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Schlumberger

Anadrill

MWD DIRECTIONAL SURVEY TRAINING MANUAL

Improving our understanding of the Surveying of Boreholes


with M1/M3 and Slim 1 MWD Tools
With a better knowledge of the way in which MWD tools measure direction and
inclination, the accuracy of their sensors and an understanding of how these
measurements are altered by external influences we can provide the best D & I
service in the business.

Original - August 1993


Andy Ball et al

Revised - October 1996


Acknowledgment: Tom Follis
James Leshikar
Russ Neuschaefer
Wayne Phillips

CONTENTS
SECTION 1

INTRODUCTION

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INCLINATION ERROR

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AZIMUTH ERROR

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23
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25

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SECTION 2
MWD INITS FOR D&I - ADVISOR
MWD INITS FOR D&I - IDEAL
SURVEY ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA
4/5 AXIS SURVEY
CONTINUOUS D&I
SECTION 3

APPENDIX A - MAGNETIC FIELDS


APPENDIX B - THE EARTHS GRAVITATIONAL FIELD
APPENDIX C - MAGNETOMETERS
APPENDIX D - ACCELEROMETERS
APPENDIX E - MAGNETIC INTERFERENCE
APPENDIX F - D&I COMPUTATIONS
APPENDIX G - NON-MAGNETIC REQUIREMENTS
APPENDIX H - MAGCOR PROGRAM
APPENDIX I - COORDINATE SYSTEMS
APPENDIX J - THE GEOMAG PROGRAM

SECTION 4

D & I EXERCISES

Introduction
To : Anadrill MWD Engineers and DirectionalDrillers.
The purpose of this paper is to review the current status of our Direction and Inclination
measurements and the options we have to ensure the best accuracy we can obtain in the
prevailing conditions.
This document should be used for reference. It is backed up with a number of appendices
with more detailed descriptions of the principles and descriptions of D&I measurements.
Section 3 has exercises in Direction and Inclination measurements. It is strongly suggested
that you run through these exercises. Review the answers with your FSMs.
The importance of obtaining accurate D&I measurements cannot be over-emphasized.
This is the core of MWD services. As we diversify into other Formation Evaluation
measurements we note an increasing lack of attention to the core service of D&I.

Differences between M1/M3/M10 and Slim 1 MWD D & I Packages


The Inclinometer and Magnetometer packages are essentially the same between Slim 1
and MWD SCAs with only the definitions of the axis changed.
These differences are critical when having to input raw data into 3rd party correction
programs such as SUCOP. The Slim 1 addresses three Magnetometers, three
Accelerometers and Temperature sensors. This data is then processed downhole. The raw
readings of the Magnetometer and Inclinometer sensors are compensated for variations in
sensitivity due to temperature. A cubic polynomial model of these temperature effects is
used. The polynomial readings are then normalized using the calibration data stored in the
tools ROM. Thus the operator at surface receives only calculated surveys or preprocessed data from downhole. The Slim 1 tool behaves like it has the perfect D&I sensor.
The MWD M1/M3 system utilizes the SCA. No modifications have been made to this
package in the changeover from M1 to M3. The SCA D&I package measures only raw
data of the magnetometers, inclinometers and the temperature of the Inclinometer
package. There is an oven around the Inclinometers which sustains the Inclinometers at
135 degrees C. All the data sent by MWD M1/M3 has to be normalized for sensor
misalignment and temperature variations at surface. This increased manipulation of data at
surface requires considerable operator input and thus an increased possibility of error. On
the plus side there is more potential to recover from failed axis situations.
The POWERPULSE transmits the individual axis readings to surface. The tool does
however manipulate some of the data downhole. The calibration matrixes are written to
the tool and are applied to the separate axes prior to the data being transmitted thus
reducing the data and number handling at surface.

Surveys
Surveys are used to determine the orientation of the well at the point where the MWD
tool is lying in the borehole. This is done by measuring size and direction of the
gravitational and magnetic fields exerted on the MWD tool.
Details of the way in which the MWD tool measures direction and inclination are covered
in Appendices C & D of Section 3.
The principle of measurement is straight forward. To obtain the best surveys we need a
good knowledge of all the different influences that can affect those measurements. For this
reason we will concentrate on sources of errors, how they manifest themselves and how to
minimize them.

Inclination Error
Measurement of Inclination is made by 3 accelerometers mounted in the Sensor Cartridge.
The principle of this measurement is described in Section 3, Appendix D.
Inclination measurement errors come from :
a.

Movement. If the drill string moves during the time when the survey is taken
erroneous surveys will result. The X axis is the axis most affected by drill string
movement. Movement may occur due to the driller releasing the brake prematurely
or rig heave or torque release in the drill string downhole. Employing correct
survey procedure is critical in avoiding movements. Good communications
between Anadrill Engineers andDriller is required.

b.

Misalignment of the MWD Collar in the Well bore. Currently an angle of


misalignment is displayed at the bottom of the results of BHA Advisor (BHA A).
This angle has to be added to the calculated survey manually. We are currently
working on getting a real time correction for this misalignment. Caution should be
exercised in using this correction as it assumes that the wellbore is in gauge. Only
utilize this correction at the request of the client and ensure that you explain the
possible errors it can induce due to out of gauge holes.

c.

Misalignment of the Slim 1 Tool within the bore of the Non Mag Drill Collar.
Recent testing has shown that this can be nearly 0.1. Future changes to Slim 1
centralization should reduce this error.

d.

Accelerometer Misalignments. Accelerometers within the Inclinometer package


are not exactly aligned along the physical axes of the tools. These are compensated
for by pre - job calibrations. This principal is covered in more detail under Azimuth
corrections.
Calibration / Roll Tests create a Matrix to correct for the misalignment and supply
scaling to ensure accurate quantitative readings are measured by the tools.

e.

Temperature. The first survey may be erroneous due to the Inclinometer not
reaching 135 degrees C. A good baseline of G values can only be obtained after
some 15 minutes circulating and several surveys.

D&I WARM UP TIME AFTER PUMP


SHUTDOWN
27
24
21
18

AMBIENT MUD TEMP.


125 C

15

100 C

12
9
6
3

75 C
50 C

0
0

100

200

25 C

SHUTDOWN TIME MINUTES

Azimuth Error
Measurement of Azimuth is made by 3 magnetometers mounted in the Sensor Cartridge.
Inclinometer measurements are also used in calculating Azimuth, therefore the above
section on Inclination errors is also very relevant to Azimuth error. The principle of
azimuth measurement is described in Section 3, Appendix D.
The greatest possibility for error in MWD surveying is in measuring Azimuth. Magnetic
anomalies are widespread within the drilling environment. It is our job, as engineers
preparing jobs and working at the rig site, to identify possibilities for anomalies and ensure
that they are either avoided or we have the means to correct for them.
Refer to Section 3, appendix E for a Summary of Magnetic Interference.
In preparing tools for the rig site we have the following checks to make :
a.

Magnetic Parts.
Ensure all Modifications to avoid the use of Magnetic parts close to the D&I
package are implemented. There are New Style M3 Shock standoffs with Shims
that are non magnetic for use on the SCA. The original shock sleeves were
magnetic. These are being replaced but there will still be the Magnetic type in the
field for some time. Ref TIR#47.

b.

LWD Power.
Ensure the Wiring of the LTB lines for LWD is correct. Is the CDN Battery
powered or powered from the MWD ? Currents flowing through the MWD collar
can have effects on the Accuracy of the magnetometers. Current Anadrill policy is
to never power the CDN from the MWD tool.

c.

Return 20v Line.


Collar mass must not be used as power return.
If WOB is run; be aware that a leakage of the Voltage line will set up a ground
loop current which could influence the magnetometers. This is only possible with
the M3 tool.

d.

MWD Collar Hot Spots.


Non magnetic collars can develop areas on the collar called magnetic hot spots.
The tools developed to measure for magnetic hot spots can detect changes as small
as one Gamma at the center line of a Non Magnetic Collar. The Anadrill Standard
for the acceptable amount of Magnetization of a new Non Magnetic Collar is 0.04
micro tesla (40 gammas) per 0.1m in length.

e.

D & I Calibration.
Check the date of the tools last calibration. Check the tools history and its previous
calibration. Ensure that any changes in calibration/roll test results can be explained
clearly. The calibration procedure can be used to track D&I sensor stability.
For Slim 1 the calibration data is written into a ROM in the tool. There is no
operator manipulation of this data. You should still check previous calibrations.
In the POWERPULSE, the correction matrix is also written to the downhole tool.
The calibration matrix is applied downhole. Note that attention should still be
made to inputs for matrix.

f.

Correction Matrix Definition and Functionality.


In order to properly interpret the output voltages of the D&I sensors it is
necessary to obtain very accurate values for the sensor scale factors, biases and
orientations.

The scale factor for a given sensor can be defined as the unit conversion factor
for the output of the sensor. For example, the number of millivolts/gamma for
a magnetometer sensor is the scale factor for that particular sensor and the
number of volts/g for a particular inclinometer is the scale factor for that
sensor. The matrix diagonal for the M1/M3 magnetometer (going from top left
to bottom right) will always be near 1.0 for a 5.0v Sensor Cartridge, 1.25 for a
4.0v Sensor Cartridge and 1.4 for a 3.57v Sensor Cartridge. The matrix
diagonal for PowerPulse (going from top left to bottom right) will be 1.28.
The Bias can be defined as the sensor output in a zero gravitational or
magnetic field. This output is usually less than or greater than zero due to
circuit imbalances. The bias entered for PowerPulse will be zero. Zero is
entered at the surface for the PowerPulse bias because the bias is corrected
downhole.
The sensor orientation is a function of the alignment of the sensors on the
physical axes of the tool.

To calibrate the D&I package, data is taken at 16 different tool orientations. The
scale factors, biases and sensor orientations are determined from the measurements
made during a 16 point roll test. The scale factors and sensor orientations are then
incorporated into a 3x3 matrix which is used at the rig site along with sensor biases
to provide a more accurate survey. The following is the correction equation for the
X, Y, and Z accelerometers. The equations will apply to the magnetometers
substituting MM for the AA values.
Corr X = AA11(rawX-biasX) + AA12(rawY-biasY) + AA13(rawZ-biasZ)
Corr Y = AA21(rawX-biasX) + AA22(rawY-biasY) + AA23(rawZ-biasZ)
Corr Z = AA31(rawX-biasX) + AA32(rawY-biasY) + AA33(rawZ-biasZ)

Where :
AA11(rawX-biasX) is the scale factor correction. This is the
magnitude of the X vector in Figure A. This is responsible for
the majority of the correction of the X axis reading.

Y Sensor

YAW
PITCH

YAW

Physical
Z Axis

X Sensor
Physical
X Axis
PITCH

PITCH

YAW

Z Sensor

Physical
Y Axis
Figure A.

AA12(rawY-biasY) and AA13(rawZ-biasZ) are the alignment correction factors


for the X accelerometers. This is the yaw and pitch correction to get the X sensor
vector to lie on the Physical X axis. These alignment correction factors play more
of a minor role in correcting the axis reading.
Important note for 3.57v SCA calibrated on the SFTK-15 Stand.
There are currently two stands in the field for calibrating the D&I packages of the
SCA. The Aberdeen stand holds the complete SCA. The most common stand in
use today is the SFTK-15 (SE-92 Modified Wireline Gyro Calibration stand). This
stand only accepts the D&I package from the SCA. We have found recently that
when calibrating the same 3.57v SCA on both types of stand there are
discrepancies between the two sets of calibration results. The voltage divider is in
the signal path during the calibration on the Aberdeen stand and its effects are
calibrated out. On the SFTK-15 system, the voltage divider is not in the signal path
during the calibration and a divider ratio of 5/7 is assumed by the software. In fact
because of the 100 ohm output impedance of the magnetometer, the 10 mega-ohm
input impedance of the sensor filter and the fact that the divider is made with 20K

and 50K resistors, the divider ratio is slightly smaller than 5/7 by about 3 parts in
1000. The fix in the short term is that you multiply all 9 elements of your
magnetometer correction matrices by 1.00287 if you are using one of the dividers.
MR 38 for the SCA rectifies the problem with the voltage divider. Check this
modification has been made if you are using 3.57V SCA.
g.

Temperature.
Specification of M1/M3 magnetometers limits thermal drift. The PowerPulse and
the Slim tools have thermal models in their software.
The full correction matrix is computed with the SCA in the D&I calibration stand
at four different temperatures. The four matrixes are entered into the Advisor
which, by interpolation, will obtain the proper value to be used according to the
cartridge temperature (measured in the magnetometer assembly). This is the
ultimate in the precision of the Anadrill MWD and is required only by certain
clients. (Shell).
Normally the full calibration matrix is computed for one temperature only
with the SCA at room temperature in the Calibration stand.
You should be aware that if you intend to use tools in a very hot well, close to the
limit of the MWD tool, then a high temperature calibration and roll test may be
performed to satisfy the client of the tools accuracy at these extremes of
temperature.

h.

Magnetometer Over Range.


Is your SCA set up with 3.57v or 5.0v Magnetometers? If there is a question as to
the range of the magnetometers in your SCA, look at the correction matrix. The
MM11, MM22 and MM33 diagonal on the correction matrix will read the
following approximate values :
1.00 for a 5.0v sensor or 5.0volts = 50.0 Kgammas.
1.25 for a 4.0v sensor or 4.0volts = 50.0 Kgammas.
1.40 for a 3.57v sensor or 3.57volts = 50.0 Kgammas.
Ensure that the location of the job does not have a magnetic Field Strength which
will over range a 5 volt magnetometer. Remember, the tools were originally
designed for an H value of 50,000 gammas or 50 gammas/count, where 1000
counts are equal to 5 volts. If the local H value is greater than 51,200 gammas then
the magnetometers may over range. The maximum voltage to the ADC in the tool
is 5.12 Volts before wrapping occurs.

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i.

Non Magnetic Collar Spacing.


Have the client planned to have sufficient NMDC on the well site. Get to know
what the expected BHAs are and calculate the requirements for NMDC from the
equation by Grindrod & Wolff (Appendix G). Remember that nearly all Azimuth
errors are due to Magnetic interference from other parts of the drill string. The less
interference you have the fewer other techniques you will have to use to correct
for these. The value of the predicted azimuth error (AE) should be less than 0.5
degrees. If it is not then continue adding lengths of non magnetic collar above and
below the MWD until the value (AE) is less than 0.5 degrees. Some clients insist
the calculated error should be less than 0.25
Note: The Grindrod and Wolff equation for estimating the Interfering Field (IF)
and Azimuth Error (AE) is an industry standard. Still, it is only an estimate and
will not predict the exact values for each drillstring.
If the client insists on using an assembly with insufficient non magnetic
collars then you must inform him, prior to running in the hole, the expected
azimuth error. It is better to be up front about this than be accused of
having an inaccurate tool later.
Remember also that in many situations (Horizontal, High Inclination wells) it is
impractical to achieve a predicted azimuth error of less than 0.5 degrees.

j.

External Magnetic Interferences.


