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UNIVERSITY OF SANTO TOMAS

Faculty of Arts and Letters


University of Santo Tomas

ATTITUDE TOWARDS CUSTOMER QUEUE IN JCO. DONUT STORES


AND ITS RELATION TO IMPULSE BUYING

A Thesis
Presented to the
Department of Interdisciplinary Studies
of the Faculty of Arts and Letters

In Partial Fulfillment
Of the Requirements for the degree Bachelor of Arts
in Legal Managment

by

Guzman, Chairmaine A.
Landayan, Emmanuel A.
Pastrana, Mae Sharmane S.
Perez, Kristine Keryn U.
4LM2

February 2014

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ABSTRACT

The long customer queues that can be seen in J.Co Donuts stores in
Metro Manila have been evident these past few years. J.Co Donuts
surprisingly retained these queues that made the researchers curious on
what makes the consumers be willing to fall in line for at least an hour to
purchase the said donuts. True enough, data gathered reveal that the
customer queue that can be seen in the said stores is indeed a stimulus to
attract, entice and invite consumers to engage in impulse buying behavior
and later on derives satisfaction that makes the consumers buy again.

This study aims to test the relationship between customer queue and
impulse buying that would result to repurchase incidence. The attitude of
the consumer that covers the three domains of behavior namely,
cognitive, affective and psychomotor was correlated with impulse buying
and later on to its after-purchase satisfaction.

Findings indicate that when consumers see long customer queue in a


particular store, it makes them curious about the product and so they will
join the queue. Hence, it is a factor that results to impulse buying. Thus,
the study recommends the entrepreneurs to come up with the same
strategy that may help them raise their sales.

Key words: Customer queue; Impulse buying; After-purchase satisfaction;


Buying Behavior

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We would like to extend our warmest gratitude to our thesis


adviser, Prof. Jose Arsenio Salandanan of the Media Studies for his
unconditional support and guidance throughout this project to extract the
good ideas from the group and come up with a commendable study. Also,
we would like to thank Atty. Antonio M. Chua and Prof. Gian Carlo
Ledesma for extending their views, insights and advises leading us to a
clearer and better path of success, and to our thesis statistician, Ms.
Angelica Fabillar for helping us in the results, data analysis and
interpretation of this study.

We would like to thank all the respondents who religiously


participated in our survey, our classmates and friends who supported and
gave advises and ideas for the better and faster progress of our study, to
our family and friends who extended their unending support, love and
understanding, giving us hope and making ourselves believe that we can
do anything well. And above all, the good Lord for giving us the strength
and inspiration to finish this study with success and achievement.

To God be the Glory!

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Abstract of the Study

Acknowledgment

ii

Table of Contents

iii

List of Tables

1.0 The Problem: Rational and Background

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Statement of the Problem

1.4 Research Objectives

1.5 Hypothesis

1.6 Theoretical Framework

10

1.7 Conceptual Framework

12

1.8 Significance of the Study

13

19 Scope and Limitations

14

1.10 Definition of Terms

14

1.11 Organization and Coverage of the Study

17

2.0 Literature Review

19

Buying Behavior

19

Domains of Behavior

21

Impulse Buying

22

Stimulus

24

Customer Queue

25

Conformity

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Customer Satisfaction

29

Synthesis of the Study

30

3.0 The Research Methods

33

3.1 Research Design

33

3.2 Determination of Sample Size

33

3.3 Sampling Design and Technique

34

3.4 The Subjects

34

3.5 The Research Instrument

35

3.6 Validation of Instrument

36

3.7 Data Gathering Procedure

37

3.8 Data Processing Method

39

3.9 Statistical Treatment

39

4.0 Discussion/Results

43

5.0 Conclusions and Recommendations

68

Bibliography

72

Curriculum Vitae

76

APPENDICES:
Appendix I Questionnaire

79

Appendix II - Time frame

82

Appendix III - Budgetary Requirements

84

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LIST OF TABLES:
Table 3.1 Distribution of Subjects .. 35
Table 3.2 Reliability Test of the Questionnaire ... 37
Table 3.3 Interpretation of the Weighted Mean ... 40
Table 3.4 Interpretation of the Degree of Correlation . 41
Table 4.1 Civil Status of the Respondents ... 46
Table 4.2 Monthly Incomes of the Employed Respondents .. 47
Table 4.3 Daily Allowances for Student Respondents ... 48
Table 4.4 How Often the Respondents go to Malls .... 49
Table 4.5 Frequency of the Branches ...... 50
Table 4.6 Sources where the Respondents First Got
the Knowledge about J. Co. Doughnuts.... 51
Table 4.7 Mean Results and Interpretation of the
Domains Attitude Responses . 57
Table 4.8 Impulsivity of the Respondents 60
Table 4.9 Correlation between Attitude Towards
Customer Queue and Impulse Buying .. 61
Table 4.10 Mean Results and Interpretation of
After-Purchase Satisfaction 63
Table 4.11 Correlation between the Impulse buying behavior of the
consumers and After-Purchase Satisfaction.... 64

LIST OF FIGURES:
Fig. 1.1 The Mehrabian-Russell Theory Model ... 11
Fig. 1.2 Conceptual Framework . 12

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Fig. 4.1 Pie Chart of Gender Distribution of Sample .. 44


Fig. 4.2 Bar Graph of Age Distribution of Sample 45
Fig. 4.3 Pie Chart of Civil Status of Sample . 46
Fig. 4.4 Pie Chart of How Often Respondents go to Malls 49
Fig. 4.5 Bar Chart of How Stimulus Affects the
Three Domains of Behavior ... 59

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CHAPTER 1
THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING

1.1.

