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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijhmt

Technical Note

solutions of the unsteady heat conduction equation in a large plane wall

with asymmetric convective boundary conditions

Marcelo D. Marucho a, Antonio Campo b,

a

b

Department of Physics, The University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78249, United States

Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78249, United States

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:

Received 27 January 2016

Accepted 31 March 2016

Available online 13 April 2016

Keywords:

Unsteady heat conduction

Large plane wall

Asymmetric convective boundary

conditions

Method Of Lines (MOL)

Eigenvalue method

Analytic/numeric solutions

a b s t r a c t

The primary objective of the present study is to implement the Method Of Lines (MOL) for the analysis of

the unsteady, one-dimensional, heat conduction equation in a large plane wall with different convective

boundary conditions at the two exposed surfaces. In the equation, MOL discretizes the space derivative

while leaving the time derivative continuous. By way of MOL, the adjoint system of linear, first order ordinary differential equations will be solved analytically (not numerically) with the eigenvalue method. The

outcome of the computational procedure provides a discrete sequence of piecewise temperatures-time

variations at each line, which is expressed in terms of linear combinations of exponential functions of

time containing the eigenvalues and eigenvectors. A practical example dealing with the temperature

evolution in a large single-pane window is tackled with two meshes, one having three and the other having five lines. The collection of analytic/numeric temperaturetime solutions provided by MOL and the

eigenvalue method exhibits excellent quality at all time.

2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Typical engineering applications involving non-symmetric

unsteady one-dimensional, heat conduction arises in walls of

furnaces, boilers, houses, etc.

To solve the unsteady one-dimensional, heat conduction in a

large plane wall, the method of separation of variables delivers

an exact, analytic avenue when the unsteady one-dimensional heat

conduction equation is linear and the boundary conditions in the

domain are homogeneous (see Refs. [17]). The rationale is that

the, the boundary value problem via an ordinary differential equation of second order in the space variable is in the SturmLiouville

form. Without this comportment, the problem would not be an

eigenvalue problem at all, and it is unlikely that enough separated

solutions could be found to solve the unsteady one-dimensional,

conduction problem.

Conversely, if the unsteady one-dimensional, heat equation is

subjected to boundary conditions with unequal unequal fluid temperatures, the principle of superposition of solutions provides a

reasonable procedure. Because any superposition of solutions of a

linear, homogeneous partial differential equation is again a solution, the particular solutions may then be combined to obtain more

Corresponding author.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2016.03.118

0017-9310/ 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

differential equation in the region R, then u = C1u1 + C2u2 with any

constants C1 and C2, is also a solution of the partial differential

equation in the region R. In this category, the decomposition begins

by splitting the original unsteady one-dimensional heat conduction problem into two sub-problems, one sub-problem with an

unsteady part and the other sub-problems with a steady part,

which includes the non-homogeneous boundary conditions. The

unsteady part will conform to the requirements of the method of

separation of variables, i.e., the unsteady part has homogeneous

boundary conditions and an inhomogeneous initial condition,

which is the form that can be tackled by the method of separation

of variables. The drawback posed by the superposition principle is

that sometimes the final solution is a fairly complicated mosaic of

individual solutions. As a direct consequence, the functional

dependence of an independent variable can appear in several different forms within a solution. Owing to this ill-behavior, the

superposition principle turns out to be strenuous. Conversely, the

method of variation of parameters is considered a general method

for solving an arbitrary inhomogeneous unsteady one-dimensional

heat conduction problem [8]. The inhomogeneities can be present

in the unsteady heat conduction equation and/or the applicable

boundary conditions. In principle, the method of variation of

parameters consists on a single series expansion of eigenfunctions,

202

M.D. Marucho, A. Campo / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 99 (2016) 201208

Nomenclature

cv

h1

h2

k

L

t

T

Tin

Tf1

Tf2

x

mean convection coefficient of hot fluid 1 [W/m2 K]

mean convection coefficient of cold fluid 2 [W/m2 K]

thermal conductivity [W/m K]

thickness of large plane wall [m]

time [s]

temperature [K]

initial temperature [K]

temperature of hot fluid 1 [K]

temperature of cold fluid 2 [K]

coordinate [m]

superposition.