What is the distance required from casing or from a fish left in the hole before the
effects of magnetic interference are no longer felt ?
This is a difficult question to answer because a distance of 10 to 15 ft away may be
satisfactory, but in a different well, 100ftaway may yield abnormal surveys :

The magnetic effects are not the same if the well is deviated or straight.
The effects change as the distance from the steel in question changes.
The latitude of the area has an effect.
A casing collar usually produces a higher interfering field.
The distance required to be clear of effects from a casing shoe can be
anywhere from 30 to 150 ft away. The same amount may be needed away
from a fish, but normally 30ft is acceptable.

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k.

Survey Technique.
It is important that the correct procedure is properly and clearly explained to the
Driller who has control of the drill string and pumps during surveying. If the drill
string moves during the time when the survey is taken erroneous surveys will
result. Movement may occur due to the Driller releasing the brake prematurely, rig
heave or torque release in the drill string downhole. The X axis is the axis most
affected by drill string movement, up and down (i.e Heave). Axes Y and Z are
most affected by torque release in the drill string.

l.

If you anticipate Magnetic interference problems.


The client refuses to run more than one Monel and all calculations indicate
significant azimuth errors will result. Calculate the expected error and inform the
client. Propose options of running a magnetic correction program such as
MAGCOR from the Advisor/IDEAL or SUCOP. It is important that the client
realizes that this service costs an additional 10% to our service as we are obliged
to pay a royalty charge to Shell for the use of their patented Procedure. A
password is also necessary to access the program.
Magcor / Sucop.
These programs are correction routines for magnetic interference from the drill
string. It is carried out in two steps. The first step plots Hy and Hz from a
minimum of four up to six check shots at different toolfaces.(At least one shot in
each quadrant). A circle is then drawn through the points and the center
determined. Any offset from the origin is then subtracted from the axes
measurements as a correction. This exercise is designed to correct for any
localized magnetic Hot Spots. Using the newly calculated values of Hy and Hz,
(Hy2 + Hz2) will be constant if a roll test is performed. This is one method to
check the quality of the correction.
The second step of the program corrects for drillstring interference along the axis
of the tool. (Hx direction). The program compares the H from the tool to the H
you input. (This is normally from GEOMAG and refined with actual
Magnetometer values where available or previous experience from a well
calibrated SCA in BHAs free from magnetic interference). A correction to Hx is
applied so that tool H matches the expected H. (Similar to the 5 axis calculation)
The survey is then recalculated with the new Hx value.

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There are certain dangers in running Magcor and Sucop which are important to
note:
1. The input value for H must be correct. Total H is the reference for all the
correction. If this value is wrong then your corrected survey will be wrong.
2. All SCA, SEA, and MEA must be calibrated to measure H accurately.
3. As with 5 axis corrections, if Hx axis is reading close to zero, then some greater
errors may be introduced.
m.

Determining Axes Failures.


The first indications of a failed axis is that the G, H and/or Dip is not within the
defined deviations and/or the survey does not match with the check shot survey.
The first thing to identify is whether an accelerometer or magnetometer has failed.

GFH

HFH

DIP

DESCRIPTION

Good

Bad

Bad

Magnetometer has failed or magnetic Interference is occurring.

Bad

Good

Good/Bad

Bad Inclination & Azimuth indicates an accelerometer failure.

Bad

Bad

Bad

Good

Good

Bad

Bad Inclination &/or Azimuth indicates an Accelerometer and


Magnetometer have failed.
Bad inclinometer or magnetometer, where failed sensor output
is equal to 0 and working sensor output was close to 0.

The following guidelines should be used in determining a failed axis :

If a magnetometer fails then the azimuth will be affected.


If an accelerometer fails then both the Inclination and Azimuth will beaffected.
If a failure of a sensor occurs that has a low output and the failed output is
showing 0 counts then only the DIP will be affected, and this could be very slight.
If a sensor fails, its sign, as indicated by the sign word may also be affected.
The 4/5 Axis option should always be activated. This will help in determining if a
sensor failure has occurred and which axis has failed.
If the Advisor/IDEAL 4/5 axis functionality cannot determine the failed axes,
either two axes of the same sensor have failed or the G,H and Dip deviations are
too tight.
Perform a 5 point Roll Test ensuring that the GTF has changed by approximately
90 deg. at each survey point.
Note the values for Gx and Hx during roll test, these values should remain fairly
constant, +/- a few counts.

13

The square root of the sum of the squares of the Y and Z axis for each sensor type
should remain constant. The constant vector is called T.
HY2 + HZ2 = Constant = Th
GY2 + GZ2 = Constant = Tg

Print out the Survey hold File (Advisor) or Downhole surveys (IDEAL) and
examine the raw data.
Perform an offline 4/5 axis analysis if a D&I abort occurs and change G, H and Dip
deviations until a 4/5 axis is calculated successfully.
Change G, H and Dip deviations to values which work offline.
Check on Quickstart page (Advisor) or Survey page (IDEAL) that Survey
reference is the correct survey reference.

Note : Usually, accelerometers will have either a 0 voltage or a +/- volt output when
a failure occurs. The most common failure mode is a +/-1024 count output
from the accelerometer. Magnetometers normally do not have hard failures.
The output becomes erratic, it does not usually have a zero or full scale
reading when it fails.
n.

The potential for large errors in calculating the 5 axis survey are great. Maximum
error occurs where the remaining axes are reading close to maximum and minimum
scale. However there are many cases where errors are quite small or almost non
existent. In fact , for some errors, rotating the tool to another toolface 45 or 135
degrees away can produce smaller errors. Appendix F covers the principal and the
manual calculation of surveys with a bad axis. Use the uncertainty values
calculated on the IDEAL survey page to determine the quality of the correction.

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SECTION 2

Quick references for Survey Procedures

1.

MWD INITS FOR D&I - ADVISOR

2.

MWD INITS FOR D&I - IDEAL

3.

SURVEY ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

4.

4/5 AXIS SURVEYS

5.

CONTINUOUS D&I

15

MWD INITS FOR D&I - ADVISOR

The following inits refer to Advisor V5.2+. For versions later than this please ensure
that you refer to the corresponding release notes.
1.

MWD MODE.

Input M for MWD Mode and T for Tool Face mode.

2.

TC TYPE.

Telemetry cartridge type.

3.

SC VOLTS

This measurement is critical to the operation of MAGCOR. This


defines the Sensor Cartridge Voltage and the Calibration of the
Magnetometer. This input is used to convert LOCN H in
KGammas.

4.

T/F ANGLE

Input in Degrees. This is the Angle measured clockwise (looking


D/hole) from the Slick Pin hole to the Scribe Line of the Motor or
bent sub.
If a jetting assembly is used then measure around to the largest jet.

5.

BIT-SLPN

The distance between the Bit and the Slick Pin of the MWD Tool.
(On 7 FLS collars this means upper Slick Pin)

6.

RES-SLPN

The distance between the slick pin and the mid point between the SN
Resistivity Electrodes. As it is measured downwards from the Slick Pin this
measurement is positive. The default value is 4.6 ft.

16

7.

LOCN H.

This measurement is critical to the operation of MAGCOR. The


value is entered in KiloGammas. It is the true Total Magnetic Field
strength for the location. It must be agreed with the Client. The
value can be from Geomag. The input goes to calculating the
Location H (in Counts) which appears just below the MWD INITS
title.

8.

MAG DIP

This is the Magnetic DIP Angle for the given location. This is
entered in Degrees. It is used as a reference for survey acceptance
criteria. The DIP Angle is calculated from running GEOMAG or
taken from previous measurement data. (ie MWD Runs) and must
be agreed with the client. This input is critical for MTF
calculations as an input to the 4/5 Axis D&I corrections.

9.

MAG DEC

All MWD surveys measure Azimuth to Magnetic North. We


require the measurements to Grid / True North. The difference
between the Grid / True North and Magnetic North is the
Magnetic Declination. If Measured North is to the East of True
North then the input must be +ve. If Measured North is to the
West of True North then the input must be -ve. Before input this
value must be agreed with the client.

10.
11.
12.

DWOB
DTORQ
FS RES.

This option is used for Zeroing the DWOB sub.


This option is used for Zeroing the DTOR sub.
This defines the full scale reading of resistivity.

13.

ERR CRN.

This flags the Advisor system to go and look for the error
correction matrix. Inputs to this Init are: N for None, S for a single
matrix and M for multiple matrixes made at various temperatures.
Following this flag the system will refer to the SC # ( INIT 14) to
select the correct matrix.
Powerpulse requires this to be set at S.

14.

SC #

This is the Serial number of the sensor cartridge in the hole. If the
number selected does not match an existing matrix file, error
correction will not be turned on when the MWD INIITS is exited.
It is therefore very important that the Matrix is entered prior to
entering 1. Downhole Tool Inits. ( Matrix is entered at 7. DNI
Error Temp Correction Matrix)

15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.

COL OD.
HOLE DIA.
BARITE.
DEF COND.
DEF TEMP.
DEF MWT.
DEF DHT.

MWD Collar Outside Diameter.


Borehole/Bit Diameter.
Is Mud Weighing material Barite.
Default value for Mud Conductivity at the surface.
Default value for Mud Temperature at the surface.
Default value for Mud Weight going in the hole at the surface.
Default value for Downhole Temperature.

17

22.

4/5 AXIS.

This input is used in the calculation of TF angles only. It is not


used to switch 4/5 axis survey calculations on/off. (This is done at
the quick start page). It is used to define failed tools axes that are
to be replaced by calculated values in the Tool face computation.
Maximum of 2 can be defined, however, Y and Z cannot be
defined for the same sensor.

23.

TOOL G

This should be entered as the magnitude of the G in counts. The


value is best taken from the G of this tool prior to a G axis failure.
It is used both as a reference for survey acceptance criteria and in
the calculation of values for failed axes in 4/5 axis correction. It
must be input accurately, since a difference of even one count can
cause a significant change in results, especially for failed X axis
sensors in low inclination holes.

24.

TOOL H

This should be entered as the magnitude of the H in counts. The


value is best taken from the H of this tool prior to an H axis
failure. It is used both as a reference for survey acceptance criteria
and in the calculation of values for failed axes in 4/5 axis
correction. It must be input accurately, since a difference of even
one count can cause a significant change in results, especially for
failed X axis sensors in low inclination holes.

25.

G DEV

This is the error, in counts, allowable in TOOL G before a tool Gaxis is assumed to have failed, meaning that axis correction will be
required i.e it switches 4/5 axis measurements on as long as 4/5
axis is enabled at quick start menu.
(Note : The Survey Accept/Reject Criteria sets the Good/Bad flag
in the survey hold file. This flag is not set by G DEV in the MWD
Inits.)

26.

H DEV

This is the error, in counts, allowable in TOOL H before a tool Haxis is assumed to have failed, meaning that axis correction will be
required i.e it switches 4/5 axis measurements on as long as 4/5
axis is enabled at quick start menu.
(Note : The Survey Accept/Reject Criteria sets the Good/Bad flag
in the survey hold file. This flag is not set by H DEV in the MWD
Inits.)

27.

DIP DEV.

This is the error, in degrees, allowable in DIP before a tool axis is


assumed to have failed, meaning that axis correction will be
required.
(Note : The Survey Accept/Reject Criteria sets the Good/Bad flag
in the survey hold file. This flag is not set by DIP DEV in the
MWD Inits.)

28.

GR CART.

Serial number of GRA for reference to Calibration.

18

29.

D&I TEMP.

This is used to manually input the D&I temperature in case of


either a D&I temperature sensor failure or use of a mismatched set
of cartridges. If the entered temperature is less than or equal to
32F (0C), the display is always forced to zero and the
transmitted temperature is used, otherwise the entered default
temperature is used. The temperature is entered and displayed in
system temperature units. This input has no effect unless
correction mode M is selected at the error correction init #
13.
Note : The D&I error correction will not be applied when 4/5 D&I
correction is switched on.

30.
31.

DC MATRL.
GR-SLPN.

This is the type of drill collar material that encases the gamma ray cartridge.
This is the distance from the Slick Pin to the GR measurement point.

32.

D&I-SLPN.

This is the distance between the slick pin and the mid point of the
D&I package. This point is mid way between the accelerometers
and magnetometers. This point was always a constant -7.4 ft.
However with the introduction of the GRTM without a BHA this
distance is reduced to -6.96 ft. The value for the PowerPulse is 7.83 ft.

19

Special considerations for POWERPULSE.


POWERPULSE INITS REQUIRED ON ADVISOR V5.2+
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

MWD MODE
TC TYPE
SC VOLTAGE
T/F ANGLE
BIT-SLPN
RES-SLPN
LOC H
MAG DIP
MAG DEC
DWOB OFFSET
DTOR OFFSET
FS RES
ERR CORR
SC#
COL OD
HOLE OD

N
N
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
N
N
N
Y
Y
Y
Y

N/A to Date
N/A to Date
5 volts (for Magcor)
Measured from ROP*
Measured to ROP
Measured to ROP
As M3
As M3
As M3
N/A to Date
N/A to Date
N/A to Date
Ref MEA No. See below
Input MEA No.
MDC Diameter
As M3

17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32

BARITE
DEF CON
DEF TEMP
DEF MW
DEF DH TEMP
4/5 AXIS
TOOL G
TOOL H
G DEV
H DEV
DIP DEV
GR CART #
D&I TEMP
DC MTRL
GR TO SLPN
D&I TO SLPN

Req for LWD


Req for LWD
Req for LWD
Req for LWD
Req for LWD
As M3
As M3
As M3
As M3
As M3
As M3
N/A to Date
N/A to Date
N/A to Date
Gr to ROP
D&I to ROP (-7.83ft)

N
N
N
N
N
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
N
N
N
Y
Y

ERROR CORRECTION INPUTS FOR POWERPULSE


Note : "SINGLE" Error Correction Matrix should be selected.
AA 1,1
AA 2,1
AA 3,1

1.00
0.00
0.00

AA 1,2
AA 2,2
AA 3,2

0.00
1.00
0.00

AA 1,3
AA 2,3
AA 3,3

0.00
0.00
1.00

BIAS X

BIAS Y

BIAS Z

MM 1,1
MM 2,1
MM 3,1

1.28
0.00
0.00

MM 1,2
MM 2,2
MM 3,2

0.00
1.28
0.00

MM 3,1
MM 2,3
MM 3,3

0.00
0.00
1.28

BIAS X

BIAS Y

BIAS Z

The Powerpulse Magnetometers measure up to 64,000 gammas full scale.


This is scaled to 5v via the magnetometer matrix input of 1.28
MWD Init 3, SC voltage is obsolete and should always be input as 5.

ROP = Read Out Port on the POWERPULSE tool.


As on the M1 and M3 this is the Y axis reference and for all sensor points

20

IDEAL V4.0 D&I INITS

Location H
This value should be be obtained from the "Geomag" program. This value will be used in
the "Magnetic Correction" application when available. This is not a reference value for
tool H, the reference value of tool H is entered on the survey panel. The difference
between local H and tool H is that location H is generated by Geomag calculation is a
theoretical value for the given elevation, latitude and longitude for the rig site, where
reference tool H is a value set by user, which is obtained from a tools good readings,
which depends many local conditions and the tool itself.
Reference Dip
This value should be obtained from the "Geomag" program. This value will be used as online criteria for surveys and will be used for "Magnetic Correction" application when
available.
Magnetic Declination
Magnetic declination is an angle between true (geographic) north and magnetic north. It is
not corrected for convergence, the grid convergence angle. This value must be entered
before acquisition is started. The value will be used for Azimuth and MTF computations.
There is no default value for it and computations will not take place if the value is absent.

