8 views

Uploaded by Carolina Bernal

Mozvolt Positioning in Identifying Narratives of About Pre-service Mathematics

- AOS Notification 3
- abcompleteabcomplete
- Dan McAdams [] Narrative Theory Class Notes
- Children's Language
- NC Visualnarrative
- Narrative and Medicine
- The Unexpected Narrative Temporality and the Philo... ---- (Chapter 1 a Flow of Unforeseeable Novelty)
- Preface to the Croatian Edition of on the History of Film Style
- copy of treatment proposal
- House as Metaphor: Women’s Narrative Archives in Were the House Still Standing
- Narrative AScholarProject 4.12 Upload
- TMA1
- Updated Intermediate Advanced ESL Pacing Guide Lindsay
- narrativeletterassignment
- Institutional Talk
- The Malaysia Smart School
- GRU-09-MOF-IONESCU-DANIELA
- Literary Elements Definitions
- Allsup - Creating an Educational Framework for Popular Music in Public Schools. Anticipating the Second-Wave
- Fabric of Identity

You are on page 1of 9

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/tate

teachers in eld practice

Reidar Mosvold*, Raymond Bjuland

Department of Education and Sports Science, University of Stavanger, 4036 Stavanger, Norway

h i g h l i g h t s

This study explores pre-service mathematics teachers narrative positioning.

Reexive and interactive positioning contribute to formation of identity.

Mentor teachers inuence pre-service teachers development of teacher identity.

a r t i c l e i n f o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:

Received 30 November 2015

Received in revised form

2 May 2016

Accepted 9 May 2016

Available online 20 May 2016

Research on identity development in mathematics teacher education has only given limited attention to

narrative processes like indexicality, local occasioning, positioning and categorisation. In this article, we

investigate how two pre-service mathematics teachers position themselves, and how they are positioned

by a mentor teacher in mentoring conversations. Focusing on how pre-service teachers are positioned by

a mentor teacher adds to present research on narrative positioning among pre-service mathematics

teachers, and we argue that an increased focus on reexive and interactive positioning is useful for the

further development of research on identifying narratives in mathematics teacher education.

2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords:

Identity

Positioning

Mathematics

Teacher education

1. Introduction

This study has a focus on pre-service mathematics teachers

development of professional teacher identity during eld practice

in teacher education. Learning to teach is thus regarded as developing a teacher identity e not only acquiring professional knowledge and skills (Haniford, 2010). An increasing number of studies

investigate this development of professional teacher identity

among becoming teachers (e.g., Brown & McNamara, 2011).

Whereas traditional studies of teacher development often focus on

developing knowledge for teaching, the focus in studies of identity

development is shifted towards the teacher as an agent, and this

often involves more dynamic perspectives of a continuous negotiation of I-positions (Akkerman & Meijer, 2011; Kayi-Aydar, 2015).

Identity is a complex construct, and identity research has been

criticised for not clearly dening it (Beauchamp & Thomas, 2009;

* Corresponding author.

E-mail addresses: reidar.mosvold@uis.no (R. Mosvold), raymond.bjuland@uis.no

(R. Bjuland).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2016.05.005

0742-051X/ 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

this study, we dene identity in terms of narrative positioning, and

we investigate pre-service mathematics teachers identity development by combining two theoretical perspectives into a synthesised framework. First, we follow Sfard and Prusak (2005) when

we consider identity as identifying narratives that are told about

someone e by themselves, to themselves or about themselves (see

also Lutovac & Kaasila, 2014). This is the main theoretical

perspective we apply when approaching the construct of identity.

Second, we include perspectives from positioning theory (Davies &

, 1990; De Fina, 2011), when we focus on how pre-service

Harre

teachers position themselves and are positioned by others in

identifying narratives.

Through their identifying narratives, in-service teachers as well

as pre-service teachers constantly negotiate and renegotiate their

positions in different settings (Roth & Hsu, 2010). Previous studies

in the Nordic countries have examined how teachers construct

their identity through narratives with different approaches e both

theoretically and methodologically. For instance, Estola (2003)

investigated Finnish pre-service teachers (auto)biographical

development of narrative identities. While also investigating

narrative construction of identity, Sreide (2006) focused on how

teachers position themselves and negotiate possible identities in

her study of Norwegian elementary school teachers. A third

example from the Nordic context is Skog and Anderssons (2015)

study of Swedish pre-service teachers. Where Sreide (2006) and

Estola (2003) focused on narrative identity construction, Skog and

Andersson (2015) investigated the construction of identity in terms

of positioning and power relations, but from a sociopolitical

perspective.

The focus on narrative construction of identity and positioning

has also been applied in studies outside the Nordic context. Positioning and language use have been investigated in several studies

from South Africa, in a context where learning in multicultural

classrooms is a common focus. An example is the study of

Alexander, van Wyk and Moreeng (2014), who investigated South

African pre-service teachers narrative construction of identity in a

mentorship school-based project. Their ndings e based on analysis of interview data e indicate that participation in such a

mentorship program supports the pre-service teachers narrative

identity construction and professional development. In a recent

study in the U.S. teacher education context, Kayi-Aydar (2015)

analysed pre-service teachers narrative positioning through interviews and journal entries. Several positional identities were

identied that appeared to inuence classroom practice. A limitation of Kayi-Aydars study is the lack of focus on the voice of the

mentor teachers.

From this brief review of literature in the eld, we suggest that

clarifying the cultural context is important in research on teachers

development of (narrative) identity. We also observe that the

connection between narrative identity and positioning is

emphasised in several studies, but further clarications about the

main constructs in relation to theoretical perspectives seem to be

necessary. In addition to this, we observe that investigations of preservice teachers construction of narrative identity should also

include the voices of the mentor teachers. Accordingly, we aim at

contributing to this eld of research by approaching the following

research question:

How do pre-service teachers position themselves, and how are

they positioned by the mentor teacher, in mentoring sessions in

eld practice?

In order to answer this question, we use a case-study approach,

and we analyse the identifying narratives of two pre-service

teachers when they have a period of eld practice in the same

school.

91

positioning theory in discursive practices is that individuals position themselves in specic ways, but they also simultaneously position others (Vanassche & Kelchtermans, 2014). By combining

elements from these two theoretical frameworks, we attempt to

illustrate how pre-service mathematics teachers position themselves through reective narratives in eld practice. We have also

included the mentor teachers voice in considering and exploring

his positioning of the two pre-service teachers. According to KayiAydar (2015, p. 102), an exploration of mentor teachers voices

would be helpful in better understanding the social interaction

between interns and mentors, which is important for teacher

identity. Following this author, we suggest that narrative positioning analysis is important in order to understand how preservice teachers identities are constructed in narratives where

they identify themselves to other pre-service teachers, to their

mentor teacher(s), and to themselves.