In view of the foregoing, it is clear that both the superposition

principle and the method of variation of parameters turn out to

be complex procedures and of course simpler approaches should

be explored. A technique that has not been reported in the literature for solving a more general unsteady, one-dimensional heat

conduction equation with a variety of boundary conditions of

homogeneous and non-homogeneous type is the powerful Method

Of Lines (MOL).

A literature review reveals that a simple problem for unsteady,

one-dimensional heat conduction in a large plane wall involving

constant initial temperature and equal temperature boundary conditions has been treated by Method Of Lines (MOL) in Ref. [9].

Exploiting thermal symmetry, the corresponding system of first

order, linear ordinary differential equations was solved numerically with the RungeKutta method of fourth/fifth order using

the MATLAB program ode45. Correspondingly, the numericallyinspired methodology was named the Numerical Method Of Lines

(NMOL). Another simple problem dealing with unsteady, onedimensional heat conduction in a large plane wall having constant

initial temperature, but with unequal temperature boundary

conditions has been tackled with NMOL in Reference [10]. The constant temperature boundary conditions utilized in [9,10] are

described as the easiest boundary conditions in heat conduction

theory [17].

The primary objective of the present study to implement the

Method Of Lines (MOL), not the Numerical Method Of Lines

(NMOL) used in [9,10], for the analysis of the unsteady, onedimensional heat conduction equation in a large plane wall with

dissimilar convective boundary conditions at the two sides of the

domain. The adjoint system of linear, first order ordinary differential equations will be solved analytically (not numerically) with the

elegant eigenvalue method. To put things in perspective, a practical engineering problem associated with unsteady, onedimensional heat conduction in a house window exposed to hot

air on one side and cold air on the other side is addressed in detail.

Greek symbols

thermal diffusivity, qkcv [m2/s]

Dx

space interval [m]

q

density [kg/m3]

Subscripts

ls

left surface of large plane wall

mp

mid-plane of large plane wall

rs

right surface of large plane wall

t > 0, the left surface of the plane wall is exposed to a hot fluid 1

characterized by a mean convection coefficient h1 and freestream temperature Tf1, whereas the right surface is exposed to a

cold fluid 2 characterized by a mean convection coefficient h2

and free-stream temperature Tf2, (herein Tf1 > Tf2). Accordingly,

the unsteady, one-dimensional 1-D heat conduction equation is

@T

@2T

a 2

@t

@x

in 0 < x < L

T T in ; t 0

k

@T

h1 T f 1 T;

@x

x0

3a

k

@T

h2 T T f 2 ;

@x

xL

3b

This kind of boundary conditions is called Robin boundary condition [17]. Specifically, Eq. (3a) indicates convection heating at

the left surface x = 0, while Eq. (3b) indicates convection cooling

at the right surface x = L. The unequal convective boundary conditions signify no thermal symmetry about the mid-plane of the large

plane wall. On one hand, if a new temperature variable h T T f 2

is introduced in Eq. (3b), then this equation becomes a homogeneous boundary condition. On the other hand, Eq. (3a) rewritten

in terms of h remains a non-homogeneous boundary condition.

Obviously, this structure purports that the standard method of separation of variables cannot be applied directly [17]. Moreover, as

already mentioned in the Introduction, the principle of superposition and the method of variation of parameters are laborious.

Therefore, alternative methods are needed.

Three particular cases are related to the pair of convective

boundary conditions represented in Eqs. (3a) and (3b):

Consider unsteady heat conduction in a large plane wall of

thickness L sketched in Fig. 1. The height H and the width W of

the plane wall are large relative to the thickness L, and thus the

unsteady heat conduction can be approximated to be onedimensional. The wall material has constant or nearly constant

thermal conductivity k and constant thermal diffusivity a also.

The initial temperature is uniform and equal to Tin. For times

Fig.