Introduction

When consumers go to the mall, most of them carry a shopping list


or have the things they want to buy in mind. However, they tend to include
products not intended to be purchased, thus resulting to impulse buying.
Nowadays, consumer impulsive purchase behavior is the topic of studies
of many researchers from different fields of study.

Researchers abroad for the past 60 years have been very


concerned on defining impulse buying; however they failed to arrive of a
universal definition of the same. Piron (1991) attempted to define impulse
buying by reviewing the past research works and found that earlier studies
revealed impulse buying to be very similar to unplanned purchasing
(Clover 1950, West 1951). Rook and Gardner (1993) defined it as an
unplanned behavior involving quick decision-making and tendency for
immediate acquisition of a product. Nevertheless, other studies suggest
that impulse buying is but a result of many underlying factors that
influenced the buyer himself.

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Factors that influence impulse buying range from situational to


behavioral and psychological factors. Situational factors include store
environment, perceived crowding and time pressure (Graa & Dani-elKebir,
2011); Stern (1962) revealed that purchase of any product involves two
types of decision-making: planned, which is time-consuming and impulse
buying that requires no prior planning. During shopping, products which
generate an immediate urge to be bought, falls under impulse buying
(Hausman, 2000).

Another study reveals that during impulse purchases, consumers


experience a stronger inclination towards the product as they follow their
own intuition (Gardner and Rook. 1988). People are triggered by a
stimulus that makes them buy something that they did not really plan to
get. One example of an environmental factor that serves as a stimulus is
customer queue which is further explained in a study conducted by Smith
(2009) and Wood & Wood (2004). According to Senthil Veeraraghavan,
customer queues may be generated by randomness of either by customer
arrival process or by the service provision process. Moreover, customer
queues may provide an indication that several customers chose that
particular service perhaps because of its perceived superior value
compared to the other server. Consumers tend to conform to the

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evaluation of others on a product (Lascu & Zinkhan, 1999) and they tend
to put importance to the thoughts and reactions of others in choosing or
deciding what to buy (Calder & Burnkrant, 1977; Lee & Park, 2008).
Hence, long customer queue maybe created by chance, and possible of
triggering other customers to join the same queue.

Mehrabian-Russell Theory explains the relationship between the


environment and the behavioral response of a person. It posits that the
actions of a person are influenced by the some situational factors.
Customer queue, being an environmental state may stimulate and arouse
a person to react in response to the situation (Graa & Dani-elKebir, 2011).
Many researchers have proven that impulse purchases are due to a
stimulus. Customer queue may have a negative or positive effect to the
sales of an establishment. It may either attract or detract customers to
purchase ones product (Senthil Veeraraghavan).

Waiting in line may result to loss of revenue as it causes tension


between customers and businesses. Fedex advertisement, states that
Waiting is frustrating, demoralizing, agonizing, aggravating, annoying,
time consuming and incredibly expensive. However, it is seen that J.Co
Donuts stores in the Philippines significantly have unending customer
queues during their business hours. A research conducted in Taiwan

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concluded, that the more people behind a consumer gives a perception
that the product is of good value (TOPCO, 2012). This is further
strengthened by the study of Veeraraghan & Debo (2009) stating that,
consumer would strictly prefer to join longer queues. Fishbach & Koo
(2010) found that, the value of the product increases as the consumers
put attention to the presence of others behind. However, length of queues
has no effect to consumers who are practical or who consider the prices
and they are less likely to leave the line (Lu, Musalem, Olivares, &
Schilkrut, 2012).

Filipinos nowadays have the habit of spending much money in


shopping rather than saving, which results to incidents of impulse buying
(Philippines Today, 2013). Filipinos engage themselves to frequent
shopping trips that led to 8% increase of spending on food due largely to
impulse buying

in 2012 (GMA Network Inc., 2013). Ang Pinaka, a

segment in GMA News TV, labeled J.Co Donuts as number 2 top food
craze in 2013.

Addressing the increased incidents of impulse buying by Filipinos


and the craze that drives long lines to J.Co Donuts stores, one consumer
said, Tag first time nga nagbakae ako it J.Co Donuts, nagbakae ako dahil
sa na-curious ako sa mahabang pila nga nakita ko. Maski two hours ako

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12

nagpila, nasatisfy man gihapon ako dahil manami man do donut.


Nagbakae man gihapon ako it uman maski sayud ko nga mabuhayan ako
sa pila (The first time I bought J.Co Donuts was because I got curious of
the long queue I saw. Although I waited for two hours, I got satisfied
because the donuts tasted good. I still purchased again despite the fact
that it takes a lot of time before actually acquiring the donut.) (Insauriga,
2013). With this, we can infer that long customer queue can persuade
impulse buying despite the fact that it may take time for a customer to
purchase the product and satisfaction can be derived after an unplanned
purchase.

A research conducted in India states that Satisfaction is primarily


an

emotional

customer-centered

personal

response

or

reaction

(M.S.Sridhar, 2001). Satisfaction is defined as the evaluation of the


perceived discrepancy between prior expectations and the actual
performance of the product (Tse & Wilton, 1988). It is said to be
established when the brand fulfills the needs and desires of the consumer
(Hanif, Hafeez, & Riaz, 2010).

In prior research in consumer psychology, it has been shown that


consumers exhibit natural consumption tendencies for both unhealthy and
healthy foods. Researchers have found systematic evidence suggesting

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that people operate under the implicit intuition that unhealthy food = tasty
(Raghunathan, Naylor and Hoyer 2006, p.170). Furthermore, the founder
of J.Co Donuts stated that The Philippines and Indonesia are very close
(in culture). Filipinos love to eat sweets. The Philippines is our best market
after Indonesia. (BizNews Asia, 2013). We can infer that Filipinos
patronizes such product because of the implicit intuition unhealthy food =
tasty. Due to the high consumption of such product, it increases demand,
incidents of impulse purchase and long customer queue in J.Co Donuts
stores.