2.1. A narrative approach to identity

In their review of research on teachers professional identity in

the period 1988e2000, Beijaard et al. (2004) found that the studies

could be divided into three categories: 1) teachers professional

identity formation, 2) the identication of characteristics of

teachers professional identity, and 3) studies in which professional identity was (re)presented by teachers stories (Beijaard

et al., 2004, p. 107). Our study ties in with the third category

where teachers identity is represented by their stories e or, more

precisely, that the identifying stories are their identities.

We follow Sfard and Prusak (2005), who present a framework of

identifying narratives that is inspired by Gees (2001) suggestion to

approach a denition of identity as being recognized as a certain

kind of person, in a given context (Gee, 2001, p. 99). Sfard and

Prusak regard identity as a persons own presentation of (identifying) narratives, and they suggest that identities may be dened

as collections of stories about persons or, more specically, as those

narratives about individuals that are reifying, endorsable, and signicant (Sfard & Prusak, 2005, p. 16). The reifying quality of narratives about individuals afrms repetitiveness of action connected

to some verbs (be, have, can) and adverbs (always, usually, never).

According to Sfard and Prusak (2005, p. 16), an endorsable narrative

is labelled as true when it faithfully reects the state of affairs in

the world. The signicance of narratives is related to the status and

authority of the storyteller, and such narratives are often related to

memberships in various communities.

Sfard and Prusak (2005) dene identity as stories about a person. The stories differ, depending on who the storyteller and the

recipients are. The following distinctions are made:

an identifying story told by the identied person herself.

This story we call As rst-person identity (1st P).

BAA an identifying story told to the identied person. This

story we call As second-person identity (2nd P).

BAC a story about A told by a third party to a third party. This

story we call As third-person identity (3rd P) (Sfard & Prusak,

2005, p. 17).

AAC

Identity can be seen as a persons direct or indirect responses to

the question: Who are you? There is more complexity to the

identity construct than this, however, and at least three different

levels of identity are often considered: personal identity, relational

identity and collective identity. The individual or personal identity

relates to how a person denes or constructs his or her identity.

Relational identity is associated with the roles a person takes in

interaction with other people, and collective identity refers to how

people identify with certain groups in society (Vignoles, Schwartz,

& Luyckx, 2011). In a narrative approach to identity (Sfard & Prusak,

2005), these levels are strongly connected. In order to acknowledge

the relational and situated process of pre-service teachers storytelling, we combine Sfard and Prusaks narrative approach with

, 1990). Central to

insights from positioning theory (Davies & Harre

comprises the reifying, endorsable and signicant quality of narratives: the rst-persons stories addressed to herself (AAA). The ongoing conversations we have with ourselves are, likely to have the

most immediate impact on our actions (Sfard & Prusak, 2005, p.

17). These authors further state that narratives about a person can

be divided into two subsets, actual identity which expresses stories

told in present tense about the actual state of affairs, and designated

identity which expresses stories usually told in future tense. More

92

current identity in order to avoid a declarative interpretation of

the word actual (Graven & Buytenhuys, 2011), and we follow this

suggestion in our study when we also distinguish between current

and designated identities.

Having ongoing conversations with ourselves is arguably

important, but we also follow Haniford (2010) when she points out

e from her study in the U.S. e that pre-service teachers construct

identities within a given community of practice in the presence of

others. The mentor teacher is a particularly signicant other for

pre-service teachers when they are in eld practice, and we

therefore nd it relevant to investigate the pre-service teachers

identifying narratives (stories) in interactions with the mentor

teacher.

2.2. Identity and positioning

Following a narrative approach to identity, De Fina (2011) presents indexicality, categorisation, local occasioning and positioning

as important identifying practices. We focus in particular on the last

two. Local occasioning suggests that the way people present their

identity is strongly dependent on context. The way a person identies herself in one particular context e for instance in an interview

setting e might differ from the way the same person identies

herself in another context. Positioning, on the other hand, relates to

how people are positioned in discourse. In the conversations they

participate in, people locate themselves as subjects in a story.

, 1990) since this

We draw on positioning theory (Davies & Harre

theory seeks to describe the process by which individuals adopt

identities within discourses (Haniford, 2010, p. 988). Davies and

(1990, p. 47) dene positioning as the discursive producHarre

tion of a diversity of selves, and they further distinguish between

interactive and reexive positioning. These two categories of

positioning are connected with the different identities presented

by Sfard and Prusak (2005). When the stories a person tells position

another person, we refer to it as interactive positioning. Reexive

positioning, on the other hand, refers to how a person positions

himself/herself. It should be noticed that a persons reexive

positioning is not necessarily like a consistent autobiography

without contradictions; a persons positioning is more like the

, 1990). Posifragments of a lived autobiography (Davies & Harre

tioning is a discursive practice, and pre-service teachers have to

choose among competing discourses in order to construct identities that will be recognized within and across these multiple contexts, while also helping organise and manage the experience of

becoming a new teacher (Haniford, 2010, p. 988).

In a Norwegian case study, focusing on ve female elementary

school teachers, Sreide (2006) illustrates how teacher identities

can be narratively constructed and understood through positioning

and negotiation. This author particularly highlights the stories e

referred to as ontological narratives. These stories comprise what

we tell in an attempt to make sense of how we experience ourselves, what interests us and how we would like to be understood

in order to bring structure to our personal lives (p. 529). Based on

the teachers ontological narratives expressed in individual interviews, Sreide identied different subject positions the ve

teachers made reference to which were important to their professional identity. Sreides (2006) study illustrates the identication

of subject positions (e.g. teachers position themselves as persons

who are concerned with pupils and their development) and how

subject positions are used actively as narrative resources in narrative construction and negotiation of multiple teacher identities (p.

545). The teachers narrative positioning is done either by taking a

distance (negative positioning) to the available subject positions, or

by recognising the available positions (positive positioning).

teachers positional identities in relation to their social context

and how their identity construction interacted with their selfreported teaching practices, she found that the pre-service teachers expressed their self-positioning in relation to their mentor

teachers. The study did not, however, include the mentor teachers

voices in considering how they positioned the pre-service teachers.

This interactive positioning by mentor teachers is important in

order to better understand the social interaction between preservice teachers and mentors that is crucial for teacher identity

development.

When approaching identity development from a narrative

perspective, positioning appears important. In research on mathematics teacher education, however, this aspect has received little

attention. An exception is the study of Bjuland, Cestari, and

Borgersen (2012), in which the identity development of an experienced teacher who participated in a research project was examined. Bjuland et al. identied four indicators of identity, and two of

these indicators referred to positioning: positioning in relation to

pupils and positioning in relation to the researchers in the project.