21

Azimuth (with respect to the true north) = magnetic azimuth + magnetic declination
Where magnetic azimuth is the azimuth measured by the tool.
Grid Convergence Angle
This value must be entered before acquisition is started. The value will be used for survey
and toolface computations. The default value is zero deg. If grid correction angle is not
available, use the default value. If the value is non-zero system will always compute
Azimuth and MTF using grid correction angle.
Azimuth = magnetic azimuth + magnetic declination - grid corr angle.
G rid N orth

T rue N orth

g
M agnetic N orth
m

A zim uth

3
1

1: Azimuth (Magnetic North)


2: Azimuth (True North)
3: Azimuth (Grid North)

m: Magnetic Declination
(negative in this case)
g: Grid Correction
(positive in this case)

Total Correction (for azimuth) As explained in above section total correction for
azimuth is computed from magnetic declination and grid correction angle. It is displayed
on D&I init panel and it will update whenever user hit return key in any of those two
fields, it will update the value. This value is also displayed on thetoolface panel.
total correction = magnetic declination - grid correction angle.

TN
MN

GN
-8

(-8) - 5 = -13

TN

TN

TN

GN

MN

GN
-8

-3

(-3) - (-8) = + 5

MN

GN
-4

(-9 ) - (-4) = -5

MN

+7

-9

+ 10

10 - 7 = 3

TN = T rue N orth : M N = M agnetic N orth : G N = Local G rid N orth

22

Toolface Correction Angle


This value must be entered before acquisition is started. The value will be used for survey
and toolface computations. There is no default value for it and computations will not take
place if the value is absent.
D&I Temperature
This field is optional. If D&I temperature from downhole is incorrect or unavailable for
any reason, user can input D&I temperature value here and that value will be used in
survey computations.
Sensor Cartridge Selection
User must select the sensor cartridge that is used for MWD survey. The correction matrices
associated with that sensor cartridge number will be used for D&I temperature correction
computations. The sensor cartridge number can be selected from the "SC# list". This list
shows the sensor cartridge numbers for which the correction matrices are entered into the
correction matrix database. If user enters the sensor cartridge number for which there is no
correction matrix in the database, a unity matrix with zero bias will be used for the
computations. Correction matrix for sensor cartridge can be entered or modified using
correction matrix panel.
Survey Acceptance Criteria
The initial value for G, H, and Dip should be obtained from the Geomag program or the
client, and agreed with the client. These reference values can be used when the tool is first
run in the hole. After the tool has had a chance to stabilize with respect to temperature and
the magnetometer is clear of external magnetic interference, an average of the values for G,
H and Dip from the last 5 to 10 surveys should be used as a baseline. The default values for
G, H, and Dip in IDEAL are:
Tool G
Tool H
Dip

Reference
1000.0
1000.0
0.0

Deviation
+/- 3.0
+/- 3.5
+/- 0.3

Units
Milli G
Kgamma
Deg

Note: Tool H should have a deviation of +/- 350 gammas not Kgamma which equals +/- 7 counts. The
deviations will be hardcoded in IDEAL V5.0.

In the case of computing online 4/5 axis surveys, the tighter the tolerance on G, H, and Dip,
the greater chance that the recalculated values of Dip may lie outside the reference values.
If this occurs, the deviations must be widened so that the 4/5 axis D&I correction is not
aborted.
A 4/5 axis D&I correction abort may also be caused by inputting inaccurate inputs for
reference G, H, and/or Dip values. When the axis is solved for and re-substituted into the
4/5 axis calculation the calculated G, H, or Dip may be outside of the specified deviations.
The accuracy of the 4/5 axis is solution is dependent on the accuracy of the G and H values
input.

23

For each mwd survey, maximum uncertainty and statistical uncertainty are computed for
inclination, azimuth, dip angle, mtf and gtf and displayed on the IDEAL survey page.
Uncertainty of any computations depends on error on each input. Error on inclination
depends on error on gx, gy and gz. Error on azimuth depends on gx, gy, gz, hx, hy and hz.
Error on these axis are computed from bias error, relative scaling error, absolute scaling
error and coupling errors.
For an open survey, statistical uncertainty is displayed in the uncertainty column. With
each mwd survey statistical uncertainty is displayed for inclination and azimuth. Both
maximum and statistical uncertainty are stored in database for inclination, azimuth, dip,
mtf and gtf.
Uncertainty is also computed for 4/5 axis survey, the uncertainty of 4/5 axis survey will be
higher than 6 axis survey. If the 4/5 axis survey uncertainty is very large, user should
consider not using the 4/5 axis algorithm because the solution it finds is not dependable. In
such cases fixing the problem with the tool is recommended.
Note: Uncertainty for inclination, azimuth, and dip are in degrees.

4/5 Axis Correction


The 4/5 axis algorithm in IDEAL will try to correct a failed axis on a bad 6axis survey.
A down hole 6axis survey is considered bad if any one of the values of inclination,
azimuth, dip angle, tool G or tool H does not match the reference values within the
deviation limits. The algorithm can detect and correct for up to two bad axes as long as
two axes of the same sensor type have not failed.
The correction technique operates by comparing the computed values for inclination,
azimuth, magnetic dip, tool G and tool H with the reference values entered by the user.
These reference values are entered manually on the survey panel. The reference value of
inclination and azimuth are updated whenever a survey is accepted. Initial values for
inclination and azimuth reference are set to zero. The initial value for tool G and tool H
should be that prior to the axis failure. These are very important numbers because they are
used as the starting point for calculating the magnitude of the failed axis. Specially when
the value of failed axis is small(less than 50 counts). For example if Gy fails in the low drift
hole, error of 0.2 in tool G or tool H can cause errors of 100% in the calculated value of
the failed axis and error of up to 20 degrees in azimuth.
Note: A failed axis survey with high uncertainty values should not be accepted.
Whenever a failed axis survey is computed it is important to look at its uncertainty
calculations for its inclination, azimuth, and magnetic dip angle. A failed axis survey
whose uncertainty value is high should not be considered as a solution and such survey
should not be accepted. High uncertainty indicates that the algorithm cannot really find the
failed axis value to the require accuracy. Fixing the problem with the tool is recommended
in such cases.

24

If the value computed for a failed Y or Z axis is small compared to the transverse axis on
that sensor, it is worth rolling the tool by approximately 90 degrees to bring the failed axis
to a large value. This will minimize the azimuth errors.
Because D&I axes are not completely orthogonal, the correction matrix is applied to the
error corrected axes to back out the raw sensor measurement and then a 4/5 axis solution is
computed. The error correction matrix is then re-applied and a 4/5 axis survey is computed.
See section 3, Appendix F for details on the calculations.
Continuous D&I
Continuous D&I computations are done when Rgx and Rhx are transmitted by the MWD
tool. For the computations to take place, at least one accepted MWD survey is required.
The computer uses the Rgx and Rhx values in conjunction with the gy, gz, hy, and hz values
from the previously accepted survey to calculate continuous D&I. The results of the
continuous D&I computations are displayed on the IDEAL toolface control panel. The
continuous D&I calculations are not replacements for surveys, but are useful to help predict
build rates and turns while drilling.

25

SECTION 3

List Of Appendices

Appendix A

- Magnetic Fields.

Appendix B

- The Earths Gravitational Field.

Appendix C

- Magnetometers.

Appendix D

- Accelerometers.

Appendix E

- Magnetic Interference.

Appendix F

- D&I Computations.

Appendix G

- Non Magnetic Drill Collar requirements.

Appendix H

- MAGCOR Program.

Appendix I

- Coordinate Systems.

Appendix J

- The GEOMAG Program.

26

Appendix A - MAGNETIC FIELDS


There are several theories to explain the Earths magnetic field:

Theory #1:
Rotation of the Earth's solid exterior relative to its liquid iron core is believed to
induce a slow rotation of the core. A magnetic field results from the electrical
currents generated by the relative motion between the liquid core and the mantle.
The conclusion that there is a liquid portion of the core is compatible with
available data (fig. 1).

Core

(fig. 1)

27

Theory #2:
Similar to theory #1. The center portion of the Earth is largely composed of iron
and has the mechanical properties of a fluid. These fluids are subjected to internal
circulation currents similar to phenomena observed at the periphery of the sun. The
internal circulation of these fluids acts as the source of the Earths magnetic field
according to the principle of a self excited dynamo (fig. 2).

(fig. 2)
The total magnetic field is the sum of two fields of different origins:

The principal field which originates within the fluid nucleus of the Earth.
The transitory field which is generated outside the Earth. This field is caused by
the rotation of the Earth relative to the sum and by the cycles of the sun's activity.

Aspects of the transitory field:

Secular variations of approximately 15gammas per year - a minor effect.


Diurnal solar variation on the order of 30 to 40 gammas per day - a minor effect.
The cyclical "Eleven Years" variation - a minor effect.
Magnetic storms which may reach several hundreds ofgammas - a major effect.

28

The Earths own magnetic field extends out to approximately 8 times the radius of the
planet. Beyond this prevails the Magneto Pause, a region in space where the Earths
magnetic field contacts the Solar Wind. On its sunward side, the Earths magnetosphere is
compressed by high energy particles from the solar wind (fig. 3).

(fig 3)

These particles collide with the Earths magnetic field at a speed of 640 miles per second
and are slowed down at the shock front to 400 miles per second. Variations in the solar
wind produce changes in the Earths magnetic field. Solar flare particles reach the Earth in
approximately two days. The shock wave preceding the cloud of plasma from the solar
flare compresses the magnetosphere and rapidly intensifies the geomagnetic field at
ground level (fig. 4). This compression takes place over a few minutes and is called the
Sudden Storm Commencement (SSC). It is followed by the Initial Phase (IP) which lasts
from 30 minutes to a few hours. The Main Phase (MP) produces a drop in the magnetic
field strength due to an opposing field generated by the energized particles in the
magnetosphere. This is normally not a problem for locations in the Gulf of Mexico and at
lower latitudes.

29

30

The total magnetic field intensity is the vector sum of its horizontal component and its
vertical component (fig. 5). The vertical component of the magnetic field points toward
the ground and therefore contributes nothing to the determination of the direction of
magnetic north. The horizontal component can be computed from the following equation:
Magnetic Field Strength (HFH) X COS (Dip Angle) = Horizontal Component
In Alaska:
Gulf of Mexico:

57,510 gammas X COS (80.6) = 9392 gammas


50,450 gammas X COS (59.7) = 25,250 gammas

Only the horizontal component of the Earths magnetic field is desired because the
downward vector contributes only to the magnitude of the magnetic field strength and not
to the direction. The expected value can be obtained from the Geomag program.
Differences observed between the measured HFH value and the value derived from
Geomag may be due to the following factors:

Uncertainties in chart values and drill string magnetism.


Uncertainties induced by temporal variations in the magnetic field.
Uncertainty in the measured value of the magnetic field.
Temperature sensitivity of the magnetometers.
Errors from the A/D converter.

MAGNETIC FIELD STRENGTH

Y
HORIZONTAL COMPONENT
OF MAGNETIC FIELD STRENGTH

(fig 5)
Common relative values of total magnetic field strength:
Gulf of Mexico
50,000 gammas

East Canada
54,000

Beaufort Sea
58,500

North Sea
50,000

31

MAGNETIC DIP ANGLE

MAGNETIC
DIP
ANGLE

(fig 6)

MAGNETIC DIP ANGLE


The magnetic dip angle is equal to the angle between the tangent to the Earths surface and
the magnetic field vector (fig. 6). This is also the angle formed between the total magnetic
field vector (HFH) and the horizontal vector. Extreme values which you are unlikely to
see for dip angle range from 90 degrees close to the North Pole to almost zero degrees at
the equator (fig 6A). There are also several other points on the Earths surface where the
dip is equal to 90 degrees. These are due to local anomalies and are called "dip holes".
Common relative values for dip angle:
Gulf of Mexico
59 degrees

East Canada
70 degrees

Beaufort Sea
84 degrees

North Sea
70 degrees

32

NORTH POLE or Total


magnetic field vector

DIP = 0
EQUATOR

TANGENT at the
EQUATOR
ANGLE FORMED WITH MAGNETIC VECTOR
IS EQUAL TO 0

NORTH POLE or Total


magnetic field vector

TANGENT at the NORTH


POLE
ANGLE FORMED WITH MAGNETIC VECTOR
IS EQUAL TO 90

EQUATOR

DIP = 90

(fig. 6A)

33

MAGNETIC DECLINATION ANGLE


TRUE
NORTH
MAGNETIC
NORTH
ANGLE OF
DECLINATION

(fig 7)
MAGNETIC DECLINATION ANGLE
The Earth can be thought of as having a magnetic dipole running through its centre with
North and South poles at either end. This dipole does not necessarily correspond with the
Earths rotational axis. The angle between magnetic North and geographic North (true
North) is defined as the magnetic declination or the angle of declination (fig. 7). This is
dependant upon the location (both in latitude and longitude) and can vary in areas of high
magnetic activity (such as Alaska). All magnetic surveys require a conversion to
geographic direction by adding or subtracting this angle (fig. 8). If magnetic declination is
known, then the direction of the Earths magnetic field relative to true North can be
calculated. Angles of declination to the West of geographic North are negative and
magnetic declinations to the East of geographic North are positive. For example, 5 West
can be written as -5 and 5 East can be written as +5. An angle without a +/- or an
East/West nomenclature is not sufficient.

34

Magnetic declination can vary up to 1.7 and the total magnetic field strength may vary by
as much as 770 gammas during extreme sun spot activity. Also remember, the closer to
the equator:
the lower the total field strength
the higher the horizontal component
and the less the dip angle
Note:
At declinations greater than 7 in magnitude, magnetic declination is more unstable.

Easterly Declination

Westerly Declination

S
(fig. 8)

The center of the Earth's magnetic field is unstable and difficult to localize. Presently,
magnetic center drifts from the center of the Earth at the rate of two kilometers per year
(three degrees westward and two degrees northward per year). For comparison, the
magnetic declination in Europe during the last twenty centuries has ranged from 27 East
to 22 West. Magnetic center is currently located about 1200 kilometers from geographic
North. The Earth's magnetic field is subject to changes in polarity, but this happens over a
time scale of millions of years. During Miocene, Pliocene and Quaternary periods, North
and South poles have been inverted several times. Although the cause for the reversal has
yet to be explained, the effects can be seen in the sea floor. Using highly sensitive
magnetometers (developed to detect submarines during WWll), scientists sweep the
oceans to record the magnetic retention of the lava rock formed from sea floor spreading.
Lava flowing up from the interior solidifies in the crack that follows the crest of mid-ocean
ridges. The rock then becomes magnetized with either normal or reversed magnetization,
depending on the direction of the Earth's field at the time. Newer material fills the crack,
continuing the process. In this way, the sea floor acts like a tape recorder that encodes, by
magnetic imprinting, the history of reversals of the geomagnetic field. In this way,
scientists have proven the existence of polar shifts, but cannot explain their occurrence.

