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Discrete Hadamard Transform

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Discrete Hadamard Trasform (DHT) in Image Processing

DR TANIA STATHAKI

READER (ASSOCIATE PROFFESOR) IN SIGNAL PROCESSING

IMPERIAL COLLEGE LONDON

This transform is slightly different from the ones

you have met so far!

Suppose we have a function f ( x), x 0,, N 1,

where N 2 n.

We use binary representation for x and u .

We need n bits to represent them.

x10 bn 1 ( x)b0 ( x) 2

Suppose f ( x) has N 8 samples.

In that case n 3 since N 2 n.

Consider f (6) :

x10 6 x2 110 b0 (6) 0, b1 (6) 1, b2 (6) 1

We define now the 1-D Walsh transform as follows:

1 N 1

n1

bi ( x )bn1i ( u )

W (u ) f ( x) (1)

N x 0

i 0

The above is equivalent to:

n1

bi ( x )bn1i (u )

1 N 1

W (u ) f ( x)(1) i1

N x 0

The transform kernel values are obtained from:

1

T (u, x) T ( x, u )

N

n1

bi ( x ) bn1i ( u )

bi ( x ) bn1i ( u )

i 1

(

1

)

1

)

i 0

N

n 1

matrix. It is easily shown that it has orthogonal columns and rows.

We would like to write the Walsh transform in matrix form.

We define the vectors

f f (0)

f (1) f ( N 1)

W W (0) W (1) W ( N 1)

W T f

As mentioned in previous slide, matrix T is a real, symmetric matrix

with orthogonal columns and rows. We can easily show that it is

unitary and therefore:

T 1 N T T N T , N is thesize of thesignal

Base on the last equation of the previous slide we can show that the

Inverse Walsh transform is almost identical to the forward transform!

n1

f ( x) W (u ) (1)bi ( x )bn1i (u )

x 0

i 0

N 1

N 1

n1

bi ( x )bn1i (u )

f ( x) W (u )(1) i1

x 0

The array formed by the inverse Walsh matrix is identical to the one

formed by the forward Walsh matrix apart from a multiplicative factor

N.

We define now the 2-D Walsh transform as a straightforward

extension of the 1-D transform:

1 N 1 N 1

n1

N x 0 y 0

i 0

n1

1 N 1 N 1

W (u, v) f ( x, y )(1) i1

N x 0 y 0

We define now the Inverse 2-D Walsh transform. It is identical to the

forward 2-D Walsh transform!

1 N 1 N 1

n1

bi ( x ) bn1i ( u ) bi ( y ) bn1i ( v )

f ( x, y) W (u, v) (1)

N x 0 y 0

i 0

n1

1 N 1 N 1

f ( x, y ) W (u, v)(1) i1

N x 0 y 0

The 2-D Walsh transform is separable and

symmetric.

Therefore it can be implemented as a sequence of

two 1-D Walsh transforms, in a fashion similar to that

of the 2-D DFT.

Remember that the Fourier transform is based on trigonometric

terms.

The Walsh transform consists of basis functions whose values are

only 1 and -1.

They have the form of square waves.

These functions can be implemented more efficiently in a digital

environment than the exponential basis functions of the Fourier

transform.

For 1-D signals the forward and inverse Walsh kernels

differ only in a constant multiplicative factor of N .

This is because the array formed by the kernels is a

symmetric matrix having orthogonal rows and columns, so

its inverse array is the same as the array itself!

In 2-D signals the forward and inverse Walsh kernels are

identical!

The concept of frequency exists also in Walsh transform

basis functions.

crossings or the number of transitions in a basis vector

and we call this number sequency.

The Walsh transform exhibits the property of energy

compaction as all the transforms that we are currently

studying. (why?)

For the fast computation of the Walsh transform

there exists an algorithm called Fast Walsh

Transform (FWT).

This is a straightforward modification of the FFT.

Advise any introductory book for your own interest.

We define now the 2-D Hadamard transform. It is similar to the 2-D

Walsh transform.

1 N 1 N 1

n1

bi ( x ) bi (u ) bi ( y )bi ( v )

H (u, v) f ( x, y) (1)

N x 0 y 0

i 0

n1

1 N 1 N 1

H (u, v) f ( x, y )(1) i1

N x 0 y 0

We define now the Inverse 2-D Hadamard transform. It is identical to

the forward 2-D Hadamard transform.

1 N 1 N 1

n1

bi ( x ) bi (u ) bi ( y )bi ( v )

f ( x, y) H (u, v) (1)

N x 0 y 0

i 0

n1

1 N 1 N 1

f ( x, y) H (u, v)(1) i1

N x 0 y 0

Most of the comments made for Walsh transform are valid here.

The Hadamard transform differs from the Walsh transform only in the

order of basis functions. The order of basis functions of the Hadamard

transform does not allow the fast computation of it by using a

straightforward modification of the FFT.

The Hadamard transform does not posses the property of energy

compaction!

Based on the above, WHY USE IT THEN???

An important property of Hadamard transform is that,

letting H N represent the Hadamard matrix of order N

the recursive relationsh ip holds :

H 2N

H N

H N

HN

H N

we can compute a Hadamard matrix of any size.

This is a good reason to use the Hadamard transform!

ordered Hadamard transform for which a fast algorithm

called Fast Hadamard Transform (FHT) can be applied.

The ordered Hadamard transform DOES exhibit the

property of energy compaction!

8x8 Hadamard matrix (non-ordered)

32x32 Hadamard matrix (non-ordered)

Experiment

The 256x256 DCT matrix

of the DCT of cameraman

energy sequences

The ordered Hadamard Transform

of cameraman

of cameraman

as a function of the sample index

Question: In the bottom figures which of the two transforms is related to each curve?

0

functions for 4x4

images.

x,y,u,v are between 0

and 3.

plot the 4x4 functions

T(x,y,u,v)

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