You are on page 1of 10

MODUL 4

STEP 1
1. Preventive :
The effort to do systematically that has a
porpose to prevent something.
Effort to maintain help by preventive illness.
A proccess that prevents of disease.
2. Sub febris fever :
The condition in which the body temperature
is about 37-37,80 celcius, which usuallly
occurs at night accompanied by inflamation.
3. Infectious disease :
A disease that can be occured by germs which
enter the body, become patogen.
4. Home visit :
Give the healthy step specialist a chance to
build a supportive with family.
The technique of collecting by visitting the
house of patient to help solving the problem of
disease.
5. Symptom :
Visible pattern from disease.
6. Promotive :
Persuading someone to do something.
An effort to increase health level.
7. Cough :
Symptom of reaction of the body of iritation in
the throat due to mucus.
STEP 2
1. What are the causes of infectious disease ?

2. What are the included infectious disease ?


3. How to rehabilite infectious disease ?
4. What the different between preventive and
promotive effort ?
5. How to cope sub febris fever ?
6. How to avoid the infectious disease by promotive
and preventive effort ?
7. How the mechanism of infectious diseases
transmition is ?
8. In what condition is the body cought by infectious
disease ?
9. What are the media of transmition of infection ?
give example !
10.
Why are promotive and preventive effort that
have been conducted by the doctor ineffective ?
11.
What are the benefits of natural history of
disease in an effort to cure infectious disease ?
12.
Why the people with infectious disease may
sweat at night although not doing any activity ?

STEP 3

1. What are the causes of infectious disease ?


Infectious disease is generally caused by virus,
bacteria, fungi, living organism, or micro organism
as the holder of an important role in epidemology
of infectious disease that is known as infectious
agent.
2. What are the classification of infectious disease ?
Contagious, ex. : pulmonary tuberculosis,
influenza, DBD, disentri.
Not contagious, ex. : meningitis and tetanus.
3. What is the natural history of disease being
infected ?
4. How the mechanism of infectious diseases
transmition is ?
Disease transmition : there are vektor, host, and
agent.
Direct transmition : physical contact.
Indirect transmition : contaminated food,
unsteril medical stuff, sanitation, insect bites.
5. What are the media of transmition of infection ?
give example !
- Vektor organism, ex. : mosquitos, flies, dragon
fly.
- Environment, ex. : air, water, soil.
6. How to avoid the infectious disease by promotive
and preventive effort ?
- Preventive effort :
Primary preventive : stop the disease before
happening, ex. : immunitation, suplement.
Secondary preventive : activities to detect
the disease in population, ex. : education,
medical check up, taking a bath.

Tersier preventive : detterence perform on


an advance fase of the disease of dissability,
ex. : rehabilitation, treatment.
- Promotive effort : health society counseling,
increasing nutrient, doing sports, sex education,
adjusting our diet.
7. How to rehabilite infectious disease ?
Treatment with medicine, drinking vitamin, take a
rest.
8. In what condition is the body cought by infectious
disease ?
When the immunity gets down.
9. What the different between preventive and
promotive effort ?
Preventive : to prevent from the disease.
Promotive : to increase the health level.
10.
How to cope sub febris fever ?
By going to the doctor, by drinking medicine, by
taking enough rest.
11.
Why the people with infectious disease may
sweat at night although not doing any activity ?
Because of the reaction of the immune.
12.
Why are promotive and preventive effort that
have been conducted by the doctor ineffective ?
Because of the bad sanitation, patogen increase
quickly.
13.
What are the benefits of natural history of
disease in an effort to cure infectious disease ?
We can stop the transmition of the disease.
14.
What will we get of understanding natural
history of disease ?
If we know about the natural disease, we can know
about..................................................................

THE FACTOR OF
INFECTIOUS
DISEASE
(BY AGENT)
NATURAL HISTORY
OF DISEASE
TRANSMITION OF
THE DISEASE

INFECTIOUS
DISEASE

PREVENTIVE
EFFORT

PROMOTIVE
DISEASE

STEP 7
1. What are the causes of infectious disease ?
An infectious disease or communicable disease is caused by a biological agent such as by a virus,
bacterium or parasite.
Infectious diseases are the invasion of a host organism by a foreign replicator, generally
microorganisms, often called microbes, that are invisible to the naked eye.
Microbes that cause illness are also known as pathogens. The most common pathogens are
various bacteria and viruses, though a number of other microorganisms, including some kinds
of fungi and protozoa, also cause disease. An infectious disease is termed contagious if it is
easily transmitted from one person to another.
An organism that a microbe infects is known as the host for that microbe. In the human host, a
microorganism causes disease by either disrupting a vital body process or stimulating the immune
system to mount a defensive reaction. An immune response against a pathogen, which can
include a high fever, inflammation, and other damaging symptoms, can be more devastating than
the direct damage caused by the microbe.
Infectious disease requires an agent and a mode of transmission (or vector).
Source : www.metrohealth.org

