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6th GRADE MINIMUM CONTENTS


UNIT 12: THE EUROPEAN UNION

What

is the European Union?

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The European Union (EU) is an economic and political organisation formed by twenty-seven
democratic European countries.

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Economically, the countries of the European Union share common rules about agriculture,
transport, fishing and industry. Many European Union countries use the euro as their official
currency. 1
Politically, the citizens of any country in the EU can live, study or work in any other country in
the EU. EU citizens who have emigrated to another EU country, can vote and be candidates in
municipal elections there. EU citizens can also participate in the European Parliamentary
elections.

How

the European Union began

In 1945, at the end of World War II, several European countries decided to collaborate. They
wanted to avoid future wars and to improve the economic development of Europe.
In 1957, Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg and France signed the Treaty
of Rome and the European Economic Community (EEC) constitution. As a result, a common
market was created. In other words, when products from these six countries were sold in any
of the five other countries, there was no tax or tariff to pay.
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The

Institutions of the European Union

The European Parliament


The European Parliament approves European laws and
co-ordinates economic policies. It controls all the
institutions of the European Union.

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Later in 1992, the members of the European Economic Community signed the Treaty of
Maastricht. This treaty marked the creation of the European Union.
In December, 2007, the Treaty of Lisbon was signed by thirteen member states. This Treaty
amended the two previous treaties, and now comprises the constitutional basis of the EU.
Since 1992, the European Union has grown steadily. Now, there are twenty-seven member
countries or states. Spain joined the EU in 1986.

The Council of the European Union


The Council of the European Union approves European
laws, co-ordinates economic policies and directs
security, defence and foreign policy. The Council is
made up of ministers from each member state.

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The European Commission


The European Commission is what we call the government of
the European Union. It works in the same way as a countrys
national government.

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The Court of Justice and the Court of Auditors


The Court of Justice upholds European laws. The Court of
Justice is made up of judges and advocate generals. There is
one judge from each member state. The Court of Auditors
controls the money that the European Union uses. It ensures that EU money is used correctly.

eurozone

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In 1999, eleven member states of the European Union decided to adopt


the euro as their official currency. The eurozone included Belgium,
Germany, Spain, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands,
Austria, Portugal and Finland. In 2001, Greece joined the group.
Then in 2002, the twelve countries of the eurozone started circulating
the first bank notes and coins. The Central European Bank defines and
implements policies related to the euro.
Some countries of the European Union still use their own currencies, such
as Sweden, Denmark and the United Kingdom.
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UNIT 12: THE EUROPEAN UNION
ACTIVITIES

1.- Complete the chart about the European Union


countries in the European Union

In political matters, citizens can:

In economic matters, countries share


common rules about:

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There are

The main currency is the

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2.- Circle the names of twelve countries that have adopted the euro. Write them on the
lines.

3.- Write the dates of the events.


The Treaty of Rome is the constitution of the EEC.
Some European countries decide to collaborate economically and avoid wars.
The Treaty of Maastricht is the constitution of the EU.
The Treaty of Lisbon amended the Treaty of Rome and Treaty of Maastrict.

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5.- Circle the correct alternative.

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4.- Complete the summary table

1. The European Union is a confederation of parliaments / countries.


2. The EU is a space without political frontiers / with few political frontiers.

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3. Britain and Italy / France and Italy were some of the first member states.
4. Today there are 730 / 490 million citizens in the EU.

5. The euro is the offical currency in most / in all EU countries.


6. Many EU institutions are based in Geneva and Paris / Brussels and Strasbourg.

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6.- Tick () the countries where a Spanish citizen needs to show identification at border
controls. Underline the countries that use the euro.

Netherlands

Dubai

India

Germany

Ghana

Serbia

Belgium

Romania

France

Jamaica

The United Kingdom

Lithuania

Peru

Luxembourg

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Finland

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READ AND LEARN


The Euro
Venice is an Italian city built on a series of islands. Instead of streets it has canals. Because it
doesn't have streets, it has boats instead of buses and gondolas instead of taxis!

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One of the most famous places in Venice is St. Mark's Square. There are always many tourists
there, from all over the world.
When citizens from European Union visit Venice, we have a great advantage. We use the same
currency.

Until recently it was not like that. All the foreigners who visited Venice needed to change their
money for Liras, the Italian currency.

For many citizens of the EU the situation changed in 2002. This was when the Euro was
introduced as the common currency of many countries in the European Union. Now people from
Spain and other countries do not have to change their money when they visit Italy.
In the same way, when w travel to Paris o Berlin and other places in the Euro Area, we use the
same notes and coins we use in Spain.

