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Curriculum&LeadershipJournal|Skillsforthe21stCentury:teachinghigherorderthinking

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ISSN:14480743
29August2014
Issue:Volume12Issue14>Articles

Skillsforthe21stCentury:teachinghigherorderthinking
RobynCollins
ThisarticleoriginallyappearedintheApril2014editionofISQBriefings,apublicationofIndependentSchools
Queensland.Republishedwithpermission.

Itishardtoimagineateacherorschoolleaderwhoisnotawareoftheimportanceofteachinghigherorder
thinkingskillstoprepareyoungmenandwomentoliveinthe21stCentury.However,theextenttowhichhigher
orderthinkingskillsaretaughtandassessedcontinuestobeanareaofdebate,withmanyteachersandemployers
expressingconcernthatyoungpeoplecannotthink.
Whatarewetalkingaboutwhenwetalkabouthigherorderthinking?Brookhart(2010)identifiesdefinitionsof
higherorderthinkingasfallingintothreecategories:(1)thosethatdefinehigherorderthinkingintermsof
transfer,(2)thosethatdefineitintermsofcriticalthinking,and(3)thosethatdefineitintermsofproblem
solving.
Inthecategoryoftransfer,Anderson,Krathwohletal(2001)definetransferinhowitdiffersfromretention:Two
ofthemostimportanteducationalgoalsaretopromoteretentionandtopromotetransfer(which,whenitoccurs,
indicatesmeaningfullearning)retentionrequiresthatstudentsrememberwhattheyhavelearned,whereas
transferrequiresstudentsnotonlytorememberbutalsotomakesenseofandbeabletousewhattheyhave
learned.
Whilelearningforrecallrequiresthinking,thehigherorderthinkingisintransfer.Thatis,studentsnotonly
acquiretheknowledgeandskills,butalsocanapplythemtonewsituations.Itisthiskindofthinking,according
toBrookhart(2010)thatappliestolifeoutsideofschoolwherethinkingischaracterisedbyaseriesoftransfer
opportunities(rather)thanasaseriesofrecallassignmentstobedone.
Thecriticalthinkingcategoryincludesdefinitionsthatrefertoreasonable,reflectivethinkingthatisfocusedon
decidingwhattobelieveordo(Norris&Ennis,1989)andartfulthinking,whichincludesreasoning,
questioningandinvestigating,observinganddescribing,comparingandconnecting,findingcomplexity,and
exploringviewpoints(Barahal,2008).
Incriticalthinking,beingabletothinkmeansstudentscanapplywisejudgmentorproduceareasonedcritique.
Thegoalofteachingisthentoequipstudentstobewisebyguidingthemtowardshowtomakesounddecisions
andexercisereasonedjudgment.Theskillsstudentsneedtobetaughttodothisinclude:theabilitytojudgethe
credibilityofasourceidentifyassumptions,generalisationandbiasidentifyconnotationinlanguageuse
understandthepurposeofawrittenorspokentextidentifytheaudienceandtomakecriticaljudgmentsaboutthe
relativeeffectivenessofvariousstrategiesusedtomeetthepurposeofthetext.
IntheproblemsolvingcategoryBrookhartprovidesthefollowingdefinition:Astudentincursaproblemwhenthe
studentwantstoreachaspecificoutcomeorgoalbutdoesnotautomaticallyrecognizetheproperpathor
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solutiontousetoreachit.Theproblemtosolveishowtoreachthedesiredgoal.Becauseastudentcannot
automaticallyrecognizetheproperwaytoreachthedesiredgoal,shemustuseoneormorehigherorderthinking
processes.Thesethinkingprocessesarecalledproblemsolving(Nitko&Brookhart,2007).Theymayinclude
rememberinginformation,learningwithunderstanding,criticallyevaluatingideas,formulatingcreative
alternatives,andcommunicatingeffectively.
Thebroaddefinitionofproblemsolvingisthatitistheskillthatenablesapersontofindasolutionforaproblem
thatcannotbesolvedsimplybymemorising(ibid).Whiletherearemanyclosedproblemsinmathsforexample
thatrequirestudentstousememorytorepeatedlypracticeaparticularalgorithm,manyproblemsareopenended
andcannotbesolvedfrommemoryalone.Ortheymayhavemorethanonesolution.Ortheymaybegenuine
problemswhereananswerisnotyetknown.Problemsmayalsobeopenendedinthatsolutionschangeas
circumstanceschange.Forexample,livingwithinabudgetisanopenendedproblem.