We aim at further investigating the role of positioning e reexive as

well as interactive e in pre-service teachers development of professional teacher identity. In doing this, we combine the narrative

notion of identity by Sfard and Prusak (2005) with theories of

, 1990; De Fina, 2011).

positioning (Davies & Harre

3. The study

3.1. Participants and design

In order to investigate pre-service teachers narrative positioning in eld practice, we discuss the cases of Siv and Martin, two

young pre-service teachers in their second year of the lower secondary teacher education programme (years 5e10). Both this and

the other differentiated teacher education programme in Norway e

a programme for the primary (years 1e7) e are regulated by national curriculum guidelines (Ministry of Education and Research,

2010). In the rst two years of the lower secondary teacher education programme, there is a compulsory subject in pedagogy and

pupil-related skills (30 credits). In addition, the students select a

major school subject of 60 credits (which equals one full year of

study) and a minor school subject of 30 credits. At this university,

there was a choice between mathematics and Norwegian as major

subject.

Siv and Martin were two of 55 pre-service teachers who

participated in a larger research project, Teachers as Students

(TasS).1 An overall aim of the TasS project (January 2012eDecember

2015) was to investigate eld practice in teacher education in order

to learn more about how pre-service teachers develop knowledge,

skills and competence for teaching. The project was crossdisciplinary and includes English, Mathematics, Natural sciences

and Physical education. Altogether 16 groups of pre-service

teachers (3 or 4 in each group) participated in the larger project

e four groups from each subject area. The pre-service teachers who

had mathematics as their major subject revealed that their reasons

for making this selection differed. Some selected mathematics

because they liked the subject, and some selected mathematics as

their major subject in order to avoid Norwegian. The rationale for

selecting Siv and Martin was that we wanted to investigate identifying narratives of two contrasting cases e one who selected

mathematics as a major subject because he liked it (Martin), and

1

The TasS project is supported by the Norwegian Research Council, project

number 212276.

93

3.2. Collection and analysis of data

In the TasS project, each group of pre-service teachers was

interviewed before and after a period of eld practice in the fourth

semester of the teacher education programme. During this period,

two selected lessons from each group e taught by one of the preservice teachers e were video recorded, and so were mentoring

sessions before and after each of these lessons. Rough transcripts of

the recordings were rst produced by a research assistant, before

researchers in the TasS project group produced more rened

transcripts.

Since our main focus in this study is on how the pre-service

teachers position themselves in mentoring sessions, and how

they are positioned by the mentor teacher (Per), the identifying

narratives from the group interviews are only used as a backdrop

for our analysis of data from the mentoring sessions.

In our study, we are concerned with some particular stories that

we call reective narratives. Inspired by Bjuland et al. (2012), we

dene a reective narrative as a particular story when the storyteller looks back and consciously reects about: a) own schooling

and rationale for choice of education, b) particular experiences

related to eld practice, and c) how these experiences affect their

motivation for work in the profession. We are mostly concerned

with identifying reective narratives that are produced in a prelesson and post-lesson mentoring session between a) Siv and her

mentor teacher (Per), and b) between Martin and Per. In the

mentoring sessions, Siv and Martin act in a community of discourse

where she/he and the mentor teacher are the only participants e a

different context than in the group interviews. We believe that

identifying narratives have to be analysed in light of their contexts.

When highlighting this, De Fina (2011) presents local occasioning as

an important identifying practice. We thus consider Sivs and

Martins narratives in these different contexts, merging as joint

products of personal and communal storytelling, illustrating how

these narratives can be interpreted in light of the different contexts,

objects and narrators that are involved. Following Sfard and

Prusaks (2005) framework and denition of identity, there are

two storytellers in our transcriptions from the pre-lesson and the

post-lesson mentoring session. We have identied Sivs and Martins rst-person stories addressed to themselves (AAA), and to their

mentor teacher Per as the other recipient in these situations (AAC).

Identifying stories told by Per to Siv/Martin (BAA, second person

identity) have also been identied, since Pers voice is important

and has power to supplement our analyses of Sivs and Martins

experiences from eld practice.

In our analysis of identifying reective narratives, we are con, 1990); the

cerned with interactive positioning (Davies & Harre

narratives of one storyteller in a particular context may thus position Siv/Martin or one of the other participants. An example of

interactive positioning is illustrated from the story told to Siv by the

mentor teacher Per in the post-lesson mentoring session:

67. Per: You are so comfortable in the classroom, the pupils, the

pupils are immediately comfortable in your presence. You show

this with your entire body, and this is important.

As illustrated in this example, interactive positioning typically

includes use of the pronoun you. Similarly, reexive positioning e

typically including the personal pronoun I e is demonstrated by

Sivs response to Per in the following:

68. Siv: Yes, I noticed from last time that I am no longer so

nervous when Im up there. This has improved a little bit.

above (67, 68), we identify interactive and reexive positioning in

the discourse. Each of these stories (reective narratives) consist of

one utterance only, but reective narratives can also be constituted

by more than one utterance. For instance, in the post-lesson

mentoring session, Per continually positions Siv as a condent

pre-service teacher, highlighting in particular her patience in

relation to classroom management (utterances 23, 25, 27, 29, 31).

We read carefully through the transcripts from the four mentoring sessions, and we identied reective narratives with positioning that focused on the mathematical content (equal fractions

in the mentoring sessions between Siv and Per, and multiplication

of fractions in the mentoring sessions between Martin and Per). We

also identied reective narratives expressed by the mentor

teacher, illustrating positioning of Siv and Martin as teachers in

training. This positioning concerned both feedback on their explanations of the mathematical topic and their classroom management. From Sivs pre-lesson mentoring session, for instance, we

selected the reective narratives expressed in the following identifying stories: (5), (6), (15), (16), (17), (24), (30), (31), and (101).

These segments of positioning stories were crucial in relation to the

criteria expressed above. Between the two stories (31) and (101),

the conversation was mostly concerned with practical issues and

drawing of gures, representing fractions on the blackboard.

4. Results

The ways in which the pre-service mathematics teachers position themselves in mentoring sessions e and how they are positioned by the mentor teacher e cannot be seen in isolation. Our

micro-analysis of data from the mentoring sessions is thus

informed by some observations from analyses of the group interviews, since the pre-service teachers are continually engaged in

processes of narratively positioning themselves in different

contexts.

In the interview before eld practice, Siv positioned herself as

someone who enjoyed school as a pupil. This experience seemed to

be a resource that inuenced her positioning in the reective narratives. In seeming correspondence with this positive view about

school, Siv also underlined the signicance of developing good

relationships with the pupils as important for becoming a teacher.