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QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT

Canal:
Gondola:
Currency:
Notes:
Coins:

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1.- Look up the following words in a dictionary:

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2.- What do you think the expression "Euro Area" means?

3.- In the past, what id people from other countries have to do when they visited Venice?

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LET'S ASK QUESTIONS

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1.- In what part of Italy is Venice?

2.- Apart from Spain and Italy, find put what other countries are in the European Union

NEW WORDS

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3.- Have you travelled to other countries? Discus in class the countries you and your classmates
have travelled to.

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6th GRADE MINIMUM CONTENTS


UNIT 13: FROM PREHISTORY TO THE MIDDLE AGES

Prehistory

age of antiquity

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Prehistory began with the appearance of human beings, about 1 million years ago. The period
called Prehistory ends when history begins, that is, with the
invention of writing around 3,000
years ago. There are three ages in Prehistory: The
Palaeolithic, the Neolithic and the Metal Ages.
The Palaeolithic Age
The first human beings lived on the Iberian Peninsula around
1 million years ago, in the Palaeolithic Age. They survived by
eating animals that they hunted, fish and seafood that they
caught, and fruit and vegetables that they gathered from
the land. When there was little
food left, they would migrate to another area. These first
human beings were nomads.
The Neolithic Age
In the Neolithic Age, about 7,000 years ago, humans began cultivating plants and
domesticating animals. To care for their crops and livestock, people had to live nearby, so they
constructed the first villages and towns. As a result, tribes stopped being nomads and became
sedentary.
The Metal Ages
The Metal Ages began around 6,000 years ago when humans learned to make objects from
metal. First, they made things from copper, then from bronze and finally, from iron. Metal
became a highly-prized product. As a result, villages that were located in areas with abundant
metals, grew into small cities.

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The Celts and the Iberians


Around 3,000 years ago, the Iberian Peninsula
was inhabited by two large groups of people: the
Celts and the Iberians. These people lived in
tribes, and the tribes lived in villages. Their
villages were situated high up on hills and they
were surrounded by walls, to keep out attackers.
The Celts inhabited the lands of the central
plateau and the Atlantic coast of the peninsula.
The Iberian people lived on the Mediterranean
coast.
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Tartessos and the colonies


At this time, there was a kingdom in the Guadalquivir valley called Tartessos. Its territory was
very rich in metals such as gold, silver, copper and tin. Around the seventh century B.C., the
riches of Tartessos attracted the Phoenicians who were great traders. The Phoenicians
arrived from the east and founded colonies on the Andalusian coast. Around the sixth century
B.C., the Greeks arrived on the Catalonian coast. Later, around the third century B.C., the
Carthaginians arrived from north Africa. They inhabited the Balearic Islands. Whilst the
Carthaginians wanted to trade, they also wanted to conquer new territories.
Roman Hispania

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In the year 218 B.C., the Romans landed in Emporion. They


conquered the Carthaginians and expelled them from the
Iberian Peninsula. The Romans soon decided to occupy and
conquer the entire peninsula. To organise their new
territory, the Romans divided Hispania into provinces.
Latin became the official language. The only pre-Roman
language that survives today is Euskera.
Christianity became the official religion of the entire
Roman Empire. Society in Hispania was organised in the
same way as in the rest of the Roman Empire.

Middle Ages on the Iberian Peninsula

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The Moorish conquest


In the year 711, a small force of Moors defeated the Visigoths, and conquered a large part of
the peninsula and the Balearic Islands. They called their new territory Al-Andalus and
established its capital in Cordoba
At first, Al-Andalus was an emirate. An emirate was a province that belonged to the caliph of
Damascus, in modern Syria. However, in the year 756, Al-Andalus became independent of
Damascus. Then, in the year 929, it was transformed into a caliphate. It had its own ruler, who
became the highest political and religious authority of Al-Andalus.
Christians that lived in the north of the Iberian Peninsula opposed the Moorish conquest. In
Cantabria, these Christians had their own leader and created the Kingdom of Asturias.
The end of Al-Andalus
In 1212, the unified armies of the Christian kings overcame the Moorish armies in the Battle
of Navas de Tolosa. Al-Andalus was reduced to the territory of the Nasrid kingdom of
Granada. This territory included the areas known today as Malaga, Almeria, Granada and part
of Cadiz. In 1492, the Catholic monarchs, Isabel of Castile and Fernando of Aragon, conquered
the last remaining Moorish kingdom, the Kingdom of Granada

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