1. Computational

(space interval Dx = 2L ).

domain

for

Case

involving

three

lines

203

M.D. Marucho, A. Campo / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 99 (2016) 201208

T Tf 1

k

x0

@T

h2 T T f 2 ;

@x

3c

xL

3d

k

@T

h1 T f 1 T;

@x

T Tf 2

x0

xL

3e

3f

T Tf 1

x0

3g

T Tf 2

xL

3h

of the PDE using MOL with finite differences is easy to apply and

because of this feature will be employed in this study.

In the specific case of the unsteady 1-D heat conduction equation where the independent variables are the space coordinate x

and time t, MOL discretizes the spatial derivative approximating

the PDE by a system of first-order ordinary differential equations

in t. Therefore, in the platform of solutions, the Method Of Lines

(MOL) replaces the exact, analytic solution u(x, t) at an infinite

number of points in the spacetime domain with an approximate

semi-analytic solution uj (t), j = 1, 2, . . . N on a finite number of lines

displayed in the spacetime domain. To implement MOL in connection to Eq. (1) for the large plane wall, the special computational domain is constructed with a collection of straight lines

that are perpendicular to the x-coordinate and are conveniently

separated by equal space intervals Dx = xj+1 xj.

2

(d) Vigorous convection at the left and right surfaces with equal

fluid temperatures

T Tf 1

x0

3i

T Tf 1

xL

3j

There are two alternative analytic procedures for solving the

1-D unsteady heat conduction problem with non-homogeneous

boundary conditions reported in the literature. One procedure is

the principle of superposition [2,4,6,7], wherein a partial unsteady

solution is superimposed with a partial steady solution. Due to the

intricacies of the non-homogeneous boundary conditions, this

approach fails for handling the set of Eqs. (3a)-(3b), (3c)-(3d),

(3e)-(3f). The other procedure is the method of variation of parameters described by Mackowski [8]. This method is viewed as a general method for solving an arbitrary inhomogeneous unsteady heat

conduction problem consisting on a single series expansion of

eigenfunctions. Consequently, the method of variation of parameters is more complicated than the principle of superposition.

The objective of the present study is to determine the nonsymmetrical temperature field T(x, t) in the large plane with convective boundary conditions involving different mean convection

coefficients and different fluid temperatures. To accomplish this,

an approximate semi-analytic technique (not a numeric technique,

like NMOL used in [9,10]) will be implemented here. The method in

question is named The Method Of Lines (MOL), which is briefly

expounded in the following section.

3. Synopsis of the Method Of Lines (MOL)

The Method Of Lines (MOL) embodies a hybrid procedure for

solving partial differential equations in one- or multiple dimensions in a semi-analytical manner [11]. The Method Of Lines

(MOL) refers to an approximation of a partial differential equation

(PDE) with a system of ordinary differential equations in one of the

independent variables. In other words, the basic idea behind MOL

is to replace certain spatial (boundary value) derivatives in the PDE

with algebraic approximations with one remaining independent

variable. As a direct result, the transformed system of ODEs

approximates the original PDE. The main motivation inherent to

MOL is that an adjoint system of ordinary differential equations

is easier to solve than the original partial differential equation. In

general, the required algebraic approximation of the spatial derivatives in the PDE can be based on finite differences, finite elements,

collocations or Fourier series expansions. Obviously, the treatment

equation (1) is discretized with the three-point central finitedifference approximation

@ 2 T

T j1 2T j T j1

ODx2

@x2

Dx2

xj

order.

Combining Eqs. (1) and (4) delivers right away the following

system of ordinary differential equations of first order in t,

dT j

a

T j1 2T j T j1 ODx2 ;

dt

Dx2

j 1; 2; . . . ; M

T j T in ; t 0;

j 1; 2; . . . ; M

6

2

Eq. (5). For closure, the adjoint system of M ordinary differential

equations of first order absorbing the two boundary conditions stated in Eqs. (3a) and (3b) is subject to M initial conditions in Eq. (6).

From a fundamental standpoint, the original initial value problem

(IVP) given by the set of Eqs. (1), (2), (3a) and (3b) is replaced by an

initial value problem (IVP) given by the tandem of Eqs. (5) and (6).