35

GRID CONVERGENCE ANGLE


In surface surveying operations, field data are measured relative to the irregular and
curved surface of the Earth. In order to map this data onto a flat map, corrections have
to be applied to the field data to account for he Earth's curved surface. In oil field
operations, corrections have to be applied both to actual measurements that are plotted
and from measurements taken from a well plot. The corrections depend upon the method
used to project the ellipsoid onto a flat surface. The mathematical function of relating
points on one surface to points on another surface is called a projection.
There are two major types of projections; the Transverse Mercator Projection (Figure
UTM Projection) and the Lambert Conformal Conic Projection (Figure Lambert
Projection). Both use a secant type of projection, where the cone or cylinder intersects,
instead of being tangent, to the datum surface.

Figure UTM Projection


The Lambert Projection provides the closest approximation to the datum surface for a
rectangular zone greatest in east-west extent. The Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM)
projection is a standardized form of Transverse Mercator and provides the closest fit for
an area north-south in extent. The positioning of the cone or cylinder with respect to the
datum surface is specific for each location. A central meridian is selected that will
minimize the amount of error produced due to projection.
Shapes on the surface of the globe are transferred to the map in a way that may be
illustrated by imagining the globe to be made of glass with a source of light at the center.
A shadow is thrown onto the paper (ie. A1 becomes A ). The cylinder or cone is then
unwrapped giving a correct scale representation along the central meridian. Each zone is
flattened and a square imposed on it. A network is formed with two sets of uniformly
spaced straight lines intersecting at right angles. This network is termed a grid.
One of these grid lines is the central meridian. This is the only line that bears true north.
This is caused by the fact that the meridians converge toward the poles while the northsouth grid lines are parallel to the central meridian (Figure Grid Convergence) The northsouth lines of the Grid defines Grid North. The grid convergence angle is the angular
difference between grid north and true north (shown as angle a in Figure Grid
Convergence).

36

Figure Lambert Projection


As with magnetic declination, the grid convergence angle is always positive if its to the
East of magnetic North and negative if its to the West of magnetic North. The grid
convergence angle is SUBTRACTED from Azimuth and MTF calculations.

Figure Grid Convergence

37

Appendix B - THE EARTHS GRAVITATIONAL FIELD


Newtons Law of Gravitation:
Every particle of matter in the universe attracts every other particle with a force which
is directly proportional to the product of the masses and inversely proportional to the
square of the distance between them.
Gravitational force is a function of the distance from the center of the bodies in question
(fig. 9).
The gravitational field (G) is primarily a function of:

Latitude (main factor).


Depth / Altitude : referenced to mean sea level (MSL).
Regional fluctuations in the density of the Earth's crust.

Changes in the measured value of G are attributed to the Earth's rotation. The rotation has
given the Earth a slightly flattened shape. Therefore, the equatorial radius is larger than the
polar radius. The G value changes from 0.997 at 0 degree latitude (Equator) to
approximately 1.003 at 90 degree latitude (a 0.006 change).
Another effect is due to the centrifugal force due to Earth rotation.

mw2
Worst Case is at the equator:

mg

w2
g

= 0.030m/sec2 which is 0.003g's

A decrease in G can also be seen with increasing hole depth. The rate of change is
approximately 0.0005 per 10000 feet. You would have to be at 20,000 feet to see a 0.001
change. In other words, if the G value was exactly 1.000 on the surface, it would be 0.999
at 20,000 feet.

38

Regional fluctuations in the density of the Earths crust are practically negligible.
Other reasons for discrepancies in the measured G value are due to instrumentation errors
in the inclinometer. These can be attributed to:

Temperature sensitivity.
Errors due to resolution of the A/D converters.
Shifts in the sensor operating parameters which occur when the inclinometer is
exposed to the shocks and vibrations of the drilling environment. (This can be
observed when surveying with "time option").

EARTHS GRAVITATIONAL FIELD

g=

Mass = m

G m Me

r 2

G = Universal
Gravitational
Constant

r = radius between centers


MASS of EARTH = M e
(fig. 9)

39

Appendix C - MAGNETOMETERS
Anadrill employs three fluxgate saturation induction magnetometers in the D & I survey package
to measure the Earths magnetic field. In Slim 1, the alignment of these tri-axial magnetometers
follows the convention:
The Z-axis lies along the tool axis.
The X and Y-axes are perpendicular to each other in a plane perpendicular to the Z-axis.
In MWD M3/M1, and M10 the alignment of these tri-axial magnetometers follows the
convention:
The X-axis lies along the tool axis.
The Y and Z-axes are perpendicular to each other in a plane perpendicular to the X-axis.
A basic fluxgate magnetometer uses a magnetic core material to gate the ambient magnetic field
flux lines into and out of a pickup coil wound about a primary coil which, in turn, is wound about
the core. The design is based on the phenomenon of magnetic hysteresis and saturation: the failure
of the magnetized body to immediately return to its original value when the external value is
reduced. The field which drives the core through its hysteresis loop is generated by passing a
current through the primary coil. As the flux lines are drawn into and expelled from the core, the
flux in the pickup coil changes and an induced voltage appears across the terminals of the coil (fig.
10, 11).
In practice, the core is composed of a highly magnetically permeable material and is placed inside
of a pair of primary (Drive) coils. These drive coils are toroidally wound in series and are
imbalanced by a resistor. The primary coils are surrounded by a secondary (Pickup) coil. The core
is sharply driven into a saturated state by an AC voltage supply, then slowly returns to its
transition condition (traces A & B of fig. 12). The resulting hysteresis effect produces an output
that resembles trace D, in the absence of a magnetic field. The Earths magnetic field
independently induces a response which resembles trace C. Combined, the resultant pickup signal
would resemble trace E.
The detection circuitry does not directly measure the voltage pulses to determine the magnetic
field strength. Instead, a summing op-amp (error amp) seeks to equalize the positive and negative
pulses. By adjusting the DC bucking current, the effects of the magnetic field are eliminated. With
the effects of the field nullified, the positive and negative pulses are equal (trace D). The DC
voltage measured across the reference resistor is thus the true measure of the magnetic field
strength along the axis of that magnetometer.

40

REFERENCE AXIS

IMBALANCING
RESISTOR

PICKUP COIL

DRIVE COILS

(fig. 10)

Pickup (sensing) coil


PICKUP
COIL

DC BUCKING CURRENT Is

CORE

PEAK
DETECTOR/
AVERAGER

DC OUTPUT

DC
error
+

Rs
BLOCKS
DC CURRENT

(fig. 11)
Earths Field Detection and Nulling

41

OSCILLATOR SIGNAL (5KHZ)

A
TIME

DRIVE CURRENT WAVE FORM


TRANSITION

TRANSITION
SAT.

SAT.

SAT.

PICKUP VOLTAGE DUE TO


EARTHS FIELD ONLY

C
PICKUP VOLTAGE DUE TO CORE IMBALANCE ONLY

RESULTANT PICKUP SIGNAL

E
(fig. 12)
Pulse sequence generated across terminals of pickup coil in presence of
Earths field.

42

CLOCKWISE

INDUCED
VOLTAGE

NO CURRENT

INDUCED
VOLTAGE

COUNTER-CLOCKWISE

INDUCED
VOLTAGE

(fig. 13)

43

Appendix D - ACCELEROMETERS
A basic accelerometer consists of a simple mass which is constrained to only move linearly
within a frame work and which is coupled to that frame work by an elastic member. From
Figure 14, if the vehicle (or main frame) and the mass are traveling at the same speed, then
no acceleration is felt (position A). If the main frame is suddenly moved (acceleration), the
mass tends to maintain its own speed by virtue of its inertia. Therefore, there is a relative
motion between the vehicle and the mass.
By measuring the acceleration force on the known mass, the vehicle acceleration can be
determined. This can be seen by comparing distance Y and distance Z in Figure 23.
"Accelerometer" is the name given to a transducer which responds to acceleration, while
"inclinometer" is the name given to a set of low range accelerometers. The inclinometer is
used as a slope detector because it is responsive to small gravitational acceleration
changes. An inclinometer refers to a set of three accelerometers.
The accelerometer currently fulfills two major functions:
It is considered a vertical reference device when its function is the proper
alignment of reference axis.
It is considered an inertial device when its major function is the detection and
measurement of acceleration.
An accelerometer device cannot distinguish the difference between acceleration and
gravity. This is important when discussing the determination of the vertical force. A
vertical reference device acting as a plumb line on the rotating Earth assumes the same
direction in which gravity acts on the rotating Earth. Gravity, in this case, is the resultant
between the Earth's mass attraction force and its rotational centrifugal force. Since the
Earth is not a perfect sphere, the geocentric vertical does not coincide with the gravity
vertical force.

44

INCLINOMETER PRINCIPLE
A pendulum suspended inside a case attempts to hang in alignment with the gravity vector
(fig. 15). A compensating electrical force is applied to the pendulum to restore the proof
mass to its original position (horizontal to the case). The sensor imbalance is detected by
the pickoffs and a signal is sent to the servo. This signal causes an electric current to flow
through the torque coil. The torquer current is designed to oppose the reed displacement.
The restoring force is then encoded as an analog signal.
Some single shot instruments or Totco devices that only record drift are sometimes
referred to as inclinometers.

45

46

Appendix E - MAGNETIC INTERFERENCE


There are two types of magnetic interference:

Drill string magnetic interference.


External magnetic interference, which can include interference from:
1. A fish left in the hole.
2. Nearby casing.
3. A magnetic "hot spot" in the drill collar.
4. Fluctuation in the Earths magnetic field.
5. Certain formations (iron pyrite, hematite and possibly hematite mud).

Any deviation from the expected magnetic field value can indicate magnetic interference.
External magnetic interference can occur as the drill string moves away from the casing shoe or
from the casing window. It can also occur as another cased hole is approached. There are
certain instances where a gyro survey may need to be used if the well requires steering out of
casing or if a possible collision exists with another well (especially if the well being drilled is
straight). There are also cases where magnetic interference may be corrected or at least taken
into account until a different BHA is used.
DRILL STRING MAGNETIC INTERFERENCE
The drill string can be compared to a long slender magnet with its lower end comprising one of
the magnetic poles. Even if the components of a drilling assembly have been demagnetized after
inspection, the steel section of the drill string will become magnetized by the presence of the
Earths field (fig. 16). (In any case, a non-magnetized steel component would probably affect the
D&I package by distorting the Earths magnetic field).
Drill string magnetism can be a source of error in calculations made from the supplied
magnetometer data. This may happen as the angle builds from vertical (fig. 17) or as the
azimuth moves away from a north/south axis (fig. 18). Also, changing the composition of the
BHA between runs may change the effects of the drill string.
It is because of drill string magnetism that non-magnetic drill collars are needed. Non-magnetic
drill collars are used to position the compass or D&I package out of the magnetic influence of
the drill string, both above and below the MWD tool. The magnetometers are measuring the
resultant vector of the Earths magnetic field and the drill string. Since this is in effect one long
dipole magnet with its flux lines parallel to the drill string, only the X-axis of the magnetometer
package is affected, normally creating a greater magnetic field effect along this axis. The
magnitude of this error is dependent on the pole strength of the magnetized drill string
components and their distance from the MWD tool. The error could appear in the calculated
survey as an increased or decreased total HFH value depending on the direction of the borehole.
The total H value should remain constant regardless of the tool face orientation or depth as long
as the hole inclination, azimuth and BHA remain relatively constant.

47

When drill string magnetism is causing an error on the X-axis magnetometer, only the horizontal
component of that error can interfere with the measurement of the Earths magnetic field (see
Magnetic Field Strength section in Appendix A). The horizontal component of the X-axis error
is equal to the X-axis error multiplied by the sine of the hole deviation. This is why experience
has shown that the magnetic survey accuracy worsens as the hole angle increases (especially
with drill string magnetic interference). Since the horizontal component of the Earths magnetic
field is smaller in higher latitudes, the error from a magnetized drill string is relatively greater
than that experienced in lower latitudes (fig. 19). Thus, a 50 gammas error has a larger effect on
a smaller horizontal component, 0.53% error in Alaska compared to only 0.20% in the Gulf of
Mexico.

Drill String Magnetism

Magnetic
Flux Lines

Magnetic
Flux Lines

z
y

Earths
Magnetic
Flux

Mag
x

z
y

Inc

Fig. 16

48

Drill String Magnetism

z
y

ag
M
x

z
z

y
y

In
c

Mag
x

z
y

Inc

Horizontal Component
of X Axis error larger
with Increased Angle

Horizontal Component
of X Axis error small
with no Inclination.
Fig. 17

49

Hx drilling North

Hx Component
due to Drill String
Magnetism

Hx drilling East

Hx Component
due to Drill String
Magnetism

Figure 18
Hx will read the total magnetic field when drilling along the dip line in a North/South direction.
Therefore, Hx will be a larger vector in the North/South direction than in the East/West direction.
The interference from drill string magnetism affects the x-axis only. Since the drill string magnetism
is the same value regardless of the direction of drilling, the drill string magnetism is a larger
percentage of the total Hx value when drilling East/West.
Drill string magnetism azimuth error is largest when drilling a horizontal well in the East/West
direction. This is why the monel requirements are higher for these wells. See Appendix G.

50

D r il l S t r i n g Magn et is m

z
y

ag
M
x

z
y

In
c

Hor i z ont al Com ponent


of Dr i l l S t r i ng
Magnet i c F i el d

Hor i z ont al Com ponent


of Ear t hs Magn et i c
F i el d i n A l as k a

Hor i z ont al Component


of Ear t hs M agnet i c F i el d
i n Gul f of Mex i co.

5 0 Gammas

9,4 00 Gammas

2 5 ,2 0 0 Gammas

Fig. 19

The increased value of the X-axis due to drill string magnetism will normally cause all calculated
azimuths to lie closer to north. This error will show up when a gyro is run in the well. All MWD
surveys will be positioned (magnetically) north of the gyro survey stations. (Most gyros derive
true north from the Earths rotation).
MINIMIZING ERRORS
One way to minimize the error caused by the drill string is to eliminate as much of the
magnetism as possible. This is done by isolating the magnetometer package with as many nonmagnetic drill collars as possible. The length of the non-magnetic collars implies a uniform and
non-interrupted non-magnetic environment. Obviously the presence of a steel stabilizer or steel
component between two non-magnetic collars results in a pinching of the lines of force (fig. 20).

51

This is detrimental to the accuracy of the survey. A steel stabilizer may be satisfactory on the
Equator, but not as far north as the North Sea.

N
M
D
C

N
M
D
C
Steel
Stabiliser

Length of NMDC
implies a uniform,
non interupted,
non magnetic
environment.

N
M
D
C

N
M
D
C

Fig 20

The following are circumstances where more non-magnetic drill collars are necessary to counter
drill string magnetism effects. These are also examples in which the azimuth accuracy will likely
decrease.

The further away from the Equator (in latitude).


The larger the hole angle (drift).
The further away from a north/south hole direction.

Note that with 120 feet of non-magnetic material above the magnetometer package the effects
of drill string magnetism in places like ALASKA may still be seen. In fact, Anadrill has
performed jobs in Alaska with as much as 165 feet of non-magnetic material (Motor - 30 feet
Monel - 45 feet M1 collar - 90 feet Monel).