J.Co Donuts is the fastest growing donut and coffee chain in


Indonesia. They have rapidly expand their chain in Malaysia, Singapore,
Shanghai (China), and the Philippines. Within 8 years of operation in
South East Asia, J.Co Donuts has grown its chain to 135 stores in
Indonesia, 14 stores in Malaysia, 13 stores in the Philippines and 4 stores
in Singapore. This brand has penetrated successfully into the local
market, dominated the market and business of donuts in Indonesia
against Krispy Kreme and Dunkin Donuts and hitched into the market
leader in Indonesia and the Philippines. J.Co Donuts entered the
Philippine market and opened its first branch in SM Megamall on March
15, 2012.

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The researchers would like to explore impulse buying tendency and
its relation to customer queue, given the situation in J.Co Donut stores, or
is of the other way around in Manila where there is always long line of
people waiting.

In this light, impulse buying purchases are likely to

happen.

1.2.

Statement of the Problem

A queue is but a study of organizations of store to attract attention to


the consumers, but what is really the attitude of the consumers towards
customer queue, how does this affects the three domains of behavior?

The main schema of this study is to correlate between the attitude


towards customer queue and impulse buying incidents in J.Co Donuts
stores in Manila. Specifically, this research shall resolve the issues on
What the attitude of the consumers toward customer queue in J.Co
Donut stores really is, How does the customer queue in J.Co Donut
stores affects the 3 domains of behavior (Affective, Cognitive,
Psychomotor), What is the relationship between the attitude towards
customer queue and impulse buying of customers in J.Co Donut
stores in Manila and What would the customer feel after engaging in
impulse buying due to customer queue in J.Co Donuts stores.

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1.3.

Research Objectives

1. To determine the attitude of the consumers towards customer


queue in J.co Donut stores to cover the following dimensions:
a. Cognitive
b. Affective
c. Psychomotor

2. To correlate the attitude towards customer queue and impulse


buying of customers in J.CO Donut stores in Metro Manila.

3. To determine the after-purchase satisfaction of customers who


bought J.CO donuts out of impulse.

1.4 Hypothesis

In the hypothesized model, customer queue in J. Co Donuts is the


independent variable. The attitude towards customer queue resulting to
impulse buying is the dependent variable. The affective, cognitive, and
psychomotor are the domains of behavior of a consumer towards the

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engagement in impulse buying. Based on the foregoing problems, the
proponents present the following null hypothesis:

Ho1: Consumers have a negative attitude towards customer


queue in J.co Donut stores.
Ho2: Customer queue in J.Co Donuts stores does not
significantly affect the cognitive dimension of attitude.
Ho3: Customer queue in J.Co Donuts stores does not
significantly affect the affective dimension of attitude.
Ho4: Customer queue in J.Co Donuts stores does not
significantly affect the psychomotor dimension of attitude.
Ho5: There is no relationship between the Cognitive dimension
of attitude and Impulse Buying.
Ho6: There is no relationship between the Affective dimension
of attitude and Impulse Buying.
Ho7: There is no relationship between the Psychomotor
dimension of attitude and Impulse Buying.
Ho8: The customer would feel regretful after engaging in
impulse buying due to customer queue in J.co Donut stores.

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1.5

17

Theoretical Framework

This study rest on the Mehrabian-Russell Theory that proposes an


environmental psychology approach. According to the theory, emotional
reaction is generated by the impact of a certain situation which then turns
to a behavioral response. It further argues that emotional responses of an
individual may be changed by the surroundings (Huang & Hsieh, 2006).

Emotional

state

intercedes

the

relationship

between

the

environment and a person, which makes the physical environment to


influence a persons behavioral response (Lee). The theory falls on three
dimensions namely, pleasure, arousal, dominance and; these represent
all of the diverse human emotional reactions to environments. Pleasure is
a composite feeling such as happiness, contentment and satisfaction that
a person experiences as an emotional reaction to the environmental
stimuli (Graa & Dani-elKebir, 2011).

Graa & Dani-elKebir also define arousal as a state of being alert or


stimulated to act in response to what one sees one can also feel excited.
Furthermore, it is also the combination of mental alertness and physical
activity which a person feels in response to some stimulus (Kulviwat,

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Bruner II, Kumar, Nasco, & Clark, 2007). Moreover, dominance is the
extent to which an individual is controlled or overpowered by the
surrounding. The higher the level of dominance, the more malleable the
person is (Graa & Dani-elKebir, 2011).

In this study, customer queue serves as the environmental stimulus


that would influence a persons behavior which results to an incident of
impulse. The dimensions specifically, arousal, dominance and pleasure
will serve as the emotional reaction of a person in response to the queue
they see. These dimensions will then result to the occurrence of impulse
buying.

The diagram of the process of Mehrabian-Russell Theory is

shown in Figure 2.

(Graa & Dani-elKebir, 2011)

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1.6

Conceptual Framework

Figure 1 presents the conceptual framework that will be used in the


process of developing Impulse Buying incidents in response to customer
queue.

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1.7 Significance of the Study

The study of customer queue as a stimulus for impulse buying can


contribute to the analysis of J.Co Donuts stores if having long customer
queue would be a competitive advantage or deterrent to the success of
the business.

Furthermore, it can contribute a lot to the researchers in the fields


of Marketing and Management. It can serve as reference material to
further improve the studies relating to marketing and management
concerning impulse buying, buying behavior and the like. It can also help
marketers create promotional strategies such as the use of stimuli,
specifically, customer queue, to induce impulse purchases especially to
newly introduced product such as J.Co Donuts, to boost their competitive
advantage, to increase sales and to enlarge their market share.