The approximate MOL solution Tj (t) can be obtained by solving

Eqs. (5) and (6) either analytically or numerically. Obviously, analytical solutions are preferable, if they are available. Surely, analytic solutions are more elegant and reliable and typically are

faster. In fact, the primary advantage of an analytic solution over

a numeric solution is that it delivers a closed-form expression

(instead of a long list of numbers), allowing the analyst to gain

some insight from. In this context, the eigenvalue method [12] constitutes a powerful method to solve analytically a system of linear

ordinary differential equations of first order. Correspondingly, the

system of ordinary differential equations (5) can be rewritten in

vector form as

x0 t Axt

where A is a matrix with constant entry. The idea is to find analytic

solutions of the form

x0 t v expkt

where k is an eigenvalue and v is an associate eigenvector.

In principle, when the limit of the RHS in Eq. (5) is taken as the

space interval Dx?0, the system of ordinary differential equations

of first order collapses with the original parabolic partial differential equation (1) and consequently the two solutions are identical.

An important advantage possessed by MOL is that the errors are

quantified in terms of the space interval Dx solely, because time

204

M.D. Marucho, A. Campo / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 99 (2016) 201208

errors are controllable in an easy way [11].

Important issues related to convergence, stability and errors of

semi-analytic solutions for parabolic partial differential equations

employing the Method Of Lines (MOL) have been addressed in

the past. The salient representative references are those by Verwer

and Sanz-Serna [13], Reddy and Trefethen [14], and Zafarullah [15],

respectively.

As a side comment, it should be added that the Method Of Lines

(MOL) has been applied with success to certain specialized problems on unsteady 1-D heat conduction, such as the inverse heat

conduction problem by Campo and Ho [16] and the Stefan problem

by Campo and Lacoa [17]. Additionally, a variant of the Method Of

Lines (MOL), the Transversal Method Of Lines (TMOL) has been utilized by Campo and Garza [18] to tackle unsteady 1-D heat conduction with heat flux boundary conditions. TMOL discretizes the time

derivative in the PDE approximating it by a sequence of secondorder ordinary differential equations in the space variable x.

the computational domain in Fig. 1) is expressed as

the space interval Dx = 4L splitting the previous space interval Dx = 2L

in half. This process supplies five lines: line 1, line 2, line 3, line 4

and line 5 as shown in Fig. 2. First, the three interior lines are line 2,

line 3 and line 4, which establish active lines. This line selection

furnishes the system of three coupled ordinary differential equations of first-order and homogeneous

As the first attempt in Eq. (5), we chose the coarsest space interval Dx = 2L delivering three active lines: line 1, line 2 and line 3 as

shown Fig. 1. In fact, this is the minimum line arrangement that

could be done within the framework of MOL. Thereby, the resulting

system of three coupled ordinary differential equations of firstorder and homogeneous is

T4 T2

2Dx h2

T 3 T f 2

k

14

Substituting T4 into Eq. (9) results in the following ordinary differential equations of first-order

dT 3

a

2Dxh2

2Dxh2

Tf2

2T

2

T

2

3

dt

k

k

Dx2

15

Correspondingly, the system of three coupled, ordinary differential equations of first-order and homogeneous for Case 1 consists

in Eqs. (12), (8) and (15) where Dx = 2L . Further, the three initial

conditions in Eq. (6) are converted to

T 1 T 2 T 3 T in ; t 0

16

dT 2

a

T 1 2T 2 T 3

dt

Dx2

17

dT 1

a

T 0 2T 1 T 2

dt

Dx2

dT 3

a

T 2 2T 3 T 4

dt

Dx2

18

dT 2

a

T 1 2T 2 T 3

dt

Dx2

dT 4

a

T 3 2T 4 T 5

dt

Dx2

19

dT 3

a

T 2 2T 3 T 4

dt

Dx2

Next, the two boundary conditions in Eqs. (3a) and (3b) need to

in

be incorporated. For enhanced accuracy, the first derivative @T

@x

Eq. (3a) is handled with the two-point central formulation with

second order error ODx2 ,

@T

T j1 T j1

ODx2

@x xj

2Dx

T 2 T 3 T 4 T in ;

t0

20

Second, the two boundary lines make two inactive lines: line 1

(coincident with the left surface) and line 5 (coincident with the

right surface). For enhanced accuracy, the first derivative @T

in

@x

Eq. (3a) is replaced by the three-point forward formulation with

second order error ODx2 ,

@T

T j2 4T j1 3T j

ODx2

@x xj

2 Dx

T2 T0

k

h1 T f 1 T 1

2 Dx

10

From here, the temperature T0 at the fictitious line 0 (lying outside of the computation domain in Fig. 1) is expressed as