BransfordandStein(1984)pointoutthatproblemsolvingisthegeneralmechanismbehindallthinking,including
recall,criticalthinking,creativethinking,andeffectivecommunication.Theyassertthattorecallsomething,
studentshavetoidentifyitasaproblem("Ineedtomemorisetheplanets,apoem,alistofcapitalcities.Howcan
Idothat?")anddeviseasolutionthatworksforthem.Similarly,criticalthinkingisamatterofproblemsolving
howwelldoesShakespearedevelopthischaracter?andcommunicationalsoinvolvesproblemsolvingwhoismy
audience?HowdoIneedtobestcommunicatewiththem?WhatwordsmightIusetopersuade?
ProjectZerodevelopedatHarvardUniversity,providesanexampleofhowteachersmighthelpstudentstothink
byviewingworksofart,usinganArtfulThinkingPalette(Barahal,2008).Studentswereaskedtousesix
thinkingdispositionstoviewart:exploringviewpoints,reasoning,questioningandinvestigating,observingand
describing,comparingandconnecting,andfindingcomplexity.Teachingstudentsthesethinkingskillsisnotonly
usefulinartbutinotherdisciplines,andinpreparationforstandardisedtestssuchastheQueenslandCoreSkills
Test.
Brookhart(2010)arguesthatifteachersthinkofhigherorderthinkingasproblemsolvingtheycansetlesson
goalstoteachstudentshowtoidentifyandsolveproblemsatschoolandinlife.This,shesays,involvesnotjust
solvingproblemssetbytheteacherbutsolvingnewproblemsthattheydefinethemselves,creatingsomething
newasthesolution.
Howdoweteachhigherorderthinking?
WhileBloomsTaxonomyisnottheonlyframeworkforteachingthinking,itisthemostwidelyused,and
subsequentframeworkstendtobecloselylinkedtoBloomswork.AcommitteeundertheleadershipofDr
BenjaminBloomcreatedtheTaxonomyin1956.Bloomsaimwastopromotehigherformsofthinkingin
education,suchasanalysingandevaluating,ratherthanjustteachingstudentstorememberfacts(rotelearning).
Learningwasdividedintothreedomainsofeducationalactivity:
Cognitive:mentalskills(Knowledge)
Affective:growthinfeelingsoremotionalareas(Attitudeorself)
Psychomotor:manualorphysicalskills(Skills)
Whileallthreedomainsareimportantforaroundedperson,itisthefirstdomain(Cognitive)thatisthesubject
ofthispaper.Thecognitivedomaininvolvesknowledgeandthedevelopmentofintellectualskills(Bloom,
1956).Theabilitiesandskillswithinthedomainarelistedinsixmajorcategoriesstartingfromthesimplest
thinkingbehaviourtothemostcomplex(seeTable1).Itisgenerallyacceptedthateachbehaviourneedstobe
masteredbeforethenextonecantakeplace.Thisisusefulknowledgeinassistingteachersintheirlesson
planning.

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Inthemidnineties,LorinAnderson(2000),alongwithhercolleagues,revisitedthecognitivedomaininthe
learningtaxonomyandmadetwomajorchanges.Shechangedthesixcategoriesfromnounstoverbsandslightly
rearrangedthemsotheybecame:

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UsingtheTaxonomy,teachershaveaframeworkavailabletothemthatallowsthemtoscaffoldteachingthinking
skillsinastructuredway.Teacherscandothisthroughthefollowingstages.
1.Specificallyteachingthelanguageandconceptsofhigherorderthinking
Teachersshouldnotonlyteachthelanguageandconceptsbutalsotellstudentswhattheyaredoingandwhy
higherorderthinkingskillsarenecessaryforthemtoproblemsolveatschoolandinlife.Forexample,byusinga
commonlanguage,studentscanrecognisetheskilltheyareexercisingandthelevelofcomplexityofaquestion.