2. What are the included infectious disease ?


Photo Credit microscope image by Fotocie from Fotolia.com
The environment abounds with potential sources of infectious diseases. Without the protection of the
immune system, infections would quickly overwhelm the body. Certain viruses, bacteria, fungi and a
variety of parasites possess mechanisms to skirt surface immune defenses and infect the human body.
Some infectious diseases prove self-limiting, resolving quickly as the immune system regains the upper
hand. More serious types of infectious diseases require medical treatment to assist the immune system
in restoring health.
Viral Diseases
Viral illnesses prove the most common type of infectious disease. Throughout life, viruses infect the
body causing a variety of illnesses. The common cold repeatedly afflicts humans throughout life. Colds
are the leading cause of work and school absenteeism in the United States, according to the National
Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Many other viral illnesses of wide-ranging severity may
occur during a lifetime, including influenza, viral gastroenteritis, chickenpox, shingles, viral
pneumonia, aseptic meningitis, viral encephalitis, infectious mononucleosis, measles, viral hepatitis,
genital herpes and warts, yellow fever, dengue, fifth disease and AIDS.

Bacterial Diseases
Bacteria cause diverse infectious illnesses, which may localize to a specific body location or
disseminate throughout the body. Types of bacterial infectious diseases include strep throat, sinusitis,
bacterial pneumonia, food poisoning, septic arthritis, skin and soft tissue infections, bacterial
meningitis, urinary tract infections, gonorrhea, syphilis, pelvic inflammatory disease, bloodstream
infections and toxic shock syndrome. Some of the many bacterial species noted in the medical
reference text "Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases" as possible agents of infectious diseases
include Staphylococcus aureus, meningococcus, pneumococcus, groups A and B streptococcus,
Klebsiella, Escherichia coli, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Clostridium, Salmonella, Shigella,
Bacillus anthracis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Treponema pallidum and Chlamydia.

Fungal Diseases
Various forms of fungi can cause infectious diseases. In contrast to most viral and bacterial infections,
fungal diseases typically develop gradually and clear slowly. Surface fungal infections occur
frequently, including jock itch, scalp ringworm, athlete's foot, thrush, fungal nail infections and vaginal
yeast infections. "Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases" notes that inhaled fungal spores can
cause sinus and lung infections, including aspergillosis, mucormycosis, coccidioidomycosis,
blastomycosis and cryptococcosis. People with a weakened immune system prove susceptible to
widespread fungal infections that rarely occur in those with robust immune function. Pneumocystis
pneumonia, caused by the fungus Pneumocystis jirovec, most commonly occurs in people with AIDS.

Parasitic Diseases

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention explains that parasites are organisms that infect
another living being to gain a source of food. Parasites range in size from single-celled protozoans to
infectious worms that reach more than 20 feet long. Protozoal infectious diseases include amoebic
dysentery, babesiosis, intestinal giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis, vaginal trichomoniasis and malaria.
Parasitic worms favor infection of the gastrointestinal tract, causing illnesses such as ascariasis,
ancylostomiasis, cysticercosis, river blindness, intestinal tapeworms, elephantiasis and pinworms.

source : www.livestrong.com/article/151744-different-types-of-infectiousdiseases/#ixzz2E2eyxUWP

3. How to rehabilite infectious disease ?


By restraining the cause side of healing disease and taking the
function of physic, pshycology, social back like before caught
by disease, for example : giving food which is enough of
nutrient, appropiate with type of disease (pneumonic type by
breathing practice)
source : www.arviant.web.ugm.ac.id/content/Epidemiologi
%20dasar.pdf

4. What the different between preventive and


promotive effort ?
Primary Prevention
Primary prevention strategies emphasize general health promotion, risk factor
reduction, and other health protective measures. These strategies include health
education and health promotion programs designed to foster healthier lifestyles
and environmental health programs designed to improve environmental quality.
Specific examples of primary prevention measures include immunization against
communicable diseases; public health education about good nutrition, exercise,
stress management, and individual responsibility for health; chlorination and
filtration of public water supplies; and legislation requiring child restraints in
motor vehicles.
Secondary Prevention
Secondary prevention focuses on early detection and swift treatment of
disease. Its purpose is to cure disease, slow its progression, or reduce its impact
on individuals or communities. A common approach to secondary prevention is
screening for disease, such as the noninvasive computerized test for the early
detection of heart disease. This test uses computerized tomography scans to
look for calcium deposition in the arteries, which can signal previously
undetected heart disease. Other examples of screening include mammography
for breast cancer detection; eye tests for glaucoma; blood tests for lead
exposure; occult blood tests for colorectal cancer; the Pap test for cervical
concrete breath test for Helicobacter pylori, the bacterium implicated in

