ,

k zn n

A cos k

X ( x)

c

n

xn x

Y ( y)

c

n

Z ( z)

c

n cos

(5.29)

The spectrum of the eigen modes in the cavity is discrete. The frequencies of those modes (the resonant

frequencies) can be calculated from (5.23) as

2

m n p

mnp

h W L r

(5.30)

f r

mnp

1

2

m n p

h W L

(5.31)

The mode with the lowest resonant frequency is the dominant mode. Since usually L < W, the lowestx

frequency mode is the TM 001 , for which

f r

001

2 L 2 L r

1

(5.32)

The field distribution of some low-order modes is given in the following figure.

mnp

The general solution for Ax

[see (5.20) and (5.24)] is

Ax( mnp ) Axc cos m

h

x Bxc cos n y C xc cos p z

W

L

(5.33)

or

Ax

Amnp cos m

h

mnp

x cos n

y cos p

(5.34)

Ex

k x2

mnp

Ey j

kxk y

Ex j

kxkz

Amnp sin k x x cos k y y sin k z z

Hx 0

Hy

Hz

(5.35)

(5.36)

(5.37)

(5.38)

kz

Amnp cos k x x cos k y y sin k z z

(5.39)

ky

x

TM 001

mode,

E x j k 2 2 / h 2 / A001 cos z / L

E y Ez 0

H y / L A001 sin z / L

H x H z 0.

(5.40)

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