You are on page 1of 3

M U

Dn nhc hm qua v ngy nay


[The study of orchestration Samuel Adler , [p. 3, Orchestra Yesterday and Today]
1. Dn nhc l g?
* It is divided in to groups or sections, not just one player per part
* It is based on bowed string instruments of the violin family
* The instrumentation is standardized
* It includes one or more bowed bass instrument sounding in the 16th-foot (double bass)
range
* It has distinct organizational identities
* It performs as an unified ensemble under centralized control and discipline
+ THE PRINCIPLES OF ORCHESTRATION, p. 3
+ The orchestra historical events (THE PRINCIPLES OF ORCHESTRATION, p. 8)
+ Orchestral Structure (p.9)
2. Thi k Phc hng Nhng nhm ha tu thi k u
Musicians were hidden behind curtains
Numbers of players were optional
Music written as SATB (Similar to vocal music)

No indications of what instruments are to be used (Even up to 1740, Leopold Mozart


wrote that if the alto trombone player is inadequate, a violinist should be asked to
perform the trombone part on the violins.)
Giovanni Gabrielli1558-1613
Music was performed in temporary structures
Used small numbers of players (8-10)
Mostly for royal audiences
Largely strings and keyboards, with the occasional oboes or flutes added
Trumpets and timpani would be added for special occasions
ArcangeloCorelli 1653-1719
Chng I
Nhc c dn nhc trong th k XIV, XV
Chng II
Nhng n lc ban u trong th k XVI
Chng III Th k XVII Giai on ban u
1637 first public opera
Still no actual orchestral music in 17th century, (meaning still one player on a part)
J.S. Bach 1685-1750 One of the worlds greatest composers
Antonio Vivaldi1678-1741 wrote Four Seasons;
Not only men were musicians; Vivaldi conducted a famous all girl ensemble in
Venice, Italy
Antonio Vivaldi1678-1741 wrote Four Seasons
Chng IV Purcell Scarlatti: Dn nhc dy 4 b
Chng V Thi k ca Bach v Hndel
Chng VI Giai on chuyn tip: Gluck
1. Thi k Tin C in (Early Classical Era)
The birth of the orchestra as we know it begins
Effects like string tremolos, crescendos and diminuendos are beginning to be being
utilized
Orchestras now have uniforms, budgets, and concert halls

They are on stage


They have stabilized as a distinct entity opposed to a large chamber group
Concerts are beginning to be middle class events
2. Three main sections of the orchestra:
Strings (6,6,4,4,2): First violins, second violins, violas, cellos and basses
Woodwinds and Brass: 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 bassoons, 2 clarinets
2 horns, 2 trumpets, and timpani. Timpani was classed with trumpets
No percussion section, but operas had harps, snare drum, bass drum, triangle and
cymbals
3.
Chng VII Thi k ca Haydn v Mozart
Joseph Haydn 1732-1809 Inspired Mozart and taught Beethoven, known as Papa
Haydn. 104 symphonies (Symphony No.45 *), Father of the string quartet, concertos,
sonatas,
W. A. Mozart 1765-1791 One of the great geniuses of music (41 Symphonies
(Symphony No. 40*), string quartets, concertos, operas,)

Chng VIII Nhc c dn nhc trong th k XIX


1. New instrument addition
New woodwind instruments added included: piccolo, English horn, bass clarinet, contra
bassoon; each of these added extended the range of the woodwinds
Brass instruments added were trombone and tuba
Harp
More percussion instruments become regular members
2.
Chng IX Phn t u tin ca th k XIX. Beethoven Schubert Rossini Weber Rossini
1. ROMANTIC ERAS
Ludwig van Beethoven 1770-1827 Revolutionary in music. Nine symphonies (Symphony
No, 5*), concertos, string quartets, choral works

2.
Chng X Phn t th hai ca th k XIX. Meyerbeer Berlioz Mendelssohn Glinka
Johannes Brahms 1883-1897 Traditionalist and innovator. 4 Symphonies, concertos,
String quartets
Rimsky-Korsakov 1844-1908 Star orchestrator and composer. Scheherazade (1888)
Richard Wagner 1813-1883 Opera composer notated for rich chromaticism,
counterpoint, and harmonies. Siegfried Idyll (1869)*, Ring Cycle (1876), Parsifal (1882)
Hector Berlioz 1803-1869 assembled huge orchestras; doubled winds and added more
strings. Symphonie Fantastique (1830).
Chng XI Thi k ca Wagner
Chng XII Thi k ca Brahms v Tchaikovsky
Chng XIII Strauss Debussy Elgar
TH K XX
- GUSTAVMAHLER1860-1911 FIFTHSYMPHONY(1901)*
MAURICE RAVEL1875-1937 RAPSODIEESPAGNOLE(1907)*
CLAUDE DEBUSSY1862-1918 AFTERNOON OF A FAUN*

SERGE PROKOFIEV1891-1953 ROMEO ANDJULIET


ARNOLD SCHOENBERG1874-1951 PELLEAS AND MELISANDE
IGOR STRAVINSKY1882-1971 PETROUSHKA* (1910)
LARGE ORCHESTRA AS WE KNOW IT TODAY:
STRINGS: 18,16,14,12,10
WINDS: 4 FLUTES, 4 OBOES, 4 CLARINETS, 3 BASSOONS, 8 HORNS, 4
TRUMPETS, 4 TROMBONES, 2 TUBAS, 2 HARPS, PIANO AND PERCUSSION
(WITHTHE ADDITION OF THE ELECTRIC BASS AND GUITAR WE REACH THE SIZE
OF THE ORCHESTRA FOR MISSION IMPOSSIBLE3)
PHN CUI TH K XX
Benjamin Britten 1913-76 British composer: Young Persons Guide to the Orchestra
(1941) , Serenade for Tenor, Horn, and Strings (1943), Billy Budd (1951)
Aaron Copland 1900-1990 forged American style of composition Piano Variations (1930),
Billy the Kid (1938), Appalachian Spring (1944)
Jerry Goldsmith 1924-2004 One of the greatest film composer Patton (1970), Omen
(1976) Alien (1979)
Leonard Bernstein Composer, conductor and educator of the highest order West Side
Story (1957), Serenade for solo violin (1954), Symphony No. 3 (1977)
NG I
John Adams 1947 American Pulitzer Prize winning composer with strong minimalist
roots: Nixon in China (1985-87), Short Ride in a Fast Machine (1986)
Aaron Jay Kernis1960 Pulitzer prize winner. Instrumental color is excellent and mixes
social, literary and musical influences: New Era Dance (1998)
John Williams 1932 Premiere film composer: Jaws (1975) , Star Wars (1977) ,
Schindlers List (1993)
Steve Reich 1936 Tape manipulation later added African drumming influences, phase
shifting, Jewish heritage: Different Trains (1988), Double Sextet (2007) Pulitzer prize
Michael Giacchino 967 Rising star film composer: MI3 (2007), Incredibles(2006),
Ratatouille (2008), Up (2009), Star Trek, Super-8 (2010)
(2009)
KT LUN