52

Remember:

If magnetic interference is encountered from the drill string, the total H value should
remain constant regardless of tool face orientation or depth as long as the hole
inclination, azimuth and BHA remain fairly constant.
The horizontal component of the X-axis error is equal to:
[(X-axis error) x sin(drift)]. This is why magnetic survey accuracy declines as the hole
angle increases (especially with drill string magnetic interference).
A higher dip angle results in a lower horizontal component of the magnetic field which
means that the same drill string magnetic interference will have a greater effect.

EXTERNAL MAGNETIC INTERFERENCE


When magnetic interference from external sources is encountered (such as from a fish in the
hole or from nearby casing), all three axis of the D&I package will be affected. Therefore, the
total magnetic field will vary. (The total H value will also vary when the D&I package is close
to casing joints). If a hot spot occurs on a non-magnetic collar, our total H value will change
with varying tool face settings, but will be repeatable when the BHA is placed in the same
orientation (fig. 21). Remember, in places such as Alaska, total field strength can routinely vary
by 100 gammas.

Do not mistakenly interpret change in total H value as a failed magnetometer sensor. It


may be caused by magnetic interference.
Do not mistakenly interpret a change in a survey with a failed magnetometer or
inclinometer; it may be due to a tool face dependency.

53

Effect of Magnetic Hot Spot


in MWD Collar
Hz
Hx

Hy

Hot Spot aligned


with Y axis.
H Total

Hot Spot

Magnetic Hot Spot


Rotating with MWD
Collar.
All 3 axes measurements are
effected. Fluctuation in Total
Field is observed when MWD
Tool is rotated.

Hot Spot

Calculated Azimuth will be


wrong but will be repeatable
with the same tool face.
H Earth
H Measured

Fig 21

54

Appendix F - D&I COMPUTATIONS


A. Definition of Terms
Ax, Ay, Az

= Raw Accelerometer Data transmitted by tool ("Raw Values").

Gx, Gy, Gz

= Accelerometer Data after Sign Word and Scale Factor have


been applied ("Calculated Values").

Gx, Gy, Gz

= Processed Accelerometer Data After normalization ("Processed


Values").

Mx, My, Mz

= Raw magnetometer Data after Sign Word and Scale Factor


have been applied.

Hx, Hy, Hz

= Processed Magnetometer Data after normalization.

SW

= Sign Word sent up with Raw Survey Data.

GFH

= Total gravity vector.

HFH

= Total magnetic field vector.

= Projection of GFH onto YZ plane.

B. Normal Survey Calculations


Processing the Raw Survey Data:
1. Apply the Sign Word to the Raw Data.
2. Subtract 1024 from all values that have a 0 below them.
3. Apply the Scale Factors: -1 for accelerometers.
+1 for magnetometers.
* Correction matrices / biases are applied at this point.
4. Using the Calculated Values, compute the GFH and HFH magnitudes.
GFH = Gx2 + Gy2 + Gz2

...... Equation 1

HFH = Hx2 + Hy2 + Hz2

...... Equation 2

55

5. Compute the "Processed Data" using the equations below:


Gx = Gx/GFH,

Gy = Gy/GFH,

Gz = Gz/GFH

Hx = Hx/HFH,

Hy = Hy/HFH,

Hz = Hz/HFH

Computing the Inclination (I) and Azimuth (Az):


1. Calculate the inclination (I) using the equations below:
GY2 + GZ2 = T
I = tan-1 (T/Gx)

...... Equation 3
...... Equation 4

2. Calculate V (the normalized vertical component of H) using the following equation:


V = (GxHx) + G
( yHy) + (GzHz)

...... Equation 5

3. Calculate the two Azimuthal projections A1 and A2 using the formulae below:
A1 = Hx - (VGx)

...... Equation 6

A2 = (GyHz) - (GzHy)

...... Equation 7

4. Calculate the Magnetic Azimuth (MA):


MA = tan-1 (A2/A1)

...... Equation 8

5. Correction for magnetic azimuth (MA).


If: A1 < 0, add 180 degrees to MA
MA < 0, add 360 degrees to MA calculated.
A1 > 0, and MA > 0, no correction
Note: A1 has priority
6. To obtain the final azimuth add magnetic declination to magnetic azimuth and subtract
grid convergence. Remember Westward declinations are Negative and Eastward
declinations are Positive.
Final Azimuth = MA + Declination- Grid Convergence

...... Equation 9

56

C. Example of Survey Calculation (M1)


Ax

Mx

Ay

My

Az

Mz

SW

67
0
-1024
-957
-1

696
1

59
1

25

59
-1

748
0
-1024
-276
-1

697
1

696
1

816
0
-1024
-208
1

697
1

Multiply by
Scale Factor

Gx
957

Hx
696

Gy
-59

Hy
-208

GZ
+276

HZ
697

Calculated Data

Gx
.959

Hx
.691

Gy
-.059

Hy
-.207

Gz
.277

Hz
.692

Processed Data

GFH =

9572 + (-592) + 2762

997

HFH =

6962 + (-2082) + 6972

1007

592 + (-2762)

282

T=

Comments
Raw Data
SW Applied

Inclination Calculation:
I = tan-1 (T/Gx)

=16.4 degrees

Azimuth Calculation:
V = (Gx .Hx) + (Gy .Hy) + (Gz .Hz) = .866
A1 = Hx - (V.Gx) = -0.139
A2 = (Gy .Hz) - G
( z .Hy) = 0.0165
MA = tan-1 (A2/A1) = -6.75
A1 < 0 add 180 to MA
Declination 5 E, add +5
Grid Convergence 2 W, subtract (-2)
Final Azimuth = -6.75 + 180 + 5 - (-2) = 180.3 degrees

57

M3/M10 6 AXIS SURVEY CALCULATION


The ADC in the M3/M10 is a 12 bit converter. In other words:
-5V = 0 Cts

0V = 2048 Cts

5V = 4095 Cts

The Advisor/IDEAL uses the following scheme:


-5V = -2048 Cts

0V = 0 Cts

5V = 2048 Cts

This is necessary because the sensors are centered on 0 Volts and therefore, for example,
the counts for -5V and 5V should be equal in magnitude. Therefore, the raw data on the
Advisor/IDEAL is defined as Counts from the SPM - 2048.
Consequently, the raw data sent by the TCA and decoded on the SPM is different from
that displayed on the Advisor/IDEAL.
Ax
1000

Mx
3252

Ay
1542

My
3358

Az
422

Mz
2976

RAW DATA -1048

1204

-506

1310

-1626

928

SPM DATA

The Advisor algorithms are setup to deal with M1 data. Therefore, the Advisor now
needs to convert the M3 Raw data to the equivalent reading the M1 would send. The M3
survey data is a 12 bit word while the M1 survey data is a 10 bit word (11 bits with the
sign word). The conversion then is:
(M3 Raw Data) = (M1 Equiv)
2048
1024
The survey calculation would then be as follows:
Ax
RAW DATA -1048
M1 Equiv

-524

Apply SF

-1

Calc. Data

Gx
524

Mx
1204

Ay
-506

My
1310

Az
-1626

Mz
928

602

-253

655

-813

464

-1
Hx
602

Gy
253

-1
Hy
655

Gz
813

Hz
464

The same principle would apply for the vectors in the toolface frame, except that they are
8 bit words instead of 12 bit words.
Note: The raw data on the Advisor/IDEAL can be negative, but the tool is transmitting
positive values. At this point, the survey calculations are the same as the previous
example.

58

D.

Survey Calculations with a Bad Sensor

This section is intended to clarify the procedures to be used when one of the D&I sensors
fail. It provides some useful hints on recognizing a failed sensor.
Examination of equations 1 - 9 will lead to the following conclusions:
*
*
*

If a magnetometer fails, then the azimuth will be affected.


If an accelerometer fails, both azimuth and inclination will be affected.
If a sensor fails, its sign, as indicated by the Sign Word (SW), may also be in error.
Any error here will only affect the bad sensor.

Recognizing a Failed Sensor:


The first indication of a possible D&I failure occurs when the survey is computed and
either GFH or HFH is out of range, or the calculated inclination/azimuth does not agree
with previous surveys.
Identify the following problems:
1. Was this a valid survey? Could the cause of the problem be:
a) Moving the drill pipe while surveying.
b) Signal problems during the D&I frame transmission.
2. Which parameters are wrong?
a) Good GFH, good inclination indicate that the accelerometers are functional.
b) Bad HFH, bad azimuth indicate that the magnetometer has failed.
c) Good HFH, bad GFH, bad inclination and bad azimuth indicate an accelerometer
failure.
d) Bad GFH, bad HFH, bad inclination and bad azimuth indicate that both an
accelerometer and magnetometer have failed.
3. Compare current incorrect data to prior surveys.
a) X-axis data will change very little from survey to survey, so Ax, Mx, Gx, Gx, Hx
or Hx should all be similar to previous surveys. If there is a major change, suspect
the X-axis sensor.
b) The values for the Y and Z axes will change constantly as the tool rotates
downhole. Rotate the drill pipe and take another survey. The new values should
change; if one axis sensor remains constant, that is the failed sensor.
c) The value T should remain constant as the tool rotates.

59

Assumptions
1. Assuming an average for GFH or HFH then solving for the sensor value reveals the
magnitude of the sensor, but not its sign.
2. The sign of the X-axis sensors will normally be positive. Gx will be positive if the
inclination is less than 90 degree. There is not a simple relationship for understanding
when Hx is positive or negative. The sign of these sensors can be checked by
comparing the latest processed data to previous good survey processed data.
3. The signs of Gy and Gz do not matter when computing the inclination. See equations
3, 4 and 5.
4. The signs of Gy, Gz, Hy and Hz are critical to the calculation of a correct azimuth.
Since Y and Z continually change as the drill string rotates, signs from the previous
survey cannot be used in the azimuth computations. When a defective accelerometer
or magnetometer is isolated and its magnitude computed, this value with both possible
signs must be tested.
Sin-1V = Dip Angle

...... Equation 10

Since Sin-1V is the dip angle, this is a quick check of whether the correct sign has been
used.
5. It is impossible to obtain the sign of the defective sensor from the Sign Word (SW).
When a sensor fails, it may have the incorrect sign, as well as an incorrect magnitude.
Only the bad sensor will be affected; the signs of the operative sensors will still be
correct.
6. The Advisor/IDEAL software (4/5 axis D*I correction) will identify the failed
sensor(s) and compute a corrected drift and azimuth. If the 4/5 axis correction is
enabled the Master Processor will check the MWD survey for the failed axes. It can
detect and correct up to two bad axes, but they must be of different sensor types (i.e.
one G and one H).
The correction technique operates by comparing the computed values for drift,
azimuth, magnetic dip, G and H with operator entered references. These references are
entered manually on the Master Quickstart menu (Advisor) or the survey page
(IDEAL). These values are updated whenever a good survey is received or a good
correction is made.
The entered MWD Initialization for tool G and H should be that received from the
tool prior to the axis failure. This is a very important number as it is used as the
starting point for calculating the magnitude of the failed axis. An error in the tool G or
H value will adversely affect the accuracy of the 4/5 axis survey.

60

Advisor: If any axes fail during a T/F run, they must be identified from the D&I frame
data and manually specified to the computer via "4/5 Axis" option on the MWD INIT
page. Axes thus identified will berecomputed before the T/F calculations are made.
Refer to Advisor System Users Guide for D&I Axis Correction and Toolface With A
Failed Axis.
Refer to IDEAL FRM for D&I Axis Correction.

FIVE AXIS D&I PROCEDURE


GFH = Gx2 + Gy2 + Gz2
HFH = Hx2 + Hy2 + Hz2
{(Gx . Hx) + (Gy . Hy) + (Gz .Hz)} / (GFH . HFH) = SIN DIP
The procedure will also utilize the GFH or HFH from previous good surveys depending
upon which type of sensor has failed, that is, accelerometer or magnetometer.
Bad Accelerometer
1. Copy Gx, Gy and Gz; then change signs.
Gx = ________________________

x (-1) = _______________________

Gy = ________________________

x (-1) = _______________________

Gz = ________________________

x (-1) = _______________________

2. Find the average GFH from previous good surveys.


GFH ave = ____________________
3. Make an estimate of gx. (All estimates will be denoted by a small initial, eg. gx, gy and
gz).
gx = GFH ave2 - Gy2 - Gz2

61

4. Try that estimate in the DIP formula.


Temp 1 = Gy.Hy +Gz.Hz = ____________________
Temp 2 = gx.Hx = ____________________
Dip gx (+) = Temp 1 - Temp 2 = ____________________
Dip gx (-) = Temp 1 + Temp 2 = ____________________
Similarly check forgy and gz.
5. gy = GFH ave2 - Gx2 - Gz2 = _____________________
Temp 3 = Gx.Hx + Gz.Hz = ______________________
Temp 4 = gy.Hy = ______________________
Dip gy(+) = Temp 3 - Temp 4 = _______________________
Dip gy(-) = Temp 3 + Temp 4 = _______________________
6. gz = GFH ave2 - Gx2 - Gy2 = ________________________
Temp 5 = Gx.Hx + Gy.Hy = _______________________
Temp 6 = gz.Hz = _______________________
Dip gz(+) = Temp 5 - Temp 6 = _______________________
Dip gz(-) = Temp 5 + Temp 6 = _______________________

7. Compute the Sin of the actual DIP angle and multiply by the GFHave.
DIP = Sin (magnetic dip angle) x GFH ave = _____________________

62

8. Compare your estimates of DIP with the actual DIP.


DIP - Dip gx(+) = ______________________
DIP - Dip gx(-) = ______________________
DIP - Dip gy(+) = ______________________
DIP - Dip gy(-) = ______________________
DIP - Dip gz(+) = ______________________
DIP - Dip gz(-) = ______________________
Bad Magnetometer
1. Copy Hx, Hy and Hz.
Hx = _____________________
Hy = _____________________
Hz = _____________________
2. Use HFH ave = _______________________
3. Estimate for hx.
hx = HFH ave2 - Hy2 - Hz2 = ______________________
Temp 1 = Gy.Hy +Gz.Hz = _______________________
Temp 2 = Gx.hx = __________________________
Dip hx(+) = Temp 1 + Temp 2 = _______________________
Dip hx(-) = Temp 1 - Temp 2 = _______________________

63

4. Estimate for hy.


hy = HFH ave2 - Hx2 - Hz2 = _______________________
Temp 3 = Gx.Hx + Gz.Hz = _______________________
Temp 4 = Gy.hy = ______________________
Dip hy(+) = Temp 3 + Temp 4 = _______________________
Dip hy(-) = Temp 3 - Temp 4 = _______________________
5. Estimate for hz.
hz = HFH ave2 - Hx2 - Hy2 = ________________________
Temp 5 = Gx.Hx + Gy.Hy = _______________________
Temp 6 = Gz.hz = ______________________
Dip hz(+) = Temp 5 + Temp 6 = _______________________
Dip hz(-) = Temp 5 - Temp 6 = _______________________
6. Compare your Dip estimates to the real DIP.
7. Calculate the Sin of the actual DIP and multiply by HFHave.
DIP - Dip hx(+) = _____________________
DIP - Dip hx(-) = _____________________
DIP - Dip hy(+) = _____________________
DIP - Dip hy(-) = _____________________
DIP - Dip hz(+) = _____________________
DIP - Dip hz(-) = _____________________

64

Appendix G - NON-MAGNETIC DRILL COLLAR REQUIREMENTS


It will be necessary to calculate the lengths of NMDC required above and below the
MWD tool. Drill string magnetism can cause errors in directional surveys, due to the
coupling that occurs between the Earths magnetic field and the field around the drill
string. This coupling is most severe in highly deviated holes perpendicular to the Earths
magnetic field direction, that is, wells drilled in an East / West direction at high inclinations
will require the most NMDC.
The engineer requires the following information in order to calculate the number of drill
collars needed to minimize magnetic interference:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Declination of the Earths magnetic field at thewellsite.