T0 T2

2Dx h1

T f 1 T 1

k

yields

T 3 4T 2 3T 1

k

h1 T f 1 T 1

2 Dx

21

11

Substituting T0 into Eq. (7) delivers the following ordinary differential equations of first-order

dT 1

a

2Dxh1

2Dxh1

Tf 1

2T 2

2 T1

2

dt

k

k

Dx

12

order error ODx2 for the first derivative

the algebraic approximation

k

T4 T2

h2 T 3 T f 2

2Dx

@T

@x

13

Fig. 2. Computational

(space interval Dx = 4L ).

domain

for

Cases

and

involving

five

lines

M.D. Marucho, A. Campo / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 99 (2016) 201208

evaluated from the companion algebraic equation

2Dxh1

T 3 4T 2

Tf 1

2Dxh1

k

3

1

T1

22

2

@T

3T j2 4T j1 T j

Dx2

@x xj

2Dx

@T

@x

in Eq. (3b) is

31

Substituting Eq. (31) into Eq. (25) T0 is eliminated and the outcome leads to the ordinary differential equations of first-order

dT 1

a

2Dxh1

2Dxh1

Tf 1

2T

2

T

2

1

dt

k

k

Dx2

32

k

23

inactive line 5 is evaluated from the companion algebraic equation

1

2Dxh2

T 3 4T 4

T5

Tf 2

2Dxh2

k

3

2 Dx h 1

T f 1 T 1

k

space derivative @T

in Eq. (3b) with second order error ODx2 pro@x

duces the equivalent algebraic approximation

3T 5 4T 4 T 3

k

h2 T 5 T f 2

2Dx

T0 T2

205

24

In synthesis, Case 2 engages: (1) a system of three coupled, ordinary differential equations of first-order and homogeneous for the

interior temperatures T2, T3, and T4 in Eqs. (17)-(19), which are

subject to the three initial conditions in Eqs. (20) and (2) two companion algebraic equations for the surface temperatures T1 and T5

in Eqs. (22) and (24).

T6 T4

h2 T 5 T f 2

2 Dx

33

Thereupon, T6 in the fictitious line 6 (lying outside of the computational domain in Fig. 2) is evaluated with the algebraic equation

T6 T4

2 Dx h 2

T5 Tf 2

k

34

Substituting Eq. (34) into Eq. (28) T6 is eliminated and the outcome ends up in the ordinary differential equations of first-order

dT 5

a

2Dxh2

2Dxh2

2T

2

T

Tf 2

4

5

dt

k

k

Dx2

35

ordinary differential equations of first-order given by Eqs. (31),

(26), (27), (28) and (35), which is subject to the five initial

conditions

T 1 T 2 T 3 T 4 T 5 T in ; t 0

As the third attempt linked to Eq. (5), we chose the same space

interval Dx = 4L as in Case 2, but now allowing for all lines: line 1,

line 2, line 3, line 4 and line 5 to be active as shown in Fig. 2. Therefore, the system of five coupled ordinary differential equations of

first-order and homogeneous comprises of

The symbolic software Mathematica [19] was used to solve analytically the three systems of coupled ordinary differential equations of first order and homogeneous representative of Cases 1, 2

and 3 under study. In the three cases, the eigenvalue method computed the sequence of eigenquantities, such as eigenvalues k and

the associate eigenvectors v in a Mathematica environment.

dT 1

a

T 0 2T 1 T 2

dt

Dx2

25

5. Practical example

dT 2

a

T 1 2T 2 T 3

dt

Dx2

26

dT 3

a

T 2 2T 3 T 4

dt

Dx2

27

dT 4

a

T 3 2T 4 T 5

dt

Dx2

28

dT 5

a

T 4 2T 5 T 6

dt

Dx2

29

house window with dimensions 0.8 m high, 1.5 m wide and 8 mm

thickness. For the glass, the thermal conductivity is k = 0.78 W/m K

and the thermal diffusivity is a = 3.4 104 m2/s are taken from

Bejan [20]. Take the mean convective coefficients on the inner

and outer surfaces of the single-pane window to be h1 = W/m2 K

and h2 = 40 W/m2 K, respectively. The air temperature inside the

room is Tf1 = 20 C and the outside air temperature is Tf2 = 10 C.