Whentheyseewordslikedefine,recognise,recall,identify,label,understand,examine,orcollect,
ArticlesAbstracts
theyknowtheyarebeingaskedtorecallfactsanddemonstratetheirknowledgeofcontent.Whentheyseewords
Tablesofcontents
like,apply,solve,experiment,show,orpredict,theyunderstandtheyarebeingaskedtodemonstrate
Newpublications
What'snewCalendar application.Andwhenaquestionbeginswithappraise,judge,criticise,ordecide,theyunderstandthe
EducationlinksBack higherorderthinkingskilltheyarepractisingisevaluation.Teachersalsohaveaninstantchecklistofwhetheror
notthelevelofworktheyrequirefromstudentsisofsufficientcomplexity.Studentsshouldbegintopractice
issuesEmailalert
higherorderthinkingskillsfromprimaryschool,butbythetimetheyreachyear11and12thebulkofclassand
registration
assessmentquestionsanddiscussionshouldbeinthehigherlevelsofthetaxonomy.
2.Planningclassroomquestioninganddiscussiontimetotapintoparticularhigherorderthinkingskills
Theimportantwordhereisplan.Teachers,onthewhole,areverygoodatthinkingontheirfeethowever,
withoutmeticulousplanningtheyarelikelytoaskrecallquestionsratherthanquestionsthatrequirehigherorder
thinking.Similarly,discussionscanbederailediftheyarenotplannedwithahigherorderthinkinglearning
objectiveinmind.Whilethisdoesnotmeaneveryquestionordiscussionhastobepitchedathigherorder
thinking,agoodproportionshouldbe.Bycarefullyplanninglessonsanddiscussions,teacherscanensurethe
proportionisright.Itisusefultoaskacolleaguetoobserveaclasswithaviewtorecordingthepercentageof
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higherorderthinkingskillspracticedinalessonoreventoaskstudentstousetheknowledgetheyhavegainedin
learningthelanguageofthinkingtorecordtheteacher'suseofhigherordertermsortoobserveandassesstheir
classmatesinplannedactivities.Teachersshouldalsoencouragestudentstoreflectontheirlearningsothey
understandtheirthinkingstrengthsandweaknesses.
3.Explicitlyteachingsubjectconcepts
Theresearchisoverwhelminglyinfavourofexplicit,directinstruction(Hattie,2005Marzano,2011).Thisis
particularlysointheteachingofconcepts.Studentsneedtounderstandthecriticalfeaturesthatdefinewhat
higherorderthinkingskillstheyarepractising.Onceagain,BloomsTaxonomy(ortheCoreSkillsofthe
Queenslandcurriculum)isausefulplacetostart.Inanysubjectarea,studentsshouldbeawareofthekeyconcepts
theymustlearn.Theymustbeabletoidentifythemandtheymustpracticethem.Teacherscanhelpbyalerting
studentswhenakeyconceptisbeingintroduced,andidentifyingtheexplicitcharacteristicsoftheconcept.
Studentsneedtounderstandwhethertheconceptisconcrete,abstract,verbal,nonverbal,orprocess.
Forexample,oftenstudentswhoperformpoorlyinmathematicshavedifficultywithnonverbalconcepts.Simply
workingproblemsagainandagainwithnoverbalexplanationwilldolittletohelpthesestudentstounderstand
mathsconcepts.Teachershavetospendtimehelpingstudentstomakestrongconnectionsbetweenthe
manipulationofthesymbols,theassociatedlanguageandsomeformofconcretematerialsandimages.By
workingthroughproblemswithstudentsandverbalisingtheappropriatelanguage,studentsbegintounderstand
mathematicalprocedures.
Conversely,studentswhohavedifficultywithverbalconceptformationneedmultipleexampleswithrelatively
lesslanguage,whichmayconfusethem.Thatis,somestudentsneedtobeshownhowtosolveaproblem,some
studentstold,andsomeneedboth.
Incountrieswhereattainmentinmathsisparticularlyhigh,itseemsteachersensurestudentshavemasteredbasic
conceptsbeforeproceedingtomoresophisticatedones.Wherestudentsdonotmasterbasicconceptstheyare
likelytoattempttomemoriseratherthantounderstand.Whilethisworksforthemintheearlyyears,itleadsto
misunderstandingandtheinabilitytoapplyknowledgeinthelateryearsofschooling.Itisalsopossiblythereason
whymanystudentsturnoffmaths.