Earths magnetic field strength at thewellsite.
Dip angle of the Earths magnetic field at thewellsite.
Inclination of wellbore.
Azimuth of wellbore.
Bottom hole assembly configuration.
Magnetic pole strengths of the drill string.

All the above parameters could be determined except the magnetic pole strengths of the
drill string.
NMDC Requirements
LP
MWD / Slim 1 NMDC

Pole Strength
Mag Collars or Motor

IF =

770
+
(z+x)2

AE =
IF
LP

Survey
Package

NMDC

LP.
(y+b)2

NMDC

LP.
(y+b+c)2

57300* IF* Sin1* Sin(Az-MD)


H *CosDIP

= The Calculated Interfering Field


= Pole Strength of Components below the MWD

AE = Predicted Azimuth error due to Interfering Field.

65

For LP. use the following values:


Stabilizer and bit below the MWD = 77
30 ft or more drill collars or other BHA = 260
Mud Motor or Turbine = 860

x
z
y
b

=
=
=
=

Length of Non-magnetic collar above MWD/Slim 1


Length of MWD collar above D&I sensor point
Length of MWD collar below D&I sensor point
Length of Non-magnetic collar below MWD/Slim 1

H
Az
I
MD
DIP

=
=
=
=
=

Total magnetic Field Strength in Gammas


Azimuth of the well
Inclination of the well
Magnetic declination
Dip Angle

NOTE: ALL LENGTH UNITS ARE IN FEET.


This equation was developed assuming an 8 inch collar (BHA). The interfering field for a
4 inch collar (BHA) may be different.

66

Appendix H - RUNNING MAGCOR

MAGCOR is NOT an alternative to running sufficient non magnetic material in the


drillstring.
Most problems in running MAGCOR are due to a poor understanding of the program and
its inputs/outputs. The following guidelines will help :
Magcor corrects for external magnetic interference. It assumes that the LOCN H is the
true H value for the location. It also assumes that the MWD / Slim magnetometers are
properly calibrated to measure this H accurately.
1)

Setting up the program prior to taking a cluster shot.

The program is run in realtime and is accessed at the same time as the survey is read into
surhld.hld. The matrix corrected survey is read into magcor.hld concurrently with
surhld.hld. However, for this to be achieved in the correct manner, a number of inputs
need to be in place correctly prior to this.
a) Magnetic correction must be enabled on the Start Up Page.
b) MWD inits page must be initialized and set up correctly.
IT IS VERY IMPORTANT FOR THE CORRECT OPERATION OF MAGCOR
THAT : DIP, Declination, Locn.H and SC volt are INPUT correctly.
Magcor uses a Field H value as a reference from which to measure the variance of tool H
for each survey. The program then corrects the H axes values to this reference H to
compensate for any magnetic interference.
The reference H used in Magcor is not the Tool H on the MWD inits page.
Ref H for Magcor is calculated as follows:Loc H X 20 X (SC Volt / 5) (converts LOCN H to counts)
This Reference H value is input automatically for each survey when the survey information
is transferred into Magcor. At present there is no way of changing this value on Advisor
once it has been entered. (For this reason you cannot rerun Magcor by changing Reference
H and expect different results - You run it once, in real time, and that is it!)

67

2)

Taking a cluster shot.

A cluster shot is a rotational shot where at least 4 surveys are taken over a wide spread of
toolfaces.
a)
b)

Make sure the tool is clear of any other possible source of interference, like
casing.(Other than the drillstring).
Take at least 4 surveys over a wide toolface spread. (Minimum, one in each
quadrant). It is recommended that 6 surveys 60 from each other are taken to
guarantee a good cluster shot.

c)

Make sure all the shots in the cluster are at a comparable depth. For the Advisor
this means within 1 foot of each other. The program will hang up if the surveys
show a depth difference.

d)

Check that the surveys are being read to Magcor as they are taken. If the program
has not been enabled then there is no way of reading the surveys toMagcor later.

3)

Running the Magcor program

Once the surveys are stored in Magcor then the program can be run as many times as the
user requires.
a)

Select the shots you require in order to run the program. These should give a wide
toolface coverage. If they do not then either select more valid surveys from your
cluster or retake the cluster. Note at least 4 surveys must be selected otherwise the
program will freeze.

b)

The program will then calculate the error along each of the 3 axes and ask if you
want to accept them. The following rules should be applied as criteria for accept or
reject:-

i)

Check the percentage error of the maximum distance away from the centre of the
uncertainty circle drawn. This is stated at the bottom of this page below the error
diagram. If < 2% then the correction is good, 2-5% the correction should be used
with caution, >5% the program is inducing greater errors than it is correcting for.
The axial error stated on the right may be higher than 5%

ii)

Compare the raw survey azimuth against the range of uncertainty given for the
corrected survey. If the raw azimuth falls within this range then the correction
should not be applied as no interference is present. Obviously if it lies outside this
range then the correction should be used as long as it meets all the other criteria.
If these requirements are met then accept the correction and manually recorrect the
cluster shot surveys in Magcor The following checks should then be made:-

68

iii)

The correction to the X axis should be large compared to those for the Y and Z
axes. If not then :
1) The cluster shot is invalid, or
2) Some other magnetic interference is present and the cluster shot must be
retaken after the hole is displaced further away from this external source.

iv)

When the correction is applied then it should usually correct to the South in the
Northern Hemisphere and vice versa in the Southern Hemisphere. If the correction
corrects in the other direction then the tool calibration should be checked. It was
thought that the program should only correct to the South in the Northern
hemisphere but some recent examples in Aberdeen seem to disprove this. However
it is suggested that if a correction to the North occurs then all other parameters
should be thoroughly double checked before it is used.

4)

Monitoring the Programs Output as Further Surveys are Taken.

As further surveys are taken with depth, then the programs input and output must be
continually monitored for the following:1)

Check that the tool H values from the surveys are not drastically changing. If in
doubt take a fresh cluster shot and compare the differences. H should be
reasonably constant. For instance if the H value of the surveys moves to values
comparable with the theoretical ones then it is probable an external magnetic
source was present when the original cluster shot was taken.

2)

Check that corrections made continue to correct in the same direction. If the
corrections alternate from side to side then something is Wrong!

3)

Apply all the usual criteria (ie. DIP, Tot H, Tot G) when initially
accepting/rejecting a survey. Do not expect Magcor to turn bad surveys into
good ones.

It is suggested that cluster shots are retaken when the following applies:1)
2)
3)

Every 1000 foot drilled.


Whenever large changes in inclination or azimuth occur.
Whenever the BHA is changed.

It is good practice to check every time the tool is run in hole regardless of whether the
string has been altered or not.
Remember
MAGCOR is not an alternative to running sufficient non magnetic material in the
drillstring, in order to avoid interference problems. It should be used with utmost
caution.

69

MAGCOR PROGRAM FOR ADVISOR


The following is a summary of the Magnetic Correction Program for the Advisor. Section
2 explains the program execution.
The purpose of the magnetic correction algorithm is to correct the azimuth error due to
the magnetization of the drilling tools. The usual survey calculations and display are not
affected. The corrected surveys are written to another file, DB0:MAGCOR.HLD. This file
is not available to any of the survey applications, such as editing, calculation and 4/5 axis
correction. Only a hardcopy and terminal output of this file are available for display.
1. Theory
The magnetic correction requires taking from 4 to 10 surveys at one depth in the wellbore,
rotating the string between surveys. The technique works in two distinct steps. First the
transverse magnetic interference is measured and corrected, then the axial magnetic
interference is computed and corrected.
Correction of Transverse Magnetic Interference
Transverse means perpendicular to the wellbore, therefore, this correction applies to Hy
and Hz. The coordinates (Hy,Hz) are plotted, along with a best circle fit through the
points. The distance from the center of this circle to the origin of the magnetometers is the
correction to the two transverse magnetometers. These corrections are subtracted from
the readings. For example, assume a transverse error of the value Ey on magnetometer Y,
caused by some hotspot in a drill collar, and no error on magnetometer Z.. When Y faces
magnetic north, Z reads zero and Y reads some component of the Earths magnetic field
plus Ey. When Y faces south, it reads the negative of the same component plus Ey. A
cross-plot of Y versus Z, will be a circle, but translated along Y by the value ofEy
(Figure 1).

70

Hy

+1
2+

(0,0)

(Ey,0)

+5

Hz

3+
+4

Figure 1. Transverse Axes Correction

Correction of Axial Magnetic Interference


Axial is along the wellbore (X-axis). This is the most common source of error, due to
magnetic elements in the motors and collars. If the measured magnetic field strength and
dip differs from tabulated values (such as the ones published by the British Geological
Survey in GEOMAG), one can then correct the axial reading to try to bring the measured
magnetic vector as close as possible to the tabulated one.
Using corrected the transverse magnetometers readings (Hyc = Hy - Ey and Hzc = Hz Ez) and the axial reading, one can recompute the magnitude and direction of the total
magnetic vector measured by the MWD:
HFH =

(Hx)2 + (Hyc)2 + (Hzc)2

and 0=Cos-1.

.GxHx+GyHyc+GzHzc
GFHxHFH

In figure 2, the measured H vector is defined by the calculated field strength (HFH) and 90
- dip angle ( ) with respect to the gravity vector (G). In figure 2, the vector for the
Earths magnetic field (Emf) has been added. This vector is defined by the field strength
and 90 - dip angle ( o) from GEOMAG. However, its relation with H is unknown. If the
tool is rotated 360 degrees, a plot of all the possible Emf defines a cone with an angle of 2
x 0o and a length equal to GEOMAGs tabulated magnetic field strength.

71

Emf

Figure 2. Measured Magnetic Vector vs. Tabulated Magnetic Vector

In figure 3, the azimuth error (E) is the vector defined by the shortest distance from the
extremity of H to the base of the cone. A corrected Hx (Hxc) is calculated by determining
the magnitude of error (Ex) parallel to the X-axis.
As we are dealing with two numbers, field strength and dip angle, a value of Ex must be
found that minimizes the error in both magnitude and direction. By substituting different
values of Ex into the correction, new field strengths and dip angles for H are calculated:
HFH =

(Hxc)2 + (Hyc)2 + (Hzc)2

and 0 = Cos -1.

.GxHxc+GyHyc+GzHzc
GFHxHFH

When plotted against the amount of error, the new calculations of H describe a curve
(Figure 3). The point of closest approach of this curve to the base of the cone then
becomes the Ex with the minimum error.

72

Ex

Hx

Hx c

Ex

Emf

Figure 3. Determining Hx Correction

WARNING: The magnetic field strength from GEOMAG is not perfect. The Earths
magnetic field varies daily by as much as 300nT (nanoTesla) in amplitude and 0.3 degree
in dip. These small variations can be significant when the axial reading is small. In fact in
some cases the technique can cause a bigger error than the one that it tries to correct.
The following guidelines should be followed to minimize the error caused by the
fluctuation in the Earths magnetic field.

The distance to any point minus the circle radius should be less than 5% of the
radius of the circle.
Percent distance = 100 x

Hy2 + Hz2 - r
r

Do not use the correction if the non-corrected azimuth falls within the range of
corrected azimuths.

It is much safer to use non-magnetic drill collars in the string than try to
correct for magnetic interference.

73

2. Program Execution
1. Similar to the 4/5 Axis, the magnetic correction must first be enabled from XMAINs
restart page. Option 12 (Magnetic Correction), signals MAMON or MMON to begin
writing raw survey to MAGCOR.HLD in addition to SURHLD.HLD.
2. Correction factors for Hx, Hy and Hz must then be determined by taking a minimum
of 4 surveys at the same depth, rotating the tool between each survey. The tool should
be at least 100ft away from the nearest casing, and the surveys should cover at least
three quadrants. Use the following procedure:
3. From the Survey Control page, select Magnetic Correction page. The last 14 surveys
taken with the magnetic correction enabled will be displayed.
4. Then select the option to Compute correction factors. The reference surveys to be
used for the correction must then be selected. At the following prompt, enter the
upper and lower survey record numbers to be used in the correction:
RECORD NUMBER FROM:
The opportunity is then given to ignore some of the surveys within the range, if it is
apparent (or becomes apparent later) that they are of poor quality. If any survey within
this range is not suitable to use in the calculation, it can be ignored by entering "N" at
the following prompt:
Use all of them (Y/N):
The program will then prompt for the survey numbers to be ignored.
5. Once the surveys have been selected, a <CR> continue onto the correction diagnostics
menu to allow the operator to assess the quality of the reference surveys and the value
of the correction.
(a)

(b)

(c)

On the left side of the screen, the two transverse magnetometers' readings are
cross-plotted, and a circle fit through the points. If all the points fall close to the
circle, the surveys are OK. The points far away from the circle should be ignored
going back to step 4.
On the display the distance between the circle and the point the most far away
from it is indicated as a percentage of the circle radius. Between 0 and 2%, the
surveys are good and the method appropriate, between 2 and 5% the method is
arguable, above 5% the method is introducing a bigger error than what it
corrects for.
Also a curve on the right hand side of the screen shows the axial correction. The
axial correction is computed from the nominal Earth's magnetic field from
GEOMAG the uncertainty in GEOMAG. This gives a range of azimuth. If the
non-corrected azimuth falls in the range, it is recommended not to use the
technique at all.

74

6. Besides the Compute correction factors option, this program also has the following
functionalities:

Edit correction factors - This option allows the operator to manually change the
calculated correction factors.

Manually correct surveys - If new correction factors are calculated, they can be
applied to a selected range of surveys that were previously taken. The raw surveys
("R" in second column) are kept, and corrected survyes ("C") are added. The
software can only apply corrections to "R" survyes. For display purposes only 10
survyes can be manually corrected at a time.

Select first record for display - Only 14 records can be displayed at one time. This
option defines the first record of the display.

Start / stop real-time correction - "Start" automatically applies the calculated


correction factors to all surveys taken after this option is selected. "Stop" will
disable the application of the correction factors.

Create print file - This option will create an ASCII file PRO:MAGCOR.PRT. This
is identical to the terminal listings of the surveys.

CAUTION: At the end of the bit run, make sure to stop the real-time correction. The
correction factors are only meaningful for one BHA, and should not be applied to another.