Stimuli in businesses can attract more first-time and non-first time


buyers if seen and effectively activated. Moreover, this can also serve as
a foundation that would broaden specific researches that would help them
in their studies regarding the improvement of their business and
management. The thesis goal is to prove that customer queue can also

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be a part of promoting a product that leaves an idea to people that the
product has good reputation, thus the bandwagon.

1.8

Scope and Limitations of the Study

The study will be limited only to correlation of the attitude towards


customer queue and impulse buying incidents in J.Co Donuts stores in
Manila. The research shall evolve in the domains of behavior namely,
affective, cognitive, and psychomotor. Also, repurchase incidence shall be
tackled; in this study, it signifies that the customer derives satisfaction
after buying out of impulse. Customers of J. CO Donuts who actually
experienced falling in line in a customer queue of the said establishment
will be the subjects of the research. It is noted that this study applies only
to the long customer queue in J.Co Donuts stores and not customer
queue in general.

1.9

Definition of Terms

AFFECTIVE. How a person would feel in response to a thing.


AROUSAL. To stimulate to action or to physiological readiness for
activity.

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ATTITUDE (Behavior). The emotional reaction that a person experiences
in response to the environmental stimuli.
BANDWAGON. A current fashionable trend
BUYING BEHAVIOR. The process wherein individuals search for, select,
use, and dispose goods and services for the satisfaction of their needs
and wants.
COGNITION. Knowing, perceiving or conceiving as an act or faculty
distinct from emotion and volition.
COGNITIVE. What a person thinks or knows about a certain thing. It is
also the stage where a person in aroused by a stimulus.
COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE. An advantage that a firm has over
its competitors
CURIOSITY. Desire to know or learn something.
CUSTOMER QUEUE. Line of people waiting at the counter.
DOMINANCE. When an individual is controlled or overpowered by the
surrounding.
EMOTIONAL STATE. The state of a person's emotions especially with
regard to pleasure or rejection.
IMPULSE. The act of driving onward with sudden force.
IMPULSE BUYING. An unplanned purchase accompanied by heightened
emotion with no or minimal deliberation.

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INTUITION. The power or faculty of attaining to direct knowledge or
cognition without evident rational thought and inference.
MARKETING PARADIGM. A paradigm in the field of marketing or related
to marketing.
MARKETING STRATEGY. A process that allows an organization to
concentrate its resources to achieve competitive advantage.
MINDSET. A fixed mental attitude or disposition that predetermines a
person's responses to and interpretations of situations.
PERCEPTION. The way one thinks about or understands someone or
something.
PLEASURE. Composite feeling such as happiness, contentment and
satisfaction.
PREFERENCE. The act, fact, or principle of giving advantages to some
over others.
PSYCHOMOTOR. How a person would react in response. It is also the
dominance stage.
SATISFACTION. The source or means of enjoyment.
STIMULUS. Something that arouses or incites to activity.
STRATEGY. A clever plan or method.
TREND. To extend in a general direction/ follow a general course.
TRIMEDIA Refers to Television, Radio and newspapers.

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1.10

GENERAL ORGANIZATION AND COVERAGE OF THE STUDY

Chapter 1 of this study dealt with the problem: rational and background,
statement of the problem, research objectives, hypothesis, theoretical
framework, conceptual framework, significance of the study, definition of
terms, and general organization and coverage of the study.

Chapter 2 presents the review of related literature both local and


international. This includes topics relating to Buying Behavior, Impulse
Buying, Stimulus, Queue, Conformity and Satisfaction.

Chapter 3 explains the research methodology, research design,


determination of sample size, sampling design and technique, the
subjects, the research instrument, validation of the research instrument,
data gathering procedure, data processing method, and statistical
treatment.

Chapter 4 includes the discussion of the results, analysis and


interpretation of the correlation between the attitude toward customer
queue and impulse buying in J. Co Donut stores in Manila.

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Chapter 5 is comprised of the summary of findings, conclusions and
recommendations based on the findings of the study.

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CHAPTER 2
THE LITERATURE REVIEW

BUYING BEHAVIOR OF THE CONSUMERS


Understanding consumer buying behavior is essential to the
successful management of the marketing mix and the building of longterm, profitable customer relationships. It is, after all, consumers who
make up markets. In order to offer the right consumers the right products
at the right time, providers of products and services need to understand
their preferences, prejudices, motivations and buying habits. They need to
appreciate that every purchase decision is a choice decision and that it
encompasses a wide variety of factors. In trying to comprehend why
people buy what they buy, marketers have to make judgments about the
importance they ascribe to consumers expressed beliefs about certain
products and services.

The researchers summarized some of the articles that provide


factors which affect customers buying behavior. These factors are
advertising, social class and global brands or international reputation.

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Advertising is a form of communication intended to convince an
audience (viewers, readers or listeners) to purchase or take some action
upon products, information, or services etc. The major findings of the
study demonstrated an overall normal association between the variables
but in-depth analysis found that emotional response of consumer
purchase behavior is the variable that results into strong association with
the consumer buying behavior. It is true that people purchase those
brands with which they are emotionally attached. (Zain-Ul Abideen, 2011)

Schaninger (1981) on the other hand conducted a research which


includes social class standing as a factor to buying behavior. He came to
the following conclusions: (1) Income is more important than social class
in explaining the consumption of low social value products and services
that are not related to class symbols, but require substantial expenditures.
Income also better determines the purchase frequency for soft drinks,
mixers and distilled alcohol, i.e. alcoholic beverages; (2) Social class is a
better predictor than income in areas that do not involve high dollar
expenditures, but reflect an underlying lifestyle, values, (e.g. concern with
health and body, drinking imported and domestic wines) or homemaker
role differences, not captured by income. Furthermore, social class is
superior for understanding the purchase of highly visible, symbolic, and
expensive goods, such as living room furniture and (3) the combination of

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social class and income is generally superior for highly visible products
that require moderate or substantial expenditure and also serve as classlinked symbols. (M. Mihi, 2006)

Also, a research on global brands affecting buying behavior with


specifically college students has also been pursued. It shows that most
consumers have different perceptions of global brands about a product in
a given category because global brands might have some additional
associations related with the brand which local brands do not have.