Martin also emphasised the connection with the pupils in his

reective narratives in the interview before practice, but he also

pointed to the challenges involved in the work of teaching. The

picture he painted of a teacher in his narratives was that of an

idealist who has to face a lot of challenges, but who does not receive

the deserved respect.

After eld practice, Siv and Martin appeared to position themselves differently. Siv positioned herself as a teacher in training, and

she reected about how she developed as a teacher in eld practice

e under the guidance of the mentor teacher. Martin, on the other

hand, positioned himself by considering eld practice mainly to be

an arena where he could practice teaching in a realistic environment. Although he also positioned himself as a teacher in training,

he did not reect a lot about developing as a teacher under guidance from the mentor teacher.

Given that these two pre-service teachers had received guidance from the same mentor teacher, after having practiced teaching

in the same classroom, the apparent differences in their narrative

positioning after eld practice provide an interesting starting point

for further investigations. With this as a backdrop, we analyse how

the pre-service teachers positioned themselves e and were positioned by the mentor teacher e in the mentoring sessions in eld

practice.

94

In the following, we rst focus on two mentoring sessions between Siv and the mentor teacher e one before and one after a

lesson she taught in a seventh-grade mathematics classroom.

4.1.1. Siv e preparing the lesson

In the mentoring session before the lesson, Siv reects about her

preparations for teaching the pupils about equal fractions (e.g.

6

3

10 5). This session took place in the beginning of the three-week

period of eld practice. Detailed analyses of the dialogue from this

particular mentoring session can be found in another study

(Bjuland, Jakobsen, & Munthe, 2014). In this article, we have

identied the most prominent reective narratives (AAC, BAA) from

the pre-lesson mentoring session, illustrating reexive positioning

(RP) and interactive positioning (IP) (Table 1).

The identifying narratives expressed by Siv illustrate how she

positions herself as a teacher in training. We learn how the mentor

teacher, Per, informs Siv about the pupils background knowledge

related to fractions (6) and helps her identify what is challenging

for pupils to understand concerning equal fractions (16). When Siv

in her lesson plan just wants to let the pupils start working on some

mathematical tasks (17), Per triggers a discussion in order for Siv to

reect on how fractions can be compared in order to illustrate that

they are equal (24), (30). The mentor teachers voice in this context

is important in order to illustrate his interactive positioning of Siv

as a teacher in training related to the mathematical topic to be

taught.

4.1.2. Siv e reecting about the lesson

Table 2 illustrates the most prominent reective narratives (AAC,

BAA) from the post-lesson mentoring session, illustrating reexive

positioning (RP) and interactive positioning (IP). Siv begins this

session by reecting on her teaching.

The voices of Siv and Per illustrate how they both reect on Sivs

experience of teaching the lesson about equal fractions. From Pers

interactive positioning and Sivs reexive positioning, we also get a

glimpse of how Siv acted as a teacher in training in the classroom.

Siv is critical to her own performance in relation to the pupils and

the content and tasks in focus. Per, on the other hand, positions Siv

as a condent pre-service teacher, highlighting in particular her

As a pre-service teacher who selected mathematics as the major

subject by avoiding Norwegian, we have through this narrative

positioning analysis identied that Sivs positioning has a strong

emphasis on the relationship she gets with the pupils. In the group

interviews, she expresses that her experiences from eld practice

have strengthened her motivation for becoming a teacher, and she

highlights the role of the mentor teacher as someone who provides

feedback regarding her development as a teacher in training. Sivs

positioning also has a strong emphasis on setting up learning goals

for lessons and the importance of moving forward in the subject

(post-group interview). The identifying narratives from the prelesson and post-lesson mentoring sessions conrm the important

role of the mentor teacher, illustrating that Siv is positioning herself

as a learner and that eld practice is an important arena for

developing her professional identity as a mathematics teacher.

4.2. Positioning of Martin in the mentoring sessions

In the following, we focus on two mentoring sessions between

Martin and Per. Whereas Siv seems to be uncertain about her own

role as a teacher as well as the content, Martin appears more

condent.

4.2.1. Martin e preparing the lesson

In the mentoring session before the lesson, Martin reects about

his preparations for teaching a lesson on multiplication of fractions.

This session took place at the end of the period of eld practice.

Martin wants to introduce two examples on the blackboard: 13$34 and

1$1 . Table 3 below shows the most prominent reective narratives

2 3

(AAC, BAA) from the pre-lesson mentoring session, illustrating reexive positioning (RP) and interactive positioning (IP).

The identifying narratives expressed by Martin (2 and 10) e

reexive positioning e illustrate how he draws on experience and

observation from a prior lesson in order to begin the new lesson.

Per triggers a discussion concerning the assessment of pupils

learning of the mathematical topic (73). Martin, who has not

nished his lesson plan yet (76), does not seem prepared to go into

that discussion. Pers identifying narrative (83) is important since

he positions Martin e interactive positioning e in relation to the

mathematical topic, emphasising the danger of learning

Table 1

Reective narratives from Sivs pre-lesson mentoring session.

5. Siv: Yes, well actually, I have some questions related to how much they [the

pupils] have learned earlier. Well, where do I have to start actually? Do I have to

start with, what is a fraction? Or is that something they know?

6. Per: They know what a fraction is, but not all of them know that a fraction is a part

of a whole [unit]. They havent understood that yet.

15. Siv: I have thought about showing some examples on the blackboard, similar to

(RP) Asking for help in her preparation, reecting on the pupils background

knowledge about fractions. Positioning as a teacher (in training).

A AC

(IP)

BAA

(RP)

6 , then you can AAC

those [points at page 41 in the textbook]. If you for instance have 10

write it in another way, but what is actually happen to that fraction, you extend it

or you abbreviate it perhaps

16. Per: Yes, thats what you have to try, to make them [the pupils] understand that (IP)

this is actually the same number. Thats the challenge.

BAA

teacher (in training).

Reecting about examples of fractions, making the pupils understand that two

fractions are equal when they have the same value.

6

Emphasising that equal fractions is a challenge for the pupils, showing that 10

17. Siv: Yes, so they understand that those are equal [fractions]. Eh, yes thats ne (RP) Working immediately on the tasks, indicating a lack of reection about the

[Siv writes in her notebook], eh then its, actually then its just to let them start AAC chosen activities by discussing possible difculties that may occur in the

working on tasks.

classroom.

6 ]. What will you do with that [fraction]?

(IP) Triggering a discussion about how the particular fractions 6 and 3 can be

24. Per: You have drawn sixth tenth [10

5

10

BAA

30. Per: What should they [the pupils] compare? What can they do about that

compared.

fraction?