duodenal and gastric ulcers; and the Prostate-Specific Antigen(PSA) test for
prostate cancer. In each case, screening is performed to detect disease early so
prompt treatment can be initiated. Examples of other secondary prevention
methods include treatment of hypertension to prevent complications and
removal of skin cancer lesions as they occur.
Tertiary Prevention
Tertiary Prevention strategies involve both therapeutic and rehabilitative
measures once disease is firmly established. Examples include treatment of
diabetics to prevent complication of the disease and the ongoing management of
chronic heart disease patients with medication, diet, exercise, and periodic
examination. Other examples include improving functioning of stroke patients
through rehabilitation by occupational and physical therapy, nursing care,
speech therapy, counseling, and so forth, and treating those suffering from
complications of diseases such as meningitis, multiple sclerosis, or Parkinsons
disease.
On community level, providing high quality, appropriate, and accessible
health care and public health resources is critical to assuring satisfactory
primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. Table 3-1 summarizes the three
levels of prevention and provides examples of their applications at the
community level.
Source : www.metrohealth.org

5. How to cope sub febris fever ?


6. How to avoid the infectious disease by promotive
and preventive effort ?
7. How the mechanism of infectious diseases
transmition is ?
to-one
contact

Direct physical contact (body surface to body surface) between infected or colonized
Direct

individual and susceptible host.


Examples of transmission: Shaking hands; kissing; coitus.
Examples of infections: Common cold; sexually transmitted diseases.
Precautions: Hand hygiene; masks; condoms.

Infectious agent deposited onto an object or surface (fomite) and survives long enou
to transfer to another person who subsequently touches the object.
Indirect

Droplet

Examples of transmission: Not washing your hands between patients; contaminated


Examples of infections: RSV; Norwalk; rhinovirus; perhaps influenza.
Precautions: Sterilizing instruments; disinfect surfaces and toys in school.

Contact, but transmission is through the air. Droplets are relatively large (>5 m) and

projected up to about one metre.


Examples of transmission: Sneezing; coughing, or (in health care) during suctioning
Examples of infections: Meningococcus; pertussis; influenza
(maybe: there is some debate); respiratory viruses.
Precautions: Masks; cover mouth; move school desks more than a metre apart;

side-step that cougher! Special ventilation not required as aerosolization does not oc

Note for Nerds: sometimes you will see droplet transmission classified in a separate
category intermediate between contact and non-contact. This makes good sense,
but do not lose sleep over such debates.
Transmission via aerosols (airborne particles <5m) that contain organisms in
droplet nuclei or in dusts. Can be spread via ventilation systems.
Airborne

Examples of transmission: Via ventilation system in a hospital;


Examples of infections: TB; varicella; measles; chickenpox;
smallpox (and maybe influenza: controversial, as more likely via droplets).
Precautions: Masks; negative pressure rooms in hospitals
A single contaminated source spreads the infection (or poison) to multiple hosts.
This can be a common source or a point source.
Examples of transmission - Point source: Food-borne outbreak from infected
batch of food; cases typically cluster around the site (such as a restaurant);

Non-contact
Vehicle

IV fluid; medical equipment.


Common source: The cyanide poisoning of Tylenol in Chicago in 1982.
Cases may be widely dispersed due to transport & distribution of the vehicle
(here, a medication)
Precautions: Normal safety and disinfection standards.
Package medicines in tamper-proof containers.

Vector
borne

Transmission by insect or animal vectors.


Example of infections: Mosquitoes and malaria.
Precautions: Protect via barriers (window screens, bed nets);
insect sprays; culling animals.

Source :
www.med.uottawa.ca/sim/data/Infection_spread_e.
htm
8. In what condition is the body cought by infectious
disease ?
9. What are the media of transmition of infection ?
give example !
10.
Why are promotive and preventive effort that
have been conducted by the doctor ineffective ?
11.
What are the benefits of natural history of
disease in an effort to cure infectious disease ?
Diagnostik : Masa inkubasi -> pedoman penentuan jenis
penyakit
Pencegahan: Mengetahui rantai perjalanan penyakit
mudah dicari titik potong yg penting dalam upaya
pencegahan penyakit
Terapi : fase paling awal, lebih awal diberikan lebih baik
hasil yang diharapkan.

Source :
www.arviant.web.ugm.ac.id/content/Epidemiologi
%20dasar.pdf
12.
Why the people with infectious disease may
sweat at night although not doing any activity ?