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Module 3:
Convective heat and mass transfer

Lecture 24:
Heat Transfer to Boundary Layers

NPTEL,IITKharagpur,Prof.SaikatChakraborty,DepartmentofChemicalEngineering

Because we assumed constant physical properties, the problem of momentum transfer and
heat (or mass) transfer are decoupled, i.e. we solve for fluid velocity profile first, then use
these velocity profiles to determine temperature profiles, and then find heat transfer rate.
Energy balance

For constant density fluid, w/o energy production Q = 0

C p

DT
= K 2T
t

(1)

This eqn. Neglects viscous dissipation and assumes constant K.


For steady state 2-D flow, using Cartesian coordinates

vx

2T 2T
T
T
+ vy
= 2 + 2
x
y
y
x
Convective

Conductive

Now

NPTEL,IITKharagpur,Prof.SaikatChakraborty,DepartmentofChemicalEngineering

2T
2
x

Pe =

T
i.e. axial convection dominates axial diffusion
<< vx
x

UL

>> 1

2T
T
T
vx
+ vy
= 2
x
y
y

B.C.s

(2)

T = Tw

at y = 0

T = T

at y

Define =

T Tw
T Tw

Then eqn. (2) becomes


2

vx
+ vy
= 2
x
y
y

With

(3)

= 0 at y = 0
= 1 at y

Prandtl number

Pr =

C p
k

NPTEL,IITKharagpur,Prof.SaikatChakraborty,DepartmentofChemicalEngineering

For Pr = 1 Eqn. (3) is identical to vx

2U
U x
U x
v
+ vy
= 2x with corresponding to x .
x
y
v
y

BCs are also identical. Hence the solution is identical (Refer lecture 23).

Since

vx
= f ' ( )
v

= f ' ( )

For most gases 0.7 < Pr < 1.0


For Pr1

Using quantities = y

v
,
x

f =

x v

vx = v f '

Inserting into eqn. (3), we get

d
d 2
+2 2 =0
d
d

Pr f

(4)

Integrating eqn. (4) we get

exp

0 2 Pr 0 fd d

fd

exp
Pr

0 2 0 d

(5)

Use temperature distribution to obtain local heat transfer coefficient

NPTEL,IITKharagpur,Prof.SaikatChakraborty,DepartmentofChemicalEngineering

T
y

= hx (Tw T )
y = 0, x = x

k (T Tw )

v
d
= hx (Tw T )
d =0 x

hx = k

v d
x d =0

Nu x =

hx
vx d
d
=
= Re x
k
d =0
d =0

Nux

dimensionless
heat transfer coeff .

= Re x

or

exp

Pr
fd

0 2 0 d

(6)

The term on right hand side under integral sign can be found out numerically.
It turns out that over a wide range of Pr (Pr>0.6)
Nu x = 0.332 Re x1 2 Pr1 3

( 2 % error compared to eqn. ( 6 ) )

(7)

Thickness of Thermal Boundary Layer


From eqn. (2)
NPTEL,IITKharagpur,Prof.SaikatChakraborty,DepartmentofChemicalEngineering

T
+ v
L

T ~

L
v

T
L

Neglegible quantity

T
L

T 2

1
1

Pr
Re L

Combining equation (8) with equation

(8)

Lv

T
1
~
.

Pr

1
, we get
Re L

(9)

It turns out that this equation applies for small Pr.


For large Pr

T
1
~ 13
Pr

(10)

For mass transfer replace Pr with Sc =

Hence as Sc 0

c
1
~

Sc

(11)

Dividing eqn. (10) by eqn. (11), we get

T
1
= 12
c Le

(12)

NPTEL,IITKharagpur,Prof.SaikatChakraborty,DepartmentofChemicalEngineering