ThomasandThorne(2009)suggestamultistepprocessforteachingandlearningconcepts,whichincludes:
1.namethecritical(main)featuresoftheconcept
2.namesomeadditionalfeaturesoftheconcept
3.comparethenewtothealreadyknown
4.namesomefalsefeaturesoftheconcept
5.givethebestexamplesorprototypesoftheconcept(whatitis)
6.givesomenonexamplesornonprototypes(whattheconceptisn't)
7.identifyothersimilarorconnectedconcepts.
4.Providingscaffolding
Scaffoldinginvolvesgivingstudentssupportatthebeginningofalessonandthengraduallyturningover
responsibilitytothestudentstooperateontheirown(Slavin,1995).Withoutthislimitedtemporarysupport
studentsareunlikelytodevelophigherorderthinkingskillshowevertoomuchscaffoldingcanbeasdetrimental
asnotenough.KauchanandEggen(1998)suggestteachersshouldprovideonlyenoughsupportsothatlearners
makeprogressontheirown.Toomuchortoolittlesupportcaninterferewiththedevelopmentofhigherorder
thinkingskills.Toolittlesupport,andstudentsareleftflounderingprovidesupporteventhoughstudentsdont
askforit,andtheygetthemessagetheycannotdothetaskontheirown.
KauchanandEggins(1998),proposethefollowingguidelines:
1.Usescaffolding:
Duringinitiallearning,withavarietyofexamplestodescribethethinkingprocessesinvolved
Onlywhenneeded,byfirstcheckingforunderstandingand,ifnecessary,providingadditionalexamplesand
explanations
Tobuildonstudentstrengthsandaccommodateweaknesses.
2.Providestructuredrepresentationsanddiscussionsofthinkingtasks:
Visuallyrepresentandorganiseproblemsinconcreteexamplessuchasdrawings,graphs,hierarchies,or
tables
Demonstratehowtobreakupathoughtproblemintoconvenientsteps,usinganumberofexamplesand
encouragingstudentstosuggestadditionalexamples
Discussexamplesofproblemsandsolutions,explainingthenatureofproblemsindetailandrelatingthe
workedoutsolutionstotheproblems.Thispracticereducesthestudentsneedforadditionalteacher
assistance.
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3.Provideopportunitiesforpracticeinsolvingproblems
Provideteacherdirectedpracticebeforeindependentpractice,spotcheckingprogressonpracticeand
providingshortresponsesoflessthan30secondstoanysinglerequestforassistance
Assignfrequent,shorthomeworkassignmentsthatarelogicalextensionsofclassroomwork
Linkpracticeinthecontentareatocomplex,reallifesituations.
5.Consciouslyteachtoencouragehigherorderthinking
Inordertofosterdeepconceptualunderstanding,considerusingthefollowingstrategies:
Teachskillsthroughrealworldcontexts
Varythecontextinwhichstudentuseanewlytaughtskill
Emphasisethebuildingblocksofhigherorderthinking
Buildbackgroundknowledge
Classifythingsincategories
Arrangeitemsalongdimensions
Makehypotheses
Drawinferences
Analysethingsintotheircomponents
Solveproblems
Encouragestudentstothinkaboutthethinkingstrategiestheyareusing(moredetailsavailableonline:
http://theonlinepd.files.wordpress.com/2008/03/teachinghigherorderthinking.pdf).
Usingassignmentsandassessmentsthatrequireintellectualworkandcriticalthinkingisassociatedwithincreased
studentachievement.Theseincreaseshavebeenshownonavarietyofachievementoutcomes,including
standardisedtestscores,classroomgrades,andresearchinstruments.Theincreaseshavebeendemonstratedin
reading,mathematics,science,andsocialstudies.Andtheyhavebeendocumentedparticularlyforlowachieving
students.EvidencefromboththeNationalAssessmentofEducationalProgress(NAEP)andtheTrendsin
InternationalMathematicsandScienceStudy(TIMSS)reportclearevidencethatinmathematicsandscience
instructionemphasisingreasoningisassociatedwithhigherscoresinallgradelevelstested,whileinreading,
teachingformeaning(includingthinkingaboutmainideas,author'spurpose,theme,andusingrealtexts)is
associatedwithhigherNAEPperformance,Wenglinsky(2004).
Higginsetal(2005),forexample,didametaanalysisofstudiesofthinkingskillsinterventionsonstudent
cognition,achievement,andattitudes.Heandhiscolleaguesfound29studies,mostlyfromtheUnitedStatesand
theUnitedKingdomthatreportedenoughdatatocalculateeffectsizes.Theyfoundverystrongeffects.The
averageeffectofthinkingskillsinstructionwas:
0.62oncognitiveoutcomes(forexample,verbalandnonverbalreasoningtests),over29studies.
