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Module 3:

Convective heat and mass transfer

Lecture 24:

Heat Transfer to Boundary Layers

NPTEL,IITKharagpur,Prof.SaikatChakraborty,DepartmentofChemicalEngineering

Because we assumed constant physical properties, the problem of momentum transfer and

heat (or mass) transfer are decoupled, i.e. we solve for fluid velocity profile first, then use

these velocity profiles to determine temperature profiles, and then find heat transfer rate.

Energy balance

C p

DT

= K 2T

t

(1)

For steady state 2-D flow, using Cartesian coordinates

vx

2T 2T

T

T

+ vy

= 2 + 2

x

y

y

x

Convective

Conductive

Now

NPTEL,IITKharagpur,Prof.SaikatChakraborty,DepartmentofChemicalEngineering

2T

2

x

Pe =

T

i.e. axial convection dominates axial diffusion

<< vx

x

UL

>> 1

2T

T

T

vx

+ vy

= 2

x

y

y

B.C.s

(2)

T = Tw

at y = 0

T = T

at y

Define =

T Tw

T Tw

2

vx

+ vy

= 2

x

y

y

With

(3)

= 0 at y = 0

= 1 at y

Prandtl number

Pr =

C p

k

NPTEL,IITKharagpur,Prof.SaikatChakraborty,DepartmentofChemicalEngineering

2U

U x

U x

v

+ vy

= 2x with corresponding to x .

x

y

v

y

BCs are also identical. Hence the solution is identical (Refer lecture 23).

Since

vx

= f ' ( )

v

= f ' ( )

For Pr1

Using quantities = y

v

,

x

f =

x v

vx = v f '

d

d 2

+2 2 =0

d

d

Pr f

(4)

exp

0 2 Pr 0 fd d

fd

exp

Pr

0 2 0 d

(5)

NPTEL,IITKharagpur,Prof.SaikatChakraborty,DepartmentofChemicalEngineering

T

y

= hx (Tw T )

y = 0, x = x

k (T Tw )

v

d

= hx (Tw T )

d =0 x

hx = k

v d

x d =0

Nu x =

hx

vx d

d

=

= Re x

k

d =0

d =0

Nux

dimensionless

heat transfer coeff .

= Re x

or

exp

Pr

fd

0 2 0 d

(6)

The term on right hand side under integral sign can be found out numerically.

It turns out that over a wide range of Pr (Pr>0.6)

Nu x = 0.332 Re x1 2 Pr1 3

(7)

From eqn. (2)

NPTEL,IITKharagpur,Prof.SaikatChakraborty,DepartmentofChemicalEngineering

T

+ v

L

T ~

L

v

T

L

Neglegible quantity

T

L

T 2

1

1

Pr

Re L

(8)

Lv

T

1

~

.

Pr

1

, we get

Re L

(9)

For large Pr

T

1

~ 13

Pr

(10)

Hence as Sc 0

c

1

~

Sc

(11)

T

1

= 12

c Le

(12)

NPTEL,IITKharagpur,Prof.SaikatChakraborty,DepartmentofChemicalEngineering

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