75

MAGCOR PROGRAM FOR IDEAL


1. Theory
The theory for Magcor is the same as previously listed in the Advisor section.
2. Magcorr Password
Due to a licesing agreement, any use of magnetic correction functionality must be
approved by the district manager prior to the use. When Magcorr panel is started from
the survey panel, it will ask for a password for a particular ID. This ID is generated
randomly by the system. You must obtain the password corresponding to the ID from the
district manager and input it. The password is required once per well. After inputting the
password, it is recomended that a DLIS save is performed from the TopCP.
3. Computing Correction Factors
From the Top Control Panel, choose Directional Drilling Application; click on Survey to
bring up the survey panel, then click on the Magnetic Correction button to bring up the
magnetic correction off-line utility (Figure 4).

Figure 4 Magnetic Corrction Off-line Utility: Compute

76

The user needs to perform the following steps to compute magnetic correction factors for
a set of surveys within close depth range:
1. Enter the measured depth at which there are at least 4 surveys taken within a 2-ft
range. Press the return key. The list of selected MWD surveys will be displayed on the
panel.
2. A survey can be removed from the list by clicking on it and clicking on the delete
button.
3. Click on the Compute button and magnetic correction factors will be computed and
displayed on the panel under Corr Offset for Shx Shy Shz as Computed.
NOTE: A minimum of 4 surveys are required to perform the computations and only the
first 20 surveys in the list will be used to perform the computations.

Figure 5 Magnetic Correction Off-line Utility: Apply

1. Click on the Show Circle to see the survey distribution around the X-axis passing
through the center of the circle. If any survey is too far from the circumference of the
circle, it can be removed using the Delete button and computations can be performed
again using the Compute button.

77

2. The user can change the values of computed correction by simply editing the values.
3. To save the computed magnetic corrections, click on the Save Corr Offsets button.
4. Applying Correction Factors and Accepting Corrected Data
The user needs to perform the following steps to apply the saved magnetic corrections to
a range of surveys.
1. Click on the "Hide Circle" to hide the circle. The panel will look like Figure 5 .
2. In the "Apply Magnetic Correction" section, choose one option: Depth, Srv # or Entire
database. If the depth is selected, enter the survey measure depth range. If the srv # is
selected, enter the survey number range.
3. Click on "Apply saved corr" to apply. The list of surveys will now show chosen
surveys, each original survey followed by a new magnetically corrected survey (Figure 5).
The new survey will have zero for the survey number, "6-M" (or 4-M or 5-M) in the Axis
column and "MC" in the Tool column. These surveys are not yet stored in the database
and will be lost when the panel is removed. In the new survey, the magnetic correction
factors are subtracted from the temperature-corrected values of Shx, Shy and Shz, and
D&I computations (inclination, azimuth,tool_H, mtf, gtf, etc.) are recomputed.
4.

to accept a magnetically corrected survey, choose the survey by clicking on it and click
on Accept.

Note: The Accept button will be accessible only after saved correction are applied.

78

Appendix I - COORDINATE SYSTEMS


Systems of Coordinates and Declination
The principal projection systems used to represent the curved earth surface on a horizontal
plan are:
Universal Transverse of Mercator (UTM).
In the Transverse Mercator projection the surface of the spheroid representing the earth is
wrapped in a cylinder which touches the spheroid along a meridian.
UNIVERSAL TRANSVERSE OF MERCATOR (UTM)

NORTH POLE
(AXIS)

CIRCLE OF
CONTACT

A1

B1

A
B

CENTRAL
MERIDIAN

NORTH POLE
(AXIS)

N
A
D
D

C
C

LINES OF INTERSECTION

Shapes on the surface of the globe are transferred to the map in a way that may be
illustrated by imagining the globe to be made of glass with a source of light at the centre.
If the cylinder is unwrapped it would give a correct scale representation along the central
meridian (Points C, C1, D, D1) and an increased away from it (A becomes A1 and B
becomes B1).

79

1. UNIVERSAL TRANSVERSE OF MERCATOR (UTM)


MERIDIAN:

A circle running around the earth passing through both


geographical North and South poles.

PARALLEL:

A circle perpendicular to the poles axes, hence parallel to the


Equator.

REFERENCE MERIDIANS
Reference meridians used are 6 degrees apart starting at the Greenwich meridian giving 60
maps called zones.
The zones are numbered 0 to 60 with the zone 31 having the 0 degree meridian
(Greenwich) on the left and 6 degree E on the right.
Each zone is further divided into grid sectors each covering 8 degrees of latitude.
UTM GRID SECTOR ORIGINS
In longitude the origin (zero value) is a line 500,000m West of the centre meridian of the
relevant grid sector (3 degree E).
In latitude the origin is at the equator.
GRID SECTORS
Grid sectors are divided into squares of 100 x 100 km and then further divided into
squares of 10 x 10 km.

80

15 0
W

1 20

12 0E
W 9
0W 60
90E
60E
W 30W
0 30E

E
150

W
150

120

60W 30W 0 30E 60E 9


0E
0W
120
W9
E

150

Fig. 2.1
THE METHOD OF ZONE NUMBERING ACCORDING TO THE UTM SYSTEM EACH
ZONE IS 6 LONGITUDE IN WIDTH AND EXTENDS FROM 80 NORTH TO 80 SOUTH.

24 18 12 6

0 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 66 72

V
56

56
31U

48

48
T

40

40
S

32

32
R

24

24
Q

16

16
P

8
N
0

Frg

101 27

28 29

30

31 32 33 34 35

36 37 38

39 40 41

42

Fig. 2.1 (a)


81

As a Mercator projection becomes increasingly inaccurate as one moves away from the
reference meridian, a series of reference meridians is used so that it is always possible to
use a map with the reference meridian close to the place of work and therefore to have
correct scale. Each reference meridian is 6 apart starting at the Greenwich meridian thus
giving 60 zones. The zones are numbered from 0 to 60, starting from meridian 180 with
zone 31 having 0 degrees meridian (Greenwich) on the left and 6 degrees E on the right.
(Fig 2.1)
Each zone is divided into grid sectors each covering 8 of latitude. They are identified by a
letter from C to X (I and O excluded) from parallel 80 South to parallel 80 North. (Fig
2.1a). One grid sector is identified by the zone number followed by the relevant parallel
sector. For instance the southern North Sea is 31 U as shows Fig 2.1a.
24 18

12

12 18 24 30 36 42 48

54 60 66 72

56

56
31U

U
48

48
T

40

40
S

32

32
R

24

24
Q

16

16
P

8
N

Frg

101 27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

UTM COORDINATES

In each sector the UTM coordinates are given in meters with the origins or reference axis
as follows:
- In longitude the origin (zero value) is a line 500,000m West of the center meridian of the
relevant grid sector. (3E in 31U).
- In latitude the origin is at the Equator.
From the origin, the UTM coordinates values are expressed commonly as Eastings and
Northings.
Example:

Rig UTM coordinate: 31U

410,250.00E
6,850,500.00N
This means that the rig is (500,000 - 410,250) = 89,750m West of the central meridian of
the sector 31U and 6,850,000m North of Equator.

82

2. LAMBERT PROJECTION

This is the projection of the earth on to a cone.

Cone axis coincides with the geographical poles axis.

Its vertex could be located at the North or South depending


on which hemisphere requires to be mapped.

LINE OF
CONTACT

80W
60W

100W
120W

40W
140W
20W

160W
0

180
20E

160E
40E
140E
60E
80E

120E
100E

The Lambert projection is the projection of the earth on to a cone. The cone axis coincides
with the geographic poles axis of the earth and its vertex could be located at North or
South depending on which hemisphere requires to be mapped. The surface of the cone is a
tangent to the earth or can intersect it on two parallels.

83

3. POLAR COORDINATES

Polar coordinates are expressed in degrees, minutes and seconds.

Each degree is subdivided into 60 minutes and each minute further


subdivided into 60 seconds.

Longitude:

East = +ve
West = -ve

Latitude:

North = +ve
South = -ve
N

EXAMPLE

90

E
E
LATITUD

EQ
U

AT

3 36'

01"

becomes

UD
GI T

52N

N
LO

3 + 36 + 1
=
60
3600

3.600278

OR

Tables are usually available to convert polar coordinates into orthogonal coordinates.
Should tables not be available, the coordinates can be calculated by using ellipse
equations.
Example of conversion from polar coordinates to orthogonal coordinates, let us assume:
Polar coordinates:
Longitude ( ) Latitude ( )
Target

03 35' 45.00"

40 42' 55.00"

Rig

03 36' 01.00"

40 43' 06.50"

Difference Target to Rig in deg.

- 00 00' 16.00"

- 00 00' 11.50"

in radians

- 0.0000776

- 0.000056

Mean angles in decimal degrees

3.59805556

40.71847222

Note: Longitude (+) = East


(-) = West

Latitude

(+) = North
(-) = South

1 second = 4.84813 x 10-6 radians


1 radian = 57 17' 45" or 20625"

84

POLAR PROJECTION
The surface of the earth is projected onto a plane tangent to poles.
Parallels encompass the poles, making concentric circles.

20

10

10

30

ICELAND

60

NORWAY

55
SWEDEN

DENMARK

REPUBLIC
OF IRELAND

50

UNITED
KINGDOM

GERMANY

45

0
FRANCE

200
200

400
300

600 km

400 miles

40

ITALY
SPAIN

ALGERIA

85

E-W Coordinates

r = radius of earth parallel at latitud


AB = arc of circle with radius r and centre
= difference of longitude, in seconds
r = R cos (in degrees)
2

r = circumference = 360
R cos

E-W = arc of circle = AB =

648000

N-S Coordinates

R
B

= Difference in latitud, (in degrees)


AB = arc of circle with radius R and centre 0
Length of arc of circle = L = R x
180
N-S distance = AB = R x
180

86

Radius R

Rp

Re

by ellipses:
R2cos2 + R2sin2
Re2

- 1 = 0

Rp2

then:
Re2 x Rp2
R=

where:

Re2 sin2 + Rp2 cos2

R = radius of earth at point of latitud


= average latitud between 2 points

87

4. HORIZONTAL DISPLACEMENT
Horizontal distance and direction to the target must be calculated. The following example
uses UTM coordinates to determine the eastings and northings.

UTM Coords. of rig


UTM Coords. of target

410261.0E
412165.0E

Absolute difference in eastings,


Absolute difference in northings,

Delta E = 1904.0
Delta N = 1661.8

6833184.2N
6834846.0N

Horizontal Displacement (HD) to the target is:

HD=

1661.82 + 1904.02 =

1904.0m

2527.21 m

TARGET

.
H.D

1661.9m
RIG

TARGET DIRECTION
The bearing to the target is:
= tan-1 (1904.0 / 1661.8) = 48.90 degree or N48.9E

88

Definition of Terms

ace
me
nt

ure

ec
ti o
n

Ve
rti

ca
lS

Azimuth from
Rotary Table
to Target

Cl
os

Di s
pl

L atitude

Departure

Closure
Azimuth

Rotary Table

89

Appendix J - The GEOMAG Program


GEOMAG is a program which can be used to calculate the magnetic declination, magnetic
dip angle and total field strength (LOCN H) for any given location on the Earths surface.
The program is simply based upon look up tables which define the above parameters
referenced by longitude, latitude, elevation and date. The GEOMAG program has been
updated to use 2 new models, the British Global Geomagnetic model (BGGM) and the
International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF).
The BGGM is a mathematical model of the geomagnetic field based on a spherical
harmonic expansion of the scalar potential from which the components of the field are
derived. The current version consists of a main field model for 1990.0 and series of 8
models for the time rate of change (the secular variation) of the field which enables the
main field model to be updated to any date up to and including 1997.5.
Each of the secular variation models is valid for an interval of one year, centered on the
epochs 1990.0, 1991.0, 1992.0, 1993.0, 1994.0, 1995.0, 1996.0, and 1997.0 and the
updating to a particular epoch is performed incrementally using as many of the secular
variation models as are necessary.
The BGGM main-field model for 1990.0 extends to a spherical harmonic degree and order
of 13 and has 195 coefficients; each of the 8 secular variation models has a maximum
degree and order of 8 and consists of 80 coefficients.
GEOMAG models the core field of the Earths magnetic field. This is the base field
neglecting "external" influences such as crustal anomalies, diurnal variation or ionospheric
disturbances.
In an area such as the North Sea where there are a significant number of magnetic
observatories to provide a good data coverage, the accuracy of GEOMAG as it compares
to the core field is approximately 1/3 degree RMS in declination and 10 nt RMS in total
field strength. If you were to move to a "sparsely populated" area such as the South
Pacific these errors would increase 2 to 3 fold.
The various external influences mentioned above would induce the following errors
between GEOMAG and measured values for a point on Earth.
Crustal Anomalies
North Sea
World Wide

1/2 - 3/4 deg RMS in declination


160 nt RMS field strength
1/2 - 1 deg RMS in declination
250 nt RMS field strength

The North Sea errors are less than the world wide values as there is little volcanic activity
in the North Sea to provide fresh crustal anomalies.
Diurnal Variation

90

1/4 - 1/2 deg peak to peak in declination


40 nt peak to peak in field strength
Ionospheric Disturbance
No influence on "quiet" days
On moderate days this can double the diurnal variation (12 - 100 days per
year depending on sun spot cycle) to 1/2 - 1 deg and 80 nt.
GEOMAG on the Advisor
The GEOMAG Program can be accessed from the MWD inits. It allows computation of 7
geomagnetic field values at a specified date and location on the Earth, using a spherical
harmonic model.
The outputs of interest to us for the MWD inits are the magnetic declination, dip and total
intensity (LOCN H). They can be loaded directly into the MWD limit checking file,
MWDINI.LIM. Also available are the E/W, N/S, horizontal, and vertical components of
the magnetic field. An option allows display of the rate of change (deviation) of each. A
print file of the outputs, PRO:GEOMAG.PRT, can be created if required and output
through "print an output file" at output control.
Inputs required are; elevation, date, latitude and longitude. It also requires two data files.
One, GEOLOC.DAT, contains the Lat and Long definitions for the geographical locator.
This file can be customized by the operator for a given location. The second file
IGRF85.MOD contains the spherical harmonic coefficients for the model. DO NOT EDIT
THIS FILE.
NOTE: The declination output is magnetic declination, the angle between true
(geographic) north (TN) and magnetic north (MN). It is NOT corrected for
convergence, the angle between local grid north (GN), often UTM, and true
north. If you are using the UTM coordinate system and need your surveys
referenced to grid north then the convergence (-ve if West) should be
SUBTRACTED from the Geomag declination output before entry into the
Advisor. The Advisor declination must always be the angle between magnetic
north and the desired reference north, negative if magnetic north is West of
reference north.
Inputs
On startup, the current values of the LOCN H, MAG DIP and MAG DEV limits for the
MWD Inits are read from the file MWDINI.LIM and displayed for information.
The previous value of all inputs to the program is displayed in parenthesis in the prompt
and may be retained by hitting a CR only, when cycling through the program. To retain
software compatibility for the CR = no change feature between various computers it was
necessary to consider a CR the same as a 0 input. Therefore, to reduce an input to zero
after a previous non-zero value, enter a small number (.0001).