Thus, this has significant contributions to brand image and


knowledge, and it enhances brand value which is likely to affect
consumers' brand selection and loyalty behavior. The results show that
there is a significant difference in the degree of brand loyalty exhibited by
college students across a variety of product categories, which also
impacts the dimensions of global brand selection. (Apaydn, 2011)

DOMAINS OF BEHAVIOR
Benjamin Bloom (1948) developed classifications of intellectual
behavior and learning in order to identify and measure progressively
sophisticated learning. The Three domains of learning are recognized as
Cognitive, Psychomotor and Affective. Cognitive domain is defining

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knowledge classification. Next is the Psychomotor domain (Gronlund,
1970; Harrow, 1972; Simpson, 1972) defining physical skills or tasks
classification and last is the Affective domain (Krathwhol, Bloom, and
Masia, 1964) defining behaviors that correspond to attitudes and values.

Affective outcomes tend to be the hardest to articulate initially and


often appear difficult to assess at first glance. However, cognitive
outcomes often represent the outcomes most closely related to deeper
thinking and life-long learning, as well as the outcomes we value most.

IMPULSE BUYING
Researchers and scholars nowadays have been interested about
buying behavior including impulse buying. It has been the subject to many
researches not only here in the Philippines but more so abroad for it has
been very popular topic in marketing and psychology.

Impulse buying is an unplanned behavior involving quick decisionmaking and tendency for immediate acquisition of a product as defined by
Rook and Gardner (1993). In past research by Gutierrez (2004), it is
considered that the frequency of unplanned or impulsive purchasing is as
high as 90%. The truth about impulse buying behavior is that it is a

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occurring. However, theres no one research to define and set everything
about it and why is it occurring.

Many researchers abroad tried to solve this mystery by giving


different set of alternatives as reason for continuous impulsiveness on part
of the consumers. A number of studies suggest that the main
characteristics of impulsive buying behavior are: inclination to impulse
buying, spontaneity in buying, satisfaction felt after unplanned purchase,
and lack of shopping list (Rook & Fisher, 1995; Beatty & Ferrell, 1998;
Verplanken & Herabadi, 2001; Virvilaite et al., 2009). These factors refer
to the individual characteristics of the consumer.

However, impulse buying also needs to be investigated in terms of


other external factors such as demographic, cultural, and situational ones.
Situation is a set of all the factors ''particular to a time and place of
observation which do not follow from knowledge of personal (intraindividual) and stimulus (choice alternative) attributes, and which have a
demonstrable and systematic effect on current behavior.'' Included in the
situational is the customer queue in a particular store.

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31

STIMULUS
Most of us have experienced an impulse that has led us into
unplanned shopping. What, then, makes us purchase products we did not
intend to buy, we did not need or we did not have in our shopping list?
(Ceballos, 2010)

It can be explained that the situation-response formula is adequate


to cover learning of any sort, whether it comes with ideas or without,
conscious or unconscious, impulsive or deliberate. (Thorndike) People,
then, are triggered by a stimulus that makes them buy something that they
did not really plan to get.

One example could be the long queues at one server but not at
another may provide an indication that several customers chose that
particular service perhaps because of its perceived superior value
compared to the other server. As queues typically generated by
randomness of either by customer arrival process or by the service
provision process, long queues may be created by chance, possibly
triggering

other

Veeraraghavan).

customers

to

join

the

same

queue

(Senthil

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A lot of experiments have already been conducted in different
areas in the field of Science; one example is that of Pavlovs Classical
Conditioning. But what needs to be investigated further is that of the effect
of the stimulus in the field of Marketing and Management in conditioning
the mindset of consumers in buying a certain product through long
queues.

CUSTOMER QUEUE
A research conducted in Taiwan concluded that the more the
people behind a consumer will make the consumer confident about
standing in queue and enhances the products value. The consumer will
believe that the product is good by the influence of majority (TOPCO,
2012).

In the study made by Fishbach & Koo (2010), findings show that
a consumer in a queue sees the products more valuable when there are
more people behind them. The value of the product increases as the
consumers put attention to the presence of others behind. When new
people join the queue, they will have the same increased perceived value.

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This in effect gives an illusionary progress to the people already
in line. The likelihood to accomplish the queuing goal decreases
completion time which in this case retains the consumers to be in line
(Nunes & Dreze, 2006). A large number of people behind the consumer
will require more time and effort to receive the product or service if one will
rejoin the queue later (Fishbach & Koo, 2010).

The study by Veeraraghan & Debo (2009) shows that when the
value is negatively correlated with service rates, the consumer would
strictly prefer to join longer queues. They further add that the choice of the
customer is influenced by queue length externalities.

A study found that purchase incidence is affected by the length of


queue rather than the speed of service. Customers take into consideration
the length of queue rather than speed of service. This implies that
purchase incidence increased due to long customer queue. When the
queue is longer, it influences how the consumers decide in which queue to
join.

Therefore, there is an increase of sales in establishments with


longer queue. Moreover the study also suggests that lowering the price of
product increases congestion. Length of queues has no effect to

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consumers who are practical or who consider the prices and they are less
likely to leave the line. (Lu, Musalem, Olivares, & Schilkrut, 2012)

Addressing the negative implications of queue to customer


satisfaction a research suggested some possible ways to circumvent
these problems. These includes (1) Provision for reservations, (2) Making
waiting a comfortable and less painful activity, (3) Reducing perception of
actual waiting and increasing expectation of waiting (4) Arranging some
interesting activity during waiting, (5) Avoiding visibility of long queues, (6)
Some of the preliminaries of service delivery process be done during the
waiting, (7) Providing attention, concern and necessary information for
reducing uncertainty and anxiety (M.S.Sridhar, 2001) .