0.62onachievementofcurricularoutcomes(forexample,reading,maths,orsciencetests),over19studies.
1.44onaffectiveoutcomes(attitudesandmotivation),over6studies.
Assessinghigherorderthinkingskillshasalsobeenshowntoassistdisadvantagedstudents.The'HigherOrder
ThinkingSkills'(HOTS)programdesignedbyPogrow(2005)specificallyforeducationallydisadvantaged
students,isbasedonfourkindsofthinkingskills:(1)metacognition,ortheabilitytothinkaboutthinking(2)
makinginferences(3)transfer,orgeneralisingideasacrosscontextsand(4)synthesisinginformation.The
projectisapurethinkingskillsapproachtoassistdisadvantagedstudentsingrades48intheUnitedStates.It
combinestheuseofSocraticdialogue,drama,andtechnology,andhasbeenusedinapproximately2,600schools
in48states.Itproducedstudentgainsinstandardisedtests,onmeasuresofmetacognition,inwriting,inproblem
solving,andingradepointaverage.
Furthermore,Pogrowfoundthatinstudiescontrastingtheefficacyofteachinghigherorderthinkingskillswith
teachingenhancedcontentinstruction,theformerwasmuchbetteratsettingupstudentstobeflexible,allowing
themtounderstandunderstandingandtohandleavarietyofcontent.
Finally,researchhasshownthatstudentmotivationincreaseswhenteachersholdthemaccountableforhigher
orderthinking.Thisseemstobeso,becauseteachingstudentshigherorderthinkingtasksforcesthemtoengage
inthinkingaboutparticularthings,andundertakingassessmentthatrequiresintellectualworkandcritical
thinking.Memorising,whileitisusefulinsomecases,doesnotincreasestudentsautonomyand,toalarge
extent,doesnotcontributetomastery,althoughitmightbearguedthatknowingbasicfactsisessentialin
providingbuildingblocksforunderstanding.Also,itshouldbenotedthatknowingthingsforimmediaterecallis
arelativelyunimportantskill.Inmostthingswedo,itisnotthefactsthatareimportantbuthowweapply
knowledge.Forexample,knowingthetimestableisusefultosavetime,tohelpinestimatingandbecauserote
learningbuildsusefulpathwaysinthebrain,butitisonlywhenweuseourknowledgeoftablestomanageour
finances,planabudget,ormakedecisionsaboutwhetheroneitemismoreexpensivethananother,thatwe
exerciseproblemsolvingandhigherorderthinking.
Therefore,inordertoassesssothatstudentscandemonstratemastery,teachersneedtoplanassessmentitemsthat
allowstudentstousealltheskillsoftheTaxonomy:analysis,evaluation,andcreation(the"topend"ofBloom's
Taxonomy)logicalreasoningjudgmentandcriticalthinkingproblemsolvingandcreativityandcreative
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thinking.
Therearecountlessresourcesonlineandonpapertoassistintheteachingofhigherorderthinking,andwhile
theseareuseful,aneffectiveteacherneedstomakefewchangestoprogramsalreadyinplaceinordertoensure
thatstudentsareencouragedtothink.Theresearchsuggeststhatconstantawarenessofthelanguageteachersuse,
andreflectiononhowtheskillsmightbeincorporatedineverylesson,arepivotalinmakingthedifference.
Bibliography
Anderson,L.,Krathwohl,D.,Airasian,P.etal(2001),ATaxonomyforLearning,Teaching,andAssessing:A
revisionofBloom'sTaxonomyofEducationalObjectives,NewYork:Pearson,Allyn&Bacon
Barahal,S.(2008),ThinkingaboutThinking:PreServiceTeachersStrengthentheirThinkingArtfully,PhiDelta
Kappan90(4)
BloomB.S.(1956),TaxonomyofEducationalObjectives,HandbookI:TheCognitiveDomain,NewYork:David
McKayCoInc.