31. Siv: Yes, because I want to illustrate the fths.

(RP)

A AC

101. Per: And when you give help, then think about how you place yourself, so you (IP)

manage to observe the rest [of the class], otherwise I think this is a good plan [for BAA

the lesson].

particular fractions.

Giving advice about practical issues, conrming Sivs positioning as a teacher

(in training).

95

Table 2

Reective narratives from Sivs post-lesson mentoring session.

4. Siv: Yes. Eeh, it went a little fast in the beginning. I spent about half of the time I

actually had planned. Eh, I realised that I was in a hurry, so actually I just

wanted to nish [laugh], and let them [the pupils] start [working]. So I know

actually myself that there were, there were probably many [pupils] who didnt

follow me and thus were prohibited from following, since I just told them to

start working with the tasks. And then it became busy with lots of hands in the

air. But I felt that they asked about different things.

23. Per: Eh, I thought the introduction was very good. You waited until everyone

was ready. 25. Per: That you had the patience to do that, thats not just

27. Per: That was very good. Eh, you were able to put forward the pupils own

denition of fractions.

29. Per: And you revealed what they already knew about it. At that point, most of

them were following you. Eh, when you started with the circles, you asked

questions.

31. Per: and then you gave the pupils time to think, and this is a good thing. To ask

a question and not just let the rst person respond, that is a good character. Eh.

Then you started with the equal fractions, and you started to move along rather

quickly [conrming responses from Siv].

33. Per: Eeh, and you focused on equal values, then the cleverest [pupils]

understand this (are following you).

35. Per: But should you manage to let the rest of the class understand this, then

you cannot just focus on equal values, you have to use a simpler language.

37. Per: That this means that they [these fractions] are the same number.

51. Per: Eh, a bit about your location in the classroom, when they need help.

Particular when you helped her [a particular pupil], then you often stood with

53. Per: your back to the rest of the class. Then you do not manage to see the other

[pupils] who need help.

59. Per: There was one more [pupil] who waited for a long time. But else you

managed to keep an overview, helping them one by one. And you spent a

proper amount of time to explain, so that the pupils understood it when you

talked to them.

67. Per: You are so comfortable in the classroom, the pupils, the pupils are

immediately comfortable in your presence. You show this with your entire

body, and this is important.

68. Siv: Yes, I noticed from last time that I am no longer so nervous when Im up

there. This has improved a little bit.

69. Per: It has improved, yes, I think so. And, it is comfortable to listen to you.

(RP) Critical to her own choices concerning the lesson plan, being in a hurry. In this

self-criticism, she positions herself as a teacher (in training) in relation to the

pupils and the content and tasks in focus.

AAC

(IP)

BAA

particular her patience in relation to classroom management.

(IP)

BAA

mathematical topic, emphasising the importance of language use for all pupils to

understand the topic of equal fractions.

(IP)

BAA

classroom when giving individual help in order to see pupils that need help.

(IP)

BAA

Positioning Siv as a teacher who is condent in her interaction with the pupils.

(RP) Responding to Pers comment, conrming and reecting on her experience from

last period of eld practice.

(IP) Conrming that Siv has made progress in the classroom in relation to classroom

management.

BAA

71. Per: Did you manage to check that the pupils learned what you tried to teach? IP) Challenging Siv to reect on the pupils learning of the mathematical topic.

BAA

72. Siv: I think they understood the starting point, there were some tasks in which (RP) Responding to Pers question, bringing in a particular mathematical task in the

they should nd fractions with the same value (e.g. nd two fractions with the AAC conversation, emphasising the pupils wish for a method or algorithm for solving

the tasks.

same value as one fths), They understood it, but they wanted a method for

doing it.

AAC

Table 3

Reective narratives from Martins pre-lesson mentoring session.

2. Martin: I think I will begin with a summing up [from the previous lesson about

multiplication of a whole number with a fraction].

10. Martin: Then I have seen that quite many of them [the pupils] have difculties with

composite numbers.

(RP)

AAC

(RP)

AAC

(RP)

AAC

26. Martin: I think that I begin to show that a third of three fourths (13$34)

is the same as if they see (visualise on a gure) that a third of three fourths is a

multiplication

73. Per: Yes, but thats maybe a sufcient explanation, how will you assess that the (IP)

pupils have understood this?

BAA

76. Martin: Actually, I havent planned this so far, so I dont quite know how to do it. (RP)

AAC

83. Per: The danger is, the danger is that, but thats difcult to nd out. The danger is (IP)

that they [the pupils] just nd a procedural way of doing it.

BAA

84. Martin: Yes, its quite easy to get a procedural understanding of this.

(RP)

AAC

89. Per: When you stand at the blackboard and teach and write, then its important, I (IP)

got some feedback from [Per mentions the name of one of the boys] who said: I BAA

dont see things at the blackboard any longer.

101. Per: No [laugh] no, what I liked about the previous lesson was that, already then, (IP)

you actually introduced that three is the same as three ones [3 3 , often referred to BAA

1

as invisible denominator].

relate the lesson to the previous one(s).

Building on observations from classroom, being aware of pupil difculties

with composite numbers.

Introducing his plan for the lesson with an example of multiplication of

fraction, illustrating the multiplication visualised on a gure at the

blackboard.

Commenting on Martins explanation of introducing multiplication of

fractions, challenging for assessment orientation.

Positioning himself as a teacher (in practice), indicating that he is still in

progress with his preparation of the lesson.

Self-positioning in relation to the danger for pupils to learn multiplication of

fractions in a procedural way.

Conrming this concern expressed by Per.

Positioning of Martin as a teacher in training, focusing on the way Martin

writes on the blackboard.

Highlighting one incident from Martins teaching from the previous lesson,

concerning the mathematical topic.

96

context, building on prior lessons and experiences. However, his

positioning also illustrates a lack of careful planning of the lesson.

The identifying narratives from the post-lesson mentoring session

conrm this positioning, particularly illustrated by the interactive

positioning of the mentor teachers voice.

concern (84). We learn from the next two narratives by the mentor

teacher (89 and 101, Table 3) e interactive positioning e that he

wants Martin to be aware of his location and writing on the

blackboard (89), and the mentor teacher gives credit to Martin for

having introduced the mathematical topic in a previous lesson

(101).

5. Discussion

4.2.2. Martin e reecting about the lesson

Table 4 shows the most prominent reective narratives (AAC,

BAA) from the post-lesson mentoring session, illustrating reexive

positioning (RP) and interactive positioning (IP). Martin begins this

session by reecting on his teaching.