CONFORMITY
Conformity is a social behavior wherein an individual follows the
beliefs of the other. An individual tends to follow the majority even if the
majority is wrong (Asch, 1965). People live with others, and are often
influenced by others in their behavior (Lee & Park, 2008). It is a
phenomenon in consumer behavior wherein the consumer follows the
evaluation of others on a product, their purchasing intention, and
purchasing behavior (Lascu & Zinkhan, 1999). Consumers put importance

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to the thoughts and reactions of others in choosing or deciding what to
buy (Calder & Burnkrant, 1977; Lee & Park, 2008).

Informative conformity was defined as the influence to accept


information from others to evince the truth to reality. On the other hand,
normative conformity was defined as the influence to conform to the
expectation of others. When consumers consult their friends and
acquaintances before they purchase products, they seek to receive
support for their purchasing decision. Consumers in effect feel confident
when others decisions agree with theirs (Lee & Park, 2008).

Crutchfield (1955) suggests that conformity is based on the


individuals personality factors. It claims that conformity is predisposed by
the characteristics a person has. Crutchfield found that people who are
more likely to conform are less intellectually competent, less ego strength,
less leadership ability and narrow minded or authoritarian. These
personality shows that these people have less confidence with their own
perception that makes them to follow the majority (Psychology, p. 111).

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CUSTOMER SATISFACTON

Customer satisfaction is defined as the evaluation of the perceived


discrepancy between prior expectations and the actual performance of the
product (Tse & Wilton, 1988). It is said to be established when the brand
fulfills the needs and desires of the consumer (Hanif, Hafeez, & Riaz,
2010). A research conducted in India states that Satisfaction is primarily
an emotional customer-centered personal response or reaction. The
customer and his overall post purchase evaluation depend on his
perception, viewpoint, experience, expertise, prior personal knowledge,
recent performance and first impression (M.S.Sridhar, 2001).

Satisfaction can be determined by two factors namely subjective


and objective. Subjective factors include customer needs, emotions and
the like while objective factors include the product or service
(Shodhganga). The level of satisfaction can be measured depending on
how much the level of expectation is met (Torsten, Rams, & Schindler,
2001).

A research found that customer satisfaction adds value to the


brand and spread a positive word of mouth that helps establish a good

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reputation of the brand. Satisfied customers make a long term profitable
relationship with the brand where the satisfaction is derived from (Hanif,
Hafeez, & Riaz, 2010). This was further explained in the research of Khan
(2012) which concluded that, improved customer satisfaction leads to
customer loyalty. Loyal customers can attract new consumers by deriving
conformity from them.

A company uses this approach and states that Companies


increasingly look to quality, satisfaction, and loyalty as keys to achieving
market leadership. Understanding what drives these critical elements, how
they are linked and how they contribute to your companys overall equity
is fundamental to success (The Nielsen Company, 2013).

SYNTHESIS OF THE STUDY


Every purchase decision is but a result of consumer behavior and is
based on preferences that are influenced by variety of factors. Factors
may include advertising, social class, and the brand of a product (Zain-Ul
Abideen, 2011). Benjamin Bloom (1948) developed the three domains of
behavior that may be affected by a stimulus. This includes, cognitive,
affective, and psychomotor. Cognitive defines the knowledge of an
individual in response to a subject. Affective, on the other hand is the

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defining behavior that corresponds to what an individual feels. Lastly,
psychomotor defines the physical activity of an individual.

There are different types of consumers; this includes impulse buyers


or buyers who purchase a product unplanned. This is due to the
inclination to engage, satisfaction felt, and lack of shopping list (Rook &
Fisher, 1995; Beatty & Ferrell, 1998; Verplanken & Herabandi, 2001;
Vivilaite et al., 2009). According to Graa & Dan-elKebir (2011), impulse
buying is influenced by situational factors or stimulus which includes store
environment, perceived crowding and time pressure.

In this study, the stimulus is the customer queue in J. Co Donuts


stores. The proponents would like to know the attitude of the consumers
towards customer queue by considering the three domains of behavior
that would then lead to a response which is impulse buying. The domains
of behavior signify abstract concepts of the Mehrabian-Russel Theory
Model, found in the theoretical framework which explains how an
environmental stimuli influence an individual to react.

According to past researches, customer queue may affect the


purchasing behavior of an individual. It gives a person the perception that
the product is of good value (TOPOCO, 2012). People tend to conform to

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other peoples evaluation on a product (Lascu & Zinkhan, 1999). Thus,
consumers tend to join longer queues resulting to an increase in purchase
incidence (Veeraraghan & Debo, 2009). Purchase incidents may result to
a positive or negative feedback of a consumer. A consumer may regret or
be satisfied after purchasing a product. Satisfaction is established when
the brand fulfils the needs and desires of the consumers (Hanif, Hafeez, &
Riaz, 2010). Addressing the current phenomenon in J. Co Donut stores
where long customer queue is seen in their business hours, it can be
inferred that their customers derive satisfaction and still repurchase.

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CHAPTER 3
THE RESEARCH METHODS

3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN

A descriptive method of research was utilized and a correlational


study using survey was used in this study wherein data gathered shall
provide information that will correlate the two variables, attitude towards
customer queue in J. Co Donuts and impulse buying incidents in the said
establishment. The design is limited to describing the population in the
current incident since the information was gathered at one point in time.
Survey was used in determining whether the relationship is perfect, very
high or high.