Bransford,J.,&Stein,B.(1984),TheIDEALProblemSolver,NewYork:W.H.Freeman
Brookhart,S.(2010),HowtoAssessHigherOrderThinkingSkillsinYourClassroom,ASCD,
http://www.ascd.org/Publications/Books/Overview/HowtoAssessHigherOrderThinkingSkillsinYour
Classroom.aspx
Hattie,J.(2009),VisibleLearning:aSynthesisofOver800MetaAnalysesRelatingtoAchievement,Oxon,OX:
Routledge
Higgins,S.,Hall,E.,BaumfieldV.&MoseleyD.(2005),AMetaAnalysisoftheImpactoftheImplementationof
ThinkingSkillsApproachesonPupils,inResearchinEducationLibrary,London:EPPICentre,SocialScience
Research
Kauchak,D.,&Eggen,P.(1998),LearningandTeaching:ResearchbasedMethods(3rded.),Boston:Allynand
Bacon
Marso,R.,Pigge,F.(1992),ASummaryofPublishedResearch:ClassroomTeachersKnowledgeandSkills
RelatedtotheDevelopmentandUseofTeacherMadeTests,paperpresentedattheannualconferenceofthe
MidwesternEducationalResearchAssociation,Chicago,IL
Marzano,R.(2011),TheArt&ScienceofTeaching/ThePerilsandPromisesofDiscoveryLearning,Educational
Leadership,Volume69,Number1
Nitko,A.&Brookhart,S.(2007),EducationalAssessmentofStudents,PearsonMerrillPrenticeHall
Norris,S.&Ennis,R.(1989),EvaluatingCriticalThinking,PacificGrove,CA:MidwestPublications
Pogrow,S.(2005),HOTSRevisited:AThinkingDevelopmentApproachtoReducingtheLearningGapAfter
Grade3,PhiDeltaKappan
Slavin,R.(1995),AModelofEffectiveInstruction,TheEducationalForum,59
Thomas,A.,andThorne,G.(2009),HowtoIncreaseHigherOrderThinking,Metarie,LA:Centerfor
DevelopmentandLearning,http://www.readingrockets.org/article/34655
Wenglinsky,H.(2004),ClosingtheRacialAchievementGap:TheRoleofReformingInstructionalPractices,
EducationPolicyAnalysisArchives,12(64)
FurtherReading
Brookhart,S.(2010),HowtoAssessHigherOrderThinkingSkillsinYourClassroom,ASCD,
http://www.ascd.org/Publications/Books/Overview/HowtoAssessHigherOrderThinkingSkillsinYour
Classroom.aspx
TeacherandauthorSusanM.Brookhartanswersthequestions:Whatdoeshigherorderthinkinglooklike?And
howcanteachersassessitacrossthedisciplines?
Brookhartbeginsbylayingoutprinciplesforassessmentingeneralandforassessmentofhigherorderthinkingin
particular.Shethendefinesanddescribesaspectsofhigherorderthinkingaccordingtothecategoriesestablished
inleadingtaxonomies,givingspecificguidanceonhowtoassessstudentsinthefollowingareas:
Analysis,evaluationandcreation
Logicandreasoning
Judgment
Problemsolving
Creativityandcreativethinking
Thebookcovershowtouseformativeassessmenttoimprovestudentworkandthenusesummativeassessment
forgradingorscoring.
Interestingsites:
http://theonlinepd.files.wordpress.com/2008/03/teachinghigherorderthinking.pdf
Thissiteprovidesexcellentinformationaboutwhyweshouldteachhigherorderthinkingskillsandhowtoteach
them.

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ResearchinAction:
http://www.ascd.org/Publications/Books/Overview/HowtoAssessHigherOrderThinkingSkillsinYour
Classroom.aspx
ThissiteincludesaseriesoffourshortvideosinwhichDrSusanBrookhartdescribes,withexamples,howbestto
assesshigherorderthinkingskillsinyourclassroom.Thevideosinclude:whyhigherorderthinkingisimportant,
principlesfordesigningassessment,assessingreasoningandassessingcreativity.Whiletheauthorregularly
promotesherbookinthesevideos,thecontentsofthevideosareusefulandworthwhileassimpleandsuccinct
summariesforteachersconsideringhowtoassesstheirstudents.
http://www.readingrockets.org/article/34655
Includedonthissitearespecificconversationswithstudentstotesttheirthinkingexamplesofhowtoincrease
higherorderthinkingcommentsaboutevaluationandrecommendedresources.
KLA
SubjectHeading
SubjectHeadings
Thoughtandthinking
Knowledge
Teachingandlearning
top

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