The reective narratives in Table 4 illustrate Martins reexive

positioning (e.g., 4 and 32) and the mentor teachers interactive

positioning (e.g., 13, 35, and 111), both making comments, illustrating that there were several challenges and difculties for pupils

learning of multiplication of fractions in this particular lesson. The

mentor teachers comments are related to Martins way of presenting and visualising fractions on the blackboard (13), his classroom management (111) and Martins lack of planning and

preparation for the lesson (35 and 139). We learn that Martin is

critical towards his own teaching (4 and 32), and he is willing to

learn from these challenging experiences (140).

As a pre-service teacher who selected mathematics as the major

subject because he liked it, we have through this narrative positioning analysis identied that Martins positioning does not have

the same strong emphasis on the relationship with the pupils as we

observed in Sivs narratives. In the interviews, Martin also expresses uncertainty about his motivation for becoming a teacher

and points to the teaching professions lack of prestige in society.

He describes eld practice as an articial situation, and he prefers

to be alone with the pupils in the classroom e indicating that he

considers this to be a more realistic situation for practicing as a

future teacher. The identifying narratives from the pre-lesson

mentoring session indicate that Martin is concerned about

for analysing identity as constructed through identifying narratives

(Sfard & Prusak, 2005), wherein the discursive process of posi, 1990). Through their narrative

tioning is prevalent (Davies & Harre

positioning, people are located e or locate themselves e as par, 1990). In their

ticipants in particular storylines (Davies & Harre

study of mathematics teachers identity development, Bjuland et al.

(2012) identied two indicators associated with positioning: positioning in relation to pupils and positioning in relation to didacticians (as participants in a research project). Current research on

pre-service teachers positioning has included investigations of

pre-service teachers positioning in relation to their mentor teachers e but the voice of the mentor teachers tends to be lacking. The

recent study by Kayi-Aydar (2015) is an example of this. We have

attempted to add to this by including the voice of the mentor

teacher when investigating how two pre-service teachers position

themselves in mentoring sessions, and how they are positioned by

the mentor teacher. Our analysis thus includes interactive as well as

, 1990). These two acts of

reexive positioning (Davies & Harre

positioning, which are related to the different identifying narratives

presented by Sfard and Prusak (2005), merge as joint products of

personal and communal storytelling e thus emphasising the relational perspectives in identity development.

We learn from the analysis of these mentoring sessions that Siv,

who selected mathematics in order to avoid Norwegian, is

continually positioned by Per as a condent pre-service teacher

(interactive positioning), and Per highlights in particular her

Table 4

Reective narratives from Martins post-lesson mentoring session.

4. Martin: I made mistakes in relation to what I had planned, what I didnt do

[should have used two different pieces of chalks with different colours on the

gures in order to better illustrate the fractions].

13. Per: When you drew, then you drew [the different parts/squares of the

gures] in different sizes, and then you extended [the gures] when you

needed more parts, like this [shows this on a gure]. And then when you dont

show on the blackboard, that these are equal, then you cannot expect that the

pupils understand it.

32. Martin: Eh, the end [of the lesson]

34. Martin: I spent too much time after the bell rang.

35. Per: Yes, should probably prepared the end [of the lesson] better if you had

time when they worked. Yes, then they could have drawn [the gures] more

properly.

37. Per: Well, and then you are a bit unlucky that it rings in the middle of [your

instruction] then you lose some of [the pupils]. Then they just think of coming

home.

59. Per: When you started your [summing up], when you were doing this, I saw

that you were very stressful.

61. Per: Then you started mumbling in front of the class [laughter], and then

nobody understands what you say, do they? So clarity, clarity.

111. Per: Yes, this lesson was very busy and hectic. Then there were raised hands

most of the time, then its important to have time for, or to actually observe

who, what others do all the time. To keep the control.

139. Per: Yes, one more thing you can consider when you once become [a

teacher], you can then use the smartboard, particularly when you have these

squares to divide [in parts] like this. Then you can prepare in advance, and you

can use the pens for the drawings.

140. Martin: Yes. These are good pieces of advice. Ill do this for the next lesson

(RP) Reecting on his teaching from the previous lesson, self-criticism of how the

gures were presented on the blackboard.

A AC

(IP)

BAA

Paying attention to the way Martin made the drawing of the gure on the

blackboard, emphasising the importance of drawing equal parts/squares in order

to illustrate the multiplication of fraction.

(RP) Commenting and self-criticism of how the lesson ended. Reexive positioning of

own teaching.

A AC

(IP) Conrming the difculties with the end of the lesson.

BAA

(IP)

BAA

management.

(IP)

BAA

management.

(IP)

BAA

Giving practical advice for making the drawings clearer and easier to understand

for pupils, giving advice for classroom management and productivity.

(IP)

A AC

Sivs narratives in the mentoring sessions, we notice how a multitude of selfs emerges from the discursive practices. Throughout

these narratives, it is the same person, Siv, who positions herself

(reexive positioning) and is positioned in different ways. Put

differently, we might say that Siv, through the discourse, can be

,

seen as a subject in a number of different stories (Davies & Harre

1990). A main narrative positions Siv as a teacher in training.

This is a narrative Siv tells about herself, but it is also a narrative

that the mentor teacher conrms. The analyses of the mentoring

sessions have illustrated the identication of this particular subject

position, and it is used and expressed by Siv e and assigned by Per

e as a narrative resource in the discourse (Sreide, 2006). Through

these identifying narratives, which are produced in this particular

context in eld practice, Sivs narrative positioning is mainly constructed through a recognition of the available subject position

(Sreide, 2006). This positive positioning can also be identied

when we learn how Per informs Siv about the pupils background

knowledge related to the mathematical topic of equal fractions. He

also triggers a discussion of how to present the mathematical

content for the pupils. Through the mentor teachers voice, we

observe how Per positions Siv (interactive positioning) in relation

to the mathematical topic, and the analysis illustrates how Siv

positions herself in relation to Pers suggestions about how to

present equal fractions to the pupils.

In a similar way, Martin can be seen as a subject in a number of

different stories produced in group interviews and mentoring sessions. We know that Martin positions himself in a different way than

Siv, concerning the selection of mathematics as a major subject. We

learn from the analysis of narratives in the mentoring sessions between Martin and the mentor teacher about some important characteristics related to Martins preparation and reection after the

lesson. Martins reexive positioning particularly illustrates selfcriticism in the post-lesson mentoring session due to the way he

has presented the mathematical topic. Per conrms this by interactive positioning regarding Martins confusing way of representing

fractions on the blackboard, and also by being critical to Martins

classroom management and productivity. We learn from the analysis how Martins subject position (his planning and presenting of

the mathematical topic) is produced in the social interaction between Pers interactive positioning and his own reexive positioning. The identication of the development of Martins subject

position in this particular context of eld practice can be regarded as

a narrative resource (Sreide, 2006) as part of the identityconstructing process. In this narrative positioning, Martin could

have distanced himself from e or rejected e the developing subject

position (negative positioning), but we learn that he expresses selfcriticism and recognises the voice of the mentor teacher. Sreide

(2006) refers to this mechanism as positive positioning.