3.2 DETERMINATION OF SAMPLE SIZE

As a purposive study, the determination of the sample size is


according to the purpose of the proponents which is to select respondent
who were able to experience falling in line to purchase products in J. CO
Donuts stores. The total sample size of 200 respondents is in accordance
with the suggested sample size of a purposive study which was also
approved by the thesis adviser.

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3.3 SAMPLING DESIGN AND TECHNIQUE

The sampling design that was employed by the researchers is the


non-scientific purposive technique. This kind of technique is based on
selecting the individuals as samples according to the purpose of the study
which is to know whether there is a relationship between attitudes towards
customer queue and impulse buying in J.Co Donuts Stores. The inclusion
criteria that was observed in this study is that the respondents must be a
previous customer of J.Co Donuts or at least they have already tried
falling in line in J.Co Donuts stores to purchase their products once.

3. 4 THE SUBJECTS

The subjects in this study, focusing on the correlation between


customer queue and impulse buying behavior are people who specifically
tried falling in line to buy products in J.Co Donuts stores within Metro
Manila. In here, researchers derived at 500 population or 200 samples. Of
200 samples, 140 or 70 percent of the total respondents are from different
colleges of The University of Santo Tomas and the other 60 or 30 percent
are random respondents who by themselves experienced falling in line in
the said establishment, to be handed the questionnaire specifically from

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42

J.Co Donuts line of people. Table 3.1 shows the distribution of the
subjects

TABLE 3.1 Distributions of Subjects


LOCATION

FREQUENCY

UNIVERSITY OF SANTO

PERCENTAGE

140

70

SM NORTH EDSA

20

10

TRINOMA

20

10

MALL OF ASIA

20

10

TOTAL

200

100

TOMAS
J.CO DONUT STORES:

3.5 THE RESEARCH INSTRUMENT

The researchers will use a structural questionnaire for gathering


data to determine the correlation between customer queue and impulse
buying. The proponents used a likert scale in measuring the attitude,
impulsivity, as well as the after-purchase satisfaction of the respondents.
The questionnaire as designed by the researchers will include questions

UNIVERSITY OF SANTO TOMAS


relating to attitude and emotional state of the consumers who falls in line
to buy J.Co donuts.

The questionnaire will consist of three parts. Part I will aim to


gather information on the respondents personal data (name, gender, age,
civil status, allowance, the frequency of how often the respondent goes to
the mall and which branch of J.Co Donuts stores respondent have been
to). Part II will measure the attitude of the respondent towards customer
queue in J.Co Donuts and Part III will gather data measuring the
respondents impulsivity and after-purchase satisfaction derived from it.

A cover letter was attached to the questionnaire itself for the


respondents to know that they are being regarded as subjects of the study
with confidentiality.

3.6 VALIDATION OF INSTRUMENT

The questionnaire has undergone series of revisions and was


submitted to the researchers adviser for corrections and suggestions.
Several changes were made and irrelevant questions were omitted. A pretest was administered to 30 students of the University of Santo Tomas,
specifically in the College of Arts and Letters to see if the questions are

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clearly stated and can be well understood. Cronbachs Alpha was used to
test the estimated reliability of the instrument.

The first part of the

instrument has .753 level of reliability while the second part has .854 level
of reliability; this means that the questionnaire is valid and highly reliable.

Table 3.2
Cronbach's
Alpha

Result

.753
.815

Highly Reliable
Highly Reliable

Questionnaire 1
Questionnaire 2

Table 3.2 shows the Cronbachs Alpha for the overall reliability
analysis of the questionnaire for this research. The Cronbachs Alpha
presents a value above 0.750 (0.753 on 2nd part of the questionnaire and
0.815 for 3rd part of the questionnaire) which indicates that the two parts
of the questionnaire are highly reliable. If the questionnaire is reliable,
internal consistency is assured.

3. 7 DATA GATHERING PROCEDURE

The researchers employed a correlation approach using the data


collected through a purposive sampling survey. The questionnaire was
delivered first-hand to the respondents.

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UNIVERSITY OF SANTO TOMAS

After due consultation and validation of the questionnaire, it was


then approved by the adviser. The researchers immediately conducted the
data gathering procedure through survey. The survey was conducted
primarily in the University of Santo Tomas where 70% of the total
respondents came from. And the remaining 30% of the sample size was
gathered in 3 different J.Co Donuts stores in Metro Manila, specifically
J.Co Donuts stores in SM North, Trinoma and SM Mall of Asia.

The researchers themselves conduct the survey which lasted for 10


days. The first 7 days were allotted only for respondents in the University
of Santo Tomas and the remaining 3 days were divided for 3 J.Co Donuts
stores inside the 3 malls (SM North, Trinoma and MOA).

The researchers retrieved 100% of the questionnaire since the type


of sampling technique is purposive in nature. All of the respondents
passed the inclusion criteria and with all honesty answered the survey
questionnaire given by the researchers.

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UNIVERSITY OF SANTO TOMAS

3.8 DATA PROCESSING METHOD

After the retrieval of the survey questionnaires from the


respondents, the researchers tabulated and analyzed the data. Statistical
Package of Social Science (SPSS) was used to collate the datum that will
be organized using frequencies, tables and graphs. The researcher will
assess whether there is a significant relationship between attitudes
towards customer queue and impulse buying in J. Co Donuts stores. The
responses will be used to determine how customer queue affects the
three domains of behavior namely affective, cognitive and psychomotor
that will lead to impulse buying incidents and later on, after-purchase
satisfaction that makes customer buy again.