The initial temperature is set at Tin = 10 C. The objective is to

determine the temperature distribution T(x, t) in the single-pane

window with the Method Of Lines (MOL) utilizing Cases 1, 2 and 3.

6. Presentation of analytic/numeric results

in Eq. (3a) is trea@x

ted with the two-point central formulation with second order error

ODx2 ,

@T

T j1 T j1

ODx2

@x xj

2 Dx

solutions for Cases 1, 2 and 3 are listed next:

Case 1:

T 1 t 2:222222 0:163145e0:0878741t

0:675717e0:0477828t 6:93892e0:00246813t

T2 T0

h1 T f 1 T 1

k

2 Dx

36

36a

T 2 t 3:333333 0:16602e0:0878741t

30

the computational domain in Fig. 2) is evaluated with the algebraic

equation

0:0502064e0:0477828t 6:88289e0:00246813t

36b

T 3 t 4:444444 0:19135e0:0878741t

0:663236e0:0477828t 6:02744e0:00246813t

36c

206

M.D. Marucho, A. Campo / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 99 (2016) 201208

Fig. 3. Evolution of T1(t) at the left surface of the window for Case 1.

Figs. 35 sequentially.

Case 2:

37a

37b

T 3 t 3:333333 0:0676347e0:228663t

0:0151481e0:0611834t 6:74945e0:00242869t

Case 3:

38a

T 2 t 2:777778 0:0421474e0:342902t 0:0809188e0:295621t

37c

38b

T 4 t 3:888889 0:0239667e0:228663t

0:344893e0:0611834t 6:43204e0:00242869t

37e

T 2 t 2:777778 0:0227113e0:228663t

0:3255e0:0611834t 6:87401e0:00242869t

0:426383e0:0611834t 5:93084e0:00242869t

To save journal space, the five T1(t), T2(t), T3(t), T4(t), T5(t) are not

reported graphically.

T 1 t 2:222222 0:0519606e0:228663t

0:431852e0:0611834t 6:80216e0:00242869t

T 5 t 4:444444 0:0510942e0:228663t

37d

0:181823e0:1753t 0:0281814e0:054974t 6:82717e0:0024527t

38c

M.D. Marucho, A. Campo / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 99 (2016) 201208

207

Fig. 5. Evolution of T3(t) at the right surface of the window for Case 1.

0:0124604e0:1753t 0:429447e0:054974t 6:50224e0:0024527t

38d

T 5 t 4:444444 0:0499731e

0:342902t

0:295621t

0:112189e

38e

Again, to save journal space, the five T1(t), T2(t), T3(t), T4(t), T5(t)

are not reported graphically.

A convergence analysis must revolve around the time-varying

temperatures at the left and right surfaces of the large window

(the two critical locations). In this regard, the pair of Figs. 6 and

7 has been prepared to compare the monotonic increasing temperatures for Cases 1, 2 and 3. For the three curves Tls vs t at the left

surface, the uppermost curve corresponds to Case 1, followed by

the middle curve for Case 2 and ending with the lowermost curve

for Case 3. There is a minor disagreement near the initial temperature of the order of 4%, but thereafter the temperature deviations

the right surface overlap indicating perfect agreement. In conforand

mity with the discretization of the two spatial derivatives @T

@x

@2 T

@x2

distributions Tj (t), in the large window are second order accurate

also.