91

There is a limit checking on all inputs. Any that are out of range cause an error message to
appear listing the allowed upper and lower limits.
The LOCATION input is a 20 character, alphanumeric string that can be used to describe
the location. It is used in the output display only. To replace a previously entered name
with blanks, enter minus sign (-).
A location string cannot start with a space or a minus.
The ELEVATION is geodetic and should be the elevation above mean sea level, entered
in feet or meters, depending on your initial units selection.
The program will not compute values below sea level.
The DATE should be entered in decimal years, e.g. day 234 in 1988 should be entered as
1988.64. This need not be absolutely accurate as it has a very small effect on the output.
The current model is valid from 1980 to 1990 only.
The LATITUDE should be entered in decimal degrees; positive for northern hemisphere,
negative for the southern hemisphere. There are 60 minutes in a degree and 60 seconds in
a minute of latitude or longitude. A position of 43 23' 45" should be entered as 43.3958.
The LONGITUDE should be entered in decimal degrees; positive for eastern hemisphere,
negative for western hemisphere.
Once Longitude is entered, the program searches the GEOLOC.DAT file to find the first
location that includes the entered coordinates. The test string associated with that location
is displayed for operator information and acceptance. If it is accepted the computations
proceed, if not a new latitude is requested. See below for details of customizing this file.
Outputs
Each cycle of the program will create a report containing the input and output data. It is
displayed on the screen and if a print file has been selected, it is added to the file. Multiple
reports from a single session of the program can be stored in the same print file. To stop
subsequent program cycles being added to the print file select the restart option and
deselect the print file. To restart storage in the print file, reselect the print file. Restarting
the program will create a new print file.
The outputs for declination and dip are in decimal degrees and the various intensities are in
nanotesla, (nt), 1 nt = 1 gamma. In addition, the total field strength is output in Kgamma.
The deviations are in deg or nt per year. A separate line on the screen displays the values
required for the MWD inits. These can be accepted for storage in the MWDINI.LIM file if
required. If they are accepted, the old and new limits are displayed and an 'Are you sure'
gives you one last chance. The limits are set at the value +/- 0.3 degrees for the MAG
DEC and MAG DIP and +/- 0.5 Kgamma for the LOCN H.

92

GEOMAG on IDEAL

The outputs of interest to us for the D&I inits are total intensity (Location H), the
magnetic dip and magnetic declination. They can be loaded directly into the D&I
Initialization panel by clicking "Apply" button. Also available are the E/W, N/S,
horizontal, vertical components of the magnetic field, and the rate of change (deviation) of
each. A Geomag ASCII file can be written to Well folder if required and output through
"Print" button.
The inputs required are elevation, latitude, longitude and date. The file,
OP$CONFIG:GEOLOC.DAT, contains the latitude and longitude definitions for the
geographical locator. This file can be customized by the operator for a given location.
Inputs
There is limit checking on all inputs. Any that are out of range cause an error message to
appear listing the allowed upper and lower limits.
The REMARKS input is a 38 character, alphanumeric string that can be used to describe
the location. It is used in the output display only.
The ELEVATION is geodetic and should be the elevation above mean sea level. The
program will not computer values below sea level.

93

The LATITUDE should be entered in positive decimal degrees for northern hemisphere
and negative for southern hemisphere.
The LONGITUDE should be entered in positive decimal degrees for eastern hemisphere
and negative for western hemisphere.
The DATE should then be entered in day, month, and year of the form DD-MMM-YY.
The current date is default.
Outputs
Once the "Compute" button is clicked, the calculated output data will be displayed on the
screen. If the "Print" button is then clicked, an ASCII file will be created. The outputs for
declination and dip are in decimal degrees and the various intensities are in nanotesla, (nt),
1 nt = 1 gamma. In addition, the total field strength is output in Kgamma. The deviations
are in deg or nt per year.
Push Buttons
OK Updates the D&I initialization panel with the computed Location H, Magnetic Dip
and Magnetic declination and then removes theGeomag panel.
Apply Updates the D&I initialization panel as "OK" button and keeps the control on the
Geomag panel.
Cancel Makes no changes to the D&I initialization panel and removes theGeomag panel.
Print Writes the input and output into an ASCII file CURRENT_WELL :
Geomag.ASCII_FILE

94

SECTION 4
MWD SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE

1.

At what Magnetic Field Strength will the output of a 5 volt Sensor Cartridge (output of the
Magnetometer) over range ?

2.

At which of the following geographical locations would MWD survey accuracy be best
(assuming the same tool is used) and why ?

Location A.
Declination
Magnetic Field Strength
Magnetic DIP Angle

3.

Location B
1 Degree West.
48,000 Gammas.
57 Degrees

Declination
Magnetic Field Strength.
Magnetic DIP Angle

31 Degrees East
58,000 Gammas
80 Degrees

Manually apply the following correction matrix to the supplied Gx value to attain a matrix
corrected Gx.
Gx before applying matrix = 841
Gy before applying matrix = -269
Gz before applying matrix = -468
Accelerometer Correction Matrix (mg/count)
AA (1,1) = 1.0013
AA (1,2) = 0.0006
AA (2,1) = -0.0010
AA (2,2) = 1.0017
AA (3,1) = 0.0024
AA (3.2) = 0.0158

AA (1,3) = -0.0023
AA (2,3) = -0.0155
AA (3,3) = 1.0015

Accelerometer Biases in COUNTS


X = -0.05
Y = -0.10 Z = -0.31
Magnetometer Correction Matrix (50 gamma/count)
MM (1,1) = 1.4061
MM (1,2) = -0.0034
MM (2,1) = 0.0025
MM (2,2) = 1.4113
MM (3,1) = 0.0028
MM (3,2) = 0.0268

MM (1,3) = -0.0018
MM (2,3) = -0.0252
MM (3,3) = 1.4095

Magnetometer Biases in COUNTS


X = -0.12
Y = -0.80 Z = 0.33

95

4.

Drill string magnetism will effect MWD surveys by *increasing/decreasing the *Total HFH,
Total GFH, Hx, Hy, Hz, Gx, Gy and/or Gz. Delete as appropriate.

5.

If a well is drilled where Magnetic Interference has effected all the MWD surveys
throughout, the bottom hole location calculated using these results compared to an accurate
Gyro survey will not coincide.
Where will the Gyro Surveys Lie relative to the MWD surveys ?

6.

If a 6 axis survey is showing 39 degrees azimuth and you have been experiencing 0.5
degrees of drill string magnetism error in your MWD surveys, what would the survey be,
correcting for magnetic interference ?
If you were drilling at an Azimuth of 1 Degree what would the corrected survey be ?

7.

If you have a magnetic hot spot on your MWD collar near enough to the Magnetometer
package to effect your surveys then your total HFH value should :
a. Vary with toolface orientation but be repeatable at the same orientation.
b. Not vary with toolface orientation and be unrepeatable at the same toolface orientation.
c. Should be completely random.

96

8.

The following surveys were taken while a well was being kicked off.
The following inputs were made to the MWD Initialization page:
Last Good Survey : Inc = 6.14
G = 998.8 +/- 5 counts
Az = 261.77
H = 991.0 +/- 15 counts
GTF = 33.2
DIP = 59.2 +/- 1.0 degrees
MTF = 295.0
Magnetic Declination = +1.46
SCA Voltage = 5.0
Gx

Hx

Gy

Hy

Gz

Hz

GTF Inc

Az

DIP

989
980
972
972

836
819
809
811

12
-47
-219
-11

518
411
-383
486

123
194
194
194

147
388
432
308

115.2
96.3
61.7
106.5

261.1
258.2
192.5
258.2

998.0
1001.5
1016.4
992.6

990.4
991.2
990.2
990.4

59.3
59.8
71.0
58.9

7.2
11.6
16.8
11.4

a.

Is the first Survey Good ? Why or Why Not ?

b.

Is the second survey acceptable ? Why or Why Not ?

c.

Is the third survey good ?

What do you think the problem is ?

Can you identify the problem axis ?

d.

Is the fourth survey good ?

Can the failed axis be identified from the tabulated data ?

What is the failed axis ?

97

9.

The following two surveys were taken at a shallow hole test. The BHA was steerable with a
1 deg bent housing. The following inputs were made to the MWD Initialization page :
Inc = 0.5
Az = 331.7
GTF = -14.4
MTF = 249.3
SCA Voltage = 5.0
Gx

Hx

Gy

Hy

Gz

Hz

991
997

625
625

-9
-9

807
807

4
4

-432
-432

G = 998.1 +/- 5 counts


H = 990.7 +/- 15 counts
DIP = 59.3 +/- 1.0 degrees
Magnetic Declination = +1.46

GTF Inc

Az

a. Finish filling in the table.


b. Is there a problem with this tool ?

c. Would you continue to run this tool in the well?

98

DIP

10.

The following survey data is taken from an MWD tool after drilling out of casing.
The following inputs were made to the MWD Initialization page :
Last good Survey:

Inc = 26.39
Az = 262.87
GTF = -14.4
MTF = 249.3
SCA Voltage = 5.0

G = 998.1 +/- 5 counts


H = 990.7 +/- 15 counts
DIP = 59.3 +/- 1.0 degrees
Magnetic Declination = +1.46

Gx

Hx

Gy

Hy

Gz

Hz

GTF Inc

Az

DIP

873
861
839
816

717
709
678
654

-443
-86
-340
-215

-268
404
404
404

164
476
-403
517

633
560
-87
703

39.6
99.5
-30.8
87.1

261.8
261.7
36.5
266.7

1004.5
1000.4
1001.5
1001.0

990.9
987.6
792.7
1039.6

59.2
59.5
36.6
51.9

27.8
28.7
31.8
33.8

a.

Is the first Survey Good ? Why or Why Not ?

b.

Is the second survey acceptable ? Why or Why Not ?

c.

Is the third survey good ?

What do you think the problem is ?

Can you identify the problem axis ?

d.

Is the fourth survey good ?

Can the failed axis be identified from the tabulated data ?

What is the failed axis ?

99

11.

The following survey data is taken from an MWD tool after drilling out of casing.
The following inputs were made to the MWD Initialization page :
Last good Survey:

Inc = 69.52
Az = 259.35
GTF = -165.3
MTF = 102.2
SCA Voltage = 5.0

G = 999.8 +/- 5 counts


H = 985.0 +/- 15 counts
DIP = 59.4 +/- 1.0 degrees
Magnetic Declination = +1.46

Gx

Hx

Gy

Hy

Gz

Hz

GTF Inc

Az

DIP

347
329
370
363

-570
-676
241
208

886
659
-900
-726

94
-144
-658
-304

-346
-708
253
604

-405
62
708
918

-138
-111.5
36.3
60.9

210.4
188.0
262.6
259.9

1003.7
1009.0
998.9
999.2

705.8
693.5
996.0
989.2

1.7
-31.2
59.8
59.3

69.3
70.5
68.7
69.1

a.

Is the first Survey Good ? Why or Why Not ?

b.

Is the second survey acceptable ? Why or Why Not ?

c.

Is the third survey good ?

What do you think the problem is ?

Can you identify the problem axis or the type of failure that is occurring ?

d.

Is the fourth survey good ?

Can the failed axis or overall problem be identified from the tabulated data ?

Explain what the problem is ?

e.

Can the 4/5 axis functionality be used to correct for the type of error occurring in
this example?

100

12.

The following survey data is taken from an MWD tool after drilling out of casing. The same
MWD tool was used as in the previous run.
The following inputs were made to the MWD Initialization page :

Last good Survey:


Inc = 69.52
G = 999.8 +/- 5 cnts
Az = 259.35
H = 980.0 +/- 15 cnts
GTF = -165.3
DIP = 59.4 +/- 1.0 deg
MTF = 102.2
Mag Dec = +1.46
SCA Voltage = 5.0

Element
Bit
Motor

BHA
OD" ID"
12.25 7.75 -

X/O
DSS
DFS
Monel
3xDC
HWDP5.0

8.0
8.0
8.0
7.75
8.0
3.0

Length(ft)
1.00
22.00

3.0
3.40
5.0
34.50
5.0
2.92
2.8
31.00
3.0
94.43
240.27

Gx

Hx

Gy

Hy

Gz

Hz

GTF Inc

Az

DIP

348
346
335
338

239
235
233
229

770
-393
845
728

969
-821
504
965

505
-837
-436
568

32
-514
-826
110

167.4
-42.7
-131.9
162.9

263.3
263.5
263.4
263.3

997.4
1000.0
997.5
997.3

999.3
996.7
996.5
996.5

59.9
59.9
60.0
59.9

69.3
69.7
69.9
70.0

a.

Is the first Survey Good ? Why or Why Not ?

b.

Is the second survey acceptable ? Why or Why Not ?

c.

Is the third survey good ?

What do you think the problem is ?

Can you identify the problem axis or the type of failure that is occurring ?

d.

Is the fourth survey good ?

Can the failed axis or overall problem be identified from the tabulated data ?

Explain what the problem is ?

101

e.

What is the amount of Azimuth error produced by this type of interference?


Can the 4/5 axis functionality be used to correct for the type of error occurring
in this example?

What is the best method to use in correcting for this type of error, and why ?

13.

The following survey data is taken from an MWD tool drilling ahead maintaining Inclination
and Direction. The following inputs were made to the MWD Initialization page:
Last good Survey:

Inc = 67.23
Az = 260.02
GTF = 3.0
MTF = 270.2
SCA Voltage = 5.0

G = 998.7 +/- 5 counts


H = 989.8 +/- 15 counts
DIP = 59.2 +/- 1.0 degrees
Magnetic Declination = +1.46

Gx

Hx

Gy

Hy

Gz

Hz

GTF Inc

Az

DIP

373
384
394
402
403
388
395
405

234
151
199
160
117
199
204
137

593
-770
912
-836
-334
-114
-151
-912

102
-871
817
-844
329
-247
-593
-640

-747
-489
-106
-344
861
863
125
95

-953
-1024
-1024
-1024
-1024
-1024
-1024
-1024

-106.8
-11.4
-153.0
-1.6
90.6
104.4
60.5
26.4

260.5
130.9
259.4
117.7
4.7
32.0
77.8
95.8

1012.5
1002.8
996.5
999.4
1000.3
951.6
440.0
1000.1

988.2
1353.4
1326.3
1337.2
1083.7
1073.5
1201.8
1216.3

59.6
66.2
44.9
57.6
-60.4
-50.9
4.1
25.9

67.9
67.7
66.2
66.5
66.6
66.2
26.5
66.5

a.

Is the first Survey Good ? Why or Why Not ?

b.

Is the second survey acceptable ? Why or Why Not ?

c.

Is the third survey good ?

What do you think the problem is ?

Can you identify the problem axis ?

102

d.

A roll test is performed after the third survey. From the tabulated data can you
determine the problem ?

Explain what the problem is ?

14. The following is an example from Magcor. Study this and the raw survey data used in the
generation of the output.

Center = (0, 2.8)


Radius = 368.7
Max Dist from Circle = 0.5 (0.1% (#2)
Avg Dist from Circle = 0.3 (0.1%)

Axial Error = 9.5 (0.9%)


Uncertainty Error = -17.6 -1.5 (+/- 8.0)
Uncertainty Azi = 292.4 291.7
Raw Azi = 291.8
Corrected Azi = 292.0
Correction Factors = (9.5, 0, 2.8)

a. When inspecting the Magcor output, what three criteria should be used when deciding whether
the Magcor correction should be applied or not?

b. Would you accept the correction shown in the diagram, and why?

103