In our analysis, we have seen how Siv has positioned herself in

relation to pupils, but she has also positioned herself in relation to

teacher educators (in particular the mentor teacher). Martin has

also, to a certain extent, positioned himself in relation to pupils,

particularly expressing the pupils difculties in understanding the

mathematical topic of multiplication of fractions. Siv has positioned

herself by referring to categories that include some people and

, 1990) e in particular to the cateexclude others (Davies & Harre

gories pupil/teacher. We have focused in particular on the role of

positioning and development of mathematics teacher identity of

two pre-service teachers: Siv, who selected mathematics as her

major subject in order to avoid Norwegian, and Martin, who

selected mathematics since he liked the subject. From our investigations of how they position themselves e and are positioned

by the mentor teacher e in reective narratives, we have gained

better understanding of their development of mathematics teacher

97

identity. Bjuland et al. (2012) identied two indicators of positioning in identity development, but we argue that positioning has

signicance that goes beyond the identication of indicators of

identity development. When adopting a discursive perspective in

identity research, the analysis of identifying narratives becomes

important, and positioning is a central process in identifying narratives. One might even argue that positioning is what distinguishes identifying narratives from non-identifying narratives.

Pre-service teachers positioning can be seen as attempts to

make sense of their participation in e and identication of themselves into e the different practices (and discourses) that are

related to the work of teaching mathematics. In our investigation,

we have regarded identity as a dynamic and discursive process that

depends upon the actors positioning in reective narratives. From

the identifying narratives in different contexts, a continuous stream

,

of fragments of a lived autobiography is produced (Davies & Harre

1990). Sfard and Prusak (2005) made a major contribution when

they shifted the focus in identity research to narratives. Through

our analyses, we have tried to show how the focus on positioning e

, 1990;

along with the process of local occasioning (Davies & Harre

De Fina, 2011) e could facilitate more ne-grained analysis of

discursive processes that are contained in identifying narratives.

We suggest that the combination of these theoretical perspectives

thereby provides a useful contribution to research on identity

development in mathematics teacher education.

6. Conclusion

Our study contributes to the eld in different ways. First, it

contributes by emphasising the role of positioning in research that

follows the narrative understanding of identity developed by Sfard

and Prusak (2005). Some studies that adhere to this framework

include the role of positioning (e.g., Bjuland et al., 2012), but our

study takes this another step forward. Second, it contributes by

including a focus on how an individual is positioned by others.

Studies on narrative positioning among pre-service teachers tend

to focus on how pre-service teachers position themselves in relation to others, but not so much on how they are positioned by other

people. The mentor teacher is a signicant other for a pre-service

teacher, and we have focused on how pre-service teachers are

positioned by the mentor teacher. This focus is missing in similar

studies (e.g., Kayi-Aydar, 2015). In addition to this, most studies on

teachers positioning seem to mainly focus on their (reexive)

positioning in interviews (e.g., Sreide, 2006), whereas our study

investigates reexive as well as interactive positioning in an

important type of naturally occurring discourse in teacher education: mentoring conversations in eld practice.

Further studies are called for to investigate these perspectives

across contexts for comparison. Such studies could investigate how

pre-service teachers different narrative positioning e reexive as

well as interactive e relates to other aspects of their development as

teachers. It would also be relevant to expand the focus by including

pre-service teachers positioning inside the classroom context e this

was also called for by Kayi-Aydar (2015) e and investigate the

connections between their narrative positioning in conversations

and their positioning in the classroom context. Studies like this can

illuminate ways in which the combination of narrative and positioning perspectives can allow us to see the process of identity

construction of pre-service teachers more clearly.

References

Akkerman, S. F., & Meijer, P. C. (2011). A dialogical approach to conceptualizing

teacher identity. Teaching and Teacher Education, 27(2), 308e319.

Alexander, G., van Wyk, M. M., & Moreeng, B. B. (2014). Constructing student-

98

teacher identities via a mentorship programme initiative: A case for schoolbased learning. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5(9), 405e414.

Beauchamp, C., & Thomas, L. (2009). Understanding teacher identity: An overview

of issues in the literature and implications for teacher education. Cambridge

Journal of Education, 39(2), 175e189.

Beijaard, D., Meijer, P. C., & Verloop, N. (2004). Reconsidering research on teachers

professional identity. Teaching and Teacher Education, 20(2), 107e128.

Bjuland, R., Cestari, M. L., & Borgersen, H. E. (2012). Professional mathematics

teacher identity: Analysis of reective narratives from discourses and activities.

Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 15(5), 405e424.

Bjuland, R., Jakobsen, A., & Munthe, E. (2014). Muligheter og begrensninger for

studenters lring i praksisopplring e eksempel fra en frveiledningsdialog i

matematikk [Affordances and constraints for prospective teachers learning in

eld practice e a case from a pre-lesson mentoring session of mathematics]

Nordic Studies in Mathematics Education, 19(1), 53e73.

Brown, T., & McNamara, O. (2011). Becoming a mathematics teacher: Identity and

identications. Dordrecht: Springer.

, R. (1990). Positioning: The discursive production of selves.

Davies, B., & Harre

Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 20(1), 43e63.

De Fina, A. (2011). Discourse and identity. In T. A. Van Dijk (Ed.), Discourse studies: A

multidisciplinary introduction (pp. 263e282). London: Sage.

Estola, E. (2003). Hope as work e student teachers constructing their narrative

identities. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 47(2), 181e203.

Gee, J. P. (2001). Identity as an analytic lens for research in education. Review of

Research in Education, 25, 99e125.

Graven, M. (2012). Changing the story: Teacher education through re-authoring

their narratives. In C. Day (Ed.), The Routledge international handbook of

teacher and school development (pp. 127e138). Abingdon: Routledge.

Graven, M., & Buytenhuys, E. (2011). Mathematical literacy in South Africa:

Increasing access and quality in learners mathematical participation both in

and beyond the classroom. In B. Atweh, M. Graven, W. Secada, & P. Valero (Eds.),

Mapping equity and quality in mathematics education (pp. 493e508).

Netherlands: Springer.

Haniford, L. C. (2010). Tracing one teacher candidates discursive identity work.

Teaching and Teacher Education, 26(4), 987e996.

Kayi-Aydar, H. (2015). Teacher agency, positioning, and English language learners:

Voices of pre-service classroom teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 45,

94e103.