Additionally, the asymptotic steady temperatures for large time

t ? 1 provided by Mathematica [19] are reported now: (1) the

temperature at the left surface of the window in contact with the

hot fluid 1 is Tls = 2.22 C, (2) the temperature at the mid-plane

inside the window is Tmp = 3.33 C and (3) the temperature at

the right surface of the window in contact with the cold fluid 2

is Trs = 4.44 C. Interestingly, the three temperatures Tls, Tmp, and

Trs coincide with those coming from evaluating the temperature

distribution T(x) with the 1-D steady heat conduction equation

2

d T

2

dx

0 in 0 < x < L

Fig. 6. Comparison of the temperaturetime variation at the left surface of the window for Cases 1, 2 and 3.

39

208

M.D. Marucho, A. Campo / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 99 (2016) 201208

Fig. 7. Comparison of the temperaturetime variation at the right surface of the window for Cases 1, 2 and 3.

k

dT

h1 T f 1 T;

dx

x0

3a

k

dT

h2 T T f 2 ;

dx

xL

3b

7. Conclusions

The main conclusion that may be drawn from the theoretical

study dealing with the unsteady one-dimensional heat conduction

equation for a large plane wall with two different convective

boundary conditions is that the combination of the Method Of

Lines (MOL) and the eigenvalue method constitutes a formidable

computational procedure for generating semi-analytic/numeric

temperaturetime solutions with good accuracy. Obviously, the

number of lines needed for solving the unsteady 1-D heat conduction equation with MOL depends on four factors: (1) the geometry

of the solid body, (2) the magnitude of the thermo-physical

quantities, (3) the nature of the boundary conditions and (4) the

sensitivity analysis of the MOL computational domain.

References

[1] H.S. Carslaw, J.C. Jaeger, Conduction of Heat in Solids, 2nd ed., Clarendon Press,

London, England, UK, 1959.

[2] V. Arpaci, Conduction Heat Transfer, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1966.

[3] A.V. Luikov, Analytical Heat Diffusion Theory, Academic Press, London,

England, UK, 1968.

New York, 1971.

[5] U. Grigull, H. Sanders, Heat Conduction, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1984.

[6] M.N. zisik, Heat Conduction, 2nd ed., Wiley, New York, NY, 1993.

[7] D. Poulikakos, Conduction Heat Transfer, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ,

1993.

[8] D.W. Mackowski, Conduction Heat Transfer Notes, <http://www.eng.auburn.

edu/~dmckwski/mech7210/condbook.pdf>.

[9] <http://faculty.washington.edu/finlayso/ebook/pde/FD/FD.Matlab.htm>.

[10] <http://kitchingroup.cheme.cmu.edu/blog/2013/03/07/Transient-heat-conduction-partial-differential-equations>.

[11] O.A. Liskovets, The method of lines, review, Differenzialnie Uravneniya 1

(1965) 16621668 (in Russian) (English translation: Differential Equations,

vol. 1, pp. 13081323, 1965).

[12] G.H. Golub, H.A. van der Vorst, Eigenvalue computation in the 20th century, J.

Comput. Appl. Math. 3 (12) (2000) 3565.

[13] J.G. Verwer, J.M. Sanz-Serna, Convergence of method of lines approximations

to partial differential equations, Computing 33 (1984) 297313.

[14] S.C. Reddy, L.N. Trefethen, Stability of the method of lines, Numer. Math. 62 (1)

(1992) 235267.

[15] A. Zafarullah, Application of the method of lines to parabolic partial

differential equations with error estimates, J. Assoc. Comput. Mach. 17

(1970) 294302.

[16] A. Campo, J. Ho, Effortless application of the method of lines for the inverse

estimation of temperatures in a large slab with two surface heating

wavefronts, ASME J. Heat Transfer 131 (2) (2009). Paper number 024501, (5

pages).

[17] A. Campo, U. Lacoa, Adaptation of the method of lines (MOL) to the MATLAB

code for the analysis of the Stefan problem, WSEAS Trans. Heat Mass Transfer

9 (2014) 1928. Art. #3.

[18] A. Campo, J. Garza, Transversal method of lines (TMOL) for unsteady heat

conduction with uniform surface heat flux, ASME J. Heat Transfer 136 (2014) 2.

Paper No. 111n2ue02.

[19] <www.wolfram.com/mathematica>.

[20] A. Bejan, Heat Transfer, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, 1993.

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