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IntroductiontoCloud

Computing

BriefHistory
ComputerscientistJohnMcCarthypublicly
proposedin1961
IfcomputersofthekindIhaveadvocatedbecomethe
computersofthefuture,thencomputingmaysomeday
beorganizedasapublicutilityjustasthetelephone
systemisapublicutility.Thecomputerutilitycould
becomethebasisofanewandimportantindustry

LeonardKleinrock,achiefscientistoftheARPANET
project,in1969
Asofnow,computernetworksarestillintheirinfancy,
butastheygrowupandbecomesophisticated,wewill
probablyseethespreadofcomputerutilities

BriefHistory
Internetbasedcomputerutilitiessincethemid
1990s
Searchengines
Emailservices
Openpublishingplatforms:MySpace,YouTube
Socialmedia:Facebook,Twitter

Inthelate1990s,Salesforce.compioneeredthe
notionofbringingremotelyprovisionedservices
intotheenterprise
In2002,Amazon.comlaunchedtheAmazonWeb
Services(AWS)platform
Remotelyprovisionedstorage,computingresources,
andbusinessfunctionality
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BriefHistory
Thetermcloudcomputingemergedinthe
commercialarenain2006
AmazonlauncheditsElasticComputeCloud(EC2)
services

leasecomputingcapacityandprocessingpowertoruntheir
enterpriseapplications

GoogleAppsalsobeganprovidingbrowserbased
enterpriseapplications

Definitions
Wikipedia
Cloudcomputingisamodelforenablingubiquitous
networkaccesstoasharedpoolofconfigurable
computingresources

Definitions
NIST
Cloudcomputingisamodelforenablingubiquitous,
convenient,ondemandnetworkaccesstoasharedpool
ofconfigurablecomputingresources(e.g.,networks,
servers,storage,applications,andservices)thatcanbe
rapidlyprovisionedandreleasedwithminimal
managementeffortorserviceproviderinteraction.This
cloudmodeliscomposedoffiveessential
characteristics,threeservicemodels,andfour
deploymentmodels

Aconcisedefinition
Cloudcomputingisaspecializedformofdistributed
computingthatintroducesutilizationmodelsfor
remotelyprovisioningscalableandmeasuredresources
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BusinessDrivers
Capacityplanning
Processofdeterminingandfulfillingfuturedemandsof
anorganizationsITresources,products,andservices

LeadStrategy
LagStrategy
MatchStrategy

Planningforcapacitycanbechallenging

CostReduction
Costofacquiringnewinfrastructure
Costofitsongoingownership

OrganizationalAgility
Measureofanorganizationsresponsivenesstochange
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TechnologyInnovations
Clustering
AclusterisagroupofindependentITresourcesthatare
interconnectedandworkasasinglesystem

Builtinredundancyandfailover

GridComputing
Provideaplatforminwhichcomputingresourcesare
organizedintooneormorelogicalpools
Differfromclusteringinthatgridsystemsaremuch
morelooselycoupledanddistributed

Virtualization
AlayerofvirtualizationsoftwareallowsphysicalIT
resourcestoprovidemultiplevirtualimagesof
themselvessothattheirunderlyingprocessing
capabilitiescanbesharedbymultipleusers
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Basicconcepts:cloud
AcloudreferstoadistinctITenvironmentthatis
designedforthepurposeofremotelyprovisioning
scalableandmeasuredITresources

Basicconcepts:ITresource
AnITresourceisaphysicalorvirtualITrelated
artifactthatcanbeeithersoftwarebased,suchasa
virtualserveroracustomsoftwareprogram,or
hardwarebased,suchasaphysicalserverora
networkdevice

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AcloudwithITresources

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CloudConsumersandCloudProviders
Cloudprovider
ThepartythatprovidescloudbasedITresources

Cloudconsumer
ThepartythatusescloudbasedITresources

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Cloudservice
AcloudserviceisanyITresourcethatismade
remotelyaccessibleviaacloud

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Servicelevelagreement(SLA)
Cloudserviceusageconditionsaretypically
expressedinaservicelevelagreement(SLA)
Aservicecontractbetweenacloudproviderand
cloudconsumer
DescribesQoS features,behaviors,andlimitationsofa
cloudbasedserviceorotherprovisions
Providesdetailsofvariousmeasurablecharacteristics
relatedtoIToutcomes

Uptime,securitycharacteristics,andotherspecificQoS
features,includingavailability,reliability,andperformance

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Cloudserviceconsumer
Thecloudserviceconsumerisatemporaryruntime
roleassumedbyasoftwareprogramwhenit
accessesacloudservice

Examplesofcloudserviceconsumers.Dependingonthenatureofagivendiagram,anartifactlabeledasa
cloudserviceconsumermaybeasoftwareprogramorahardwaredevice(inwhichcaseitisimpliedthatitis
runningasoftwareprogramcapableofactingasacloudserviceconsumer).

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Benefits
ReducedInvestmentsandProportionalCosts
IncreasedScalability
IncreasedAvailabilityandReliability

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RisksandChallenges
IncreasedSecurityVulnerabilities
LimitedPortabilityBetweenCloudProviders
MultiRegionalComplianceandLegalIssues
SomeUKlawsrequirepersonaldatabelongingtoUK
citizenstobekeptwithintheUnitedKingdom

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Acloudconsumersapplicationhasadecreasedlevelofportabilitywhenassessinga
potentialmigrationfromCloudAtoCloudB,becausethecloudproviderofCloudBdoes
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notsupportthesamesecuritytechnologiesasCloudA.