Lutovac, S., & Kaasila, R. (2014). Pre-service teachers future-oriented mathematical

identity work. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 85(1), 129e142.

Ministry of Education and Research. (2010). National curriculum regulations for

differentiated primary and lower secondary teacher education programmes for

years 1e7 and years 5e10. https://www.regjeringen.no/globalassets/upload/kd/

vedlegg/uh/forskrifter/national_curriculum_differentiated_teacher_education.

pdf Accessed 23.12.14.

Roth, W. M., & Hsu, P. L. (2010). Analyzing communication: Praxis of method. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.

Sfard, A. (2008). Thinking as communication. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press.

Sfard, A., & Prusak, A. (2005). Telling identities: In search of an analytic tool for

investigating learning as culturally shaped identity. Educational Researcher,

34(4), 14e22.

Skog, K., & Andersson, A. (2015). Exploring positioning as an analytical tool for

understanding becoming mathematics teachers identities. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 27, 65e82.

Sreide, G. E. (2006). Narrative construction of teacher identity: Positioning and

negotiation. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 12(5), 527e547.

Vanassche, E., & Kelchtermans, G. (2014). Teacher educators professionalism in

practice: Positioning theory and personal interpretative framework. Teaching

and Teacher Education, 44, 117e127.

Vignoles, V. L., Schartz, S. J., & Luyckx, K. (2011). Introduction: Toward an integrative

view of identity. In S. J. Schwartz, K. Luyckx, & V. L. Vignoles (Eds.), Handbook of

identity theory and research (pp. 1e30). New York: Springer.

- AOS Notification 3Uploaded byshubhikadubey
- abcompleteabcompleteUploaded byapi-252468754
- Dan McAdams [] Narrative Theory Class NotesUploaded byGabriel Avăcăriţei
- Children's LanguageUploaded byAndrei Boghita
- NC VisualnarrativeUploaded bysnehacarmel
- Narrative and MedicineUploaded bylugusman1978
- The Unexpected Narrative Temporality and the Philo... ---- (Chapter 1 a Flow of Unforeseeable Novelty)Uploaded byKehkashan Khalid
- Preface to the Croatian Edition of on the History of Film StyleUploaded byLynne Larsen
- copy of treatment proposalUploaded byapi-340767216
- House as Metaphor: Women’s Narrative Archives in Were the House Still StandingUploaded byThe International Journal of Conflict & Reconciliation
- Narrative AScholarProject 4.12 UploadUploaded byqatarstructz30
- TMA1Uploaded byElena Botezatu
- Updated Intermediate Advanced ESL Pacing Guide LindsayUploaded byneesin80
- narrativeletterassignmentUploaded byapi-253462532
- Institutional TalkUploaded byAshleigh Morton
- The Malaysia Smart SchoolUploaded byziemy
- GRU-09-MOF-IONESCU-DANIELAUploaded bydaniela0i
- Literary Elements DefinitionsUploaded byAshTash
- Allsup - Creating an Educational Framework for Popular Music in Public Schools. Anticipating the Second-WaveUploaded byemschris
- Fabric of IdentityUploaded byJay Thomas Taber
- eSangathan Integrated RoadmapsUploaded byDistance Expert
- LITERARY DEVICES.pdfUploaded byOFORI
- Imberty, 2008Uploaded byMeriç Esen
- Lord Jim InterpretationUploaded byJenvey
- Rhoads Mark NarrUploaded byNathan VanHorn
- Speaking Our Minds-Narrating Mental Illness SyllabusUploaded byJoshua Gonsher
- Colm_Hogan_The_mind_and_its_stories.pdfUploaded byDeliaCerneavschi
- ABPD 2103 Personality Sept2015 Padlyalpattani.docUploaded byNurul Husna
- alcoff-linda-martn-visible-identities-race-gender-and-self.pdfUploaded byAna María Snz
- Reflective Teaching in NigeriaUploaded byVanessa Morales Castillo

- Pizzorno Narrating Career, Positioning Identity and Constructing GenderUploaded byCarolina Bernal
- Pizzorno Narrating Career, Positioning Identity and Constructing GenderUploaded byCarolina Bernal
- Vanassche Teacher Educators' Professionalism in Practice Positioning Theory AndUploaded byCarolina Bernal
- Yamakawa_role_of_positioningUploaded byprisin
- Reading 05 - Escobar Identity Forming DiscoursesUploaded byCarolina Bernal
- Kim Narrating Career, Positioning Identity and Constructing GenderUploaded byCarolina Bernal
- Anderson Applying Positioning Theory to the Analysis of ClassroomUploaded byCarolina Bernal
- Reading 01 - Pennington - Framing Bilingual Classroom DiscourseUploaded byCarolina Bernal

- Y9 CRITERION a, Phase 3, Assessment TaskUploaded byElise
- Kurtz Presentation Textbooks 20141Uploaded byIdris Ruiz
- KRA 1Uploaded byAdor Isip
- why use cooperative learningUploaded byapi-317510653
- unit 2 blended unitUploaded byapi-380542179
- Learning and EarningUploaded byLuis Angel del Rio
- Hints 11 Bloom TaxonomyUploaded byKizzy Anne Boatswain Carbon
- prof ed 1Uploaded byMariel Pastolero
- nsengimana2014Uploaded byAyban Wan
- Criminological Theory 4Uploaded byOrecic Si-iugnod Sapmoc
- Prova Explanation GuideUploaded byThiago R. Gomes
- WacUploaded bychrisenderson
- From a meeting to a community of practiceUploaded byJoitske Hulsebosch
- making a brochure rubricUploaded byapi-319827188
- Leicester MN7200 Edn 1 FKPS MBAUploaded bymohdarif1256
- Eudcational Technology..........Uploaded bymary
- Training and development-Chapter Ending Question 4-6Uploaded bySumaiyaLimi
- Teacher Guide Grade 11 Over to YouUploaded byvvhiip
- 3rd Grading Tos-pagbasUploaded byAnonymous hK3dHLOe
- Leaders at All LevelsUploaded byAkaBall
- Rod Ellis IssuesUploaded byAmirah Husna Abdullah
- philosophy statement ecc703 curriculumUploaded byapi-318272285
- DLL Science 9Uploaded byKristian Enriquez
- Pnu ReviewerUploaded byNoemi Manaois Rosario
- Principals Call for Reinstatement of January Regents ExamsUploaded byCity Room
- enc 1101-13 self-assessmentUploaded byapi-242217019
- A Comparison of Two Global ELT Course Books in Terms of Their Task TypesUploaded bynoryzad
- AAA Oral Communication Syllabus okUploaded byngocbummy
- child development artifactUploaded byapi-220568290
- Personal and Social Lesson PlanUploaded byrichie foreman