3.9 STATISTICAL TREATMENT

The data gathered through the research instrument was collated


through the use of Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS). This
study made use of frequencies, percentage distributions, mean, and
Spearman Rho () Correlation Coefficient in the interpretation of the data
and testing the hypothesis of the study. Frequency and Percentages

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was utilized to know the attitude of the consumers toward customer queue
in J.co Donut stores. The formula is as follows:

n
100 %
N
The n stands for the frequency counts while N stands for the overall
population.
Mean is the central tendency measurement used to get the
average of the overall respondents given that the data is a scale. The
formula for getting the mean is as follows:

x X
N

The x stands for each value of the variables while N stands for the
overall population
Weighted mean was used in coding, assigning and analyzing the
numerical values in Strongly Agree (4), Agree (3), Disagree (2) and
Strongly Disagree (1). The following were used as the basis for the verbal
interpretations of the computed weighted mean.
Table 3.3 Interpretation of the Weighted Mean
Degrees of Mean

Verbal Interpretation

1.00-1.50

Strongly Disagree

1.51-2.50

Disagree

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UNIVERSITY OF SANTO TOMAS


2.51-3.50

Agree

3.51-4.00

Strongly Agree

Spearman Rho () Correlation Coefficient was used for the


researcher to answer the correlations of variables. The formula for
Spearman correlation is as follows:

6 d 2

n n 2 1

The n stands for the number of paired ranks while d stands for the
difference between the paired ranks.
Relative hereto, once the correlation is computed, the degree of
correlation will be as analysed as follows by the proponents:

Table 3.4 Interpretation of Degree of Correlation

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If the computed correlation is positive, it is concluded that the
relationship between the dependent and independent variables are
direct. This means that as long as the independent variable increases,
the dependent variable also increases. However, if the computed
correlation is negative, it is concluded that the relationship between the
dependent and independent variables are inverse. This means that as
long as the independent variable increases, the dependent variable
decreases.

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CHAPTER 4
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

4.1 Introduction
The methodology described in the previous chapter set the
baseline for data gathering. In this chapter, the presentation of data will be
systematically shown. The data collected are extracted from the
questionnaire attached in the appendix herein.

This chapter will focus in the analysis and interpretation of data as


well as the figures and tables used by the researcher to complete such
interpretation. According to De Vos (1998), data analysis entails that the
analyst break down data into constituent parts to obtain answers to
research question and hypotheses. The analysis of research data does
not in its own provide the answers to research questions.

The purpose of interpreting the data is to reduce it to an intelligible


and interpretable form so that the relations of research problems can be
studied and tested, and conclusions drawn. On the other hand when the
researchers interpret the results, the researchers study them for their
meaning and implications (De Vos 1998)

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4.2 Discussion of Results

Discussion of all demographics features of the respondents

The demographic information shows that there is gender


imbalance, that is, there are more female than male respondents, and
their difference is of 50 respondents. The researchers believed that this is
because of the kind of sampling technique employed which is purposive.
As such, the researchers got the samples that only fall under the inclusion
criteria. According to injarevi (2010) Impulse buying is typically a
domain where gender differences seem apparent. This is congruent with
what Kollat and Willett (1967) found that women tend to buy on impulse
more than men do. Therefore the result of this research will be a little bit
biased towards female opinions.

Furthermore, demography shows that the majority (153 or 73.5%)


of the respondents are students while only 47 or 26.5% are working. This
result is not a surprise to the researchers since the researchers
themselves decided that 70% of the sample will be students from the
University of Santo Tomas. The excess of 3.5% suggests that in survey
conducted in the particular J.Co Donuts stores, researchers still got

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respondents who are students. Among the 73.5% student respondents,
more than 3/4 of it said that they receive daily allowance of P100-P300.
Only 23.8% gets a daily allowance of 301 and above. With regards to 53
working respondents, everyone answered the monthly income question.
This is because the researchers explained that if they are not working,
they may answer their spouses income.

However, it is note-worthy that only 18 respondents are married.


182 are still single including the 153 students. That is to say that out of 53
working respondents, only 18 of them are married and the remaining 35
are still single yet already working. Since the type of sampling is
purposive, all of the respondents are mall-goers. 69% of which said that
they go to mall at least more than once a week, while 31% said they are in
malls at least once to twice a month. Almost 70% of the respondents are
familiar with the J.Co Donuts branch in SM North, SM Mall of Asia and
Trinoma. This result is primarily affected by the fact that these malls are
very accessible to consumers, as well as the students.

With regards to what source the respondents got their first


knowledge about J.Co Donuts, the influence of family and friends are still
very apparent, followed by seeing the actual stores in malls. Getting

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information from Television, Radio and News Papers and the use of
Internet seems to be very least.

Demographics
The following section provides an overview of the demographic
profile of the sample.

Gender

125 females

75 males

Figure 4.1: Pie Chart of Gender Distribution of Sample

Table 4.1 indicates that there are 75 male respondents and 125
female respondents, in total, there are 200 respondents. As the frequency
table shows, more female respondents have experienced falling in line to
buy products in J.Co Donuts stores.

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Age

Figure 4.2: Bar Graph of Age Distribution of the Sample

Figure 4.1 presents the age distribution of 200 respondents. The


age range is from 16 to 38 years old. 132 or 66% of the total respondents
said they are 20 years old and below, while only 13 or 5.5% of the total
respondents are 30 years old and above. All respondents provided their
age.

In this result, it can be inferred that more teenagers are likely to


engage in impulse buying and are willing to spend their spare time falling
in line compared with the older respondents or those who are already
working.

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Civil Status
Table 4.1

Figure 4.3 Pie Chart of Civil Status of the Respondents

Table 4.1 presents the marital status of the 200 respondents. It is


evident that the majority of the respondents (182 or 91%) at the time of
the survey were not married while 18 respondents or 9% said that they
are married. No respondents answered other status such as separated or
widowed.

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UNIVERSITY OF SANTO TOMAS

Monthly Income for Employees


Table 4.2

Table 4.2 shows that out of 200 respondents, only 53 of them are
already working. Out of 53 working respondents, 2 of them earn 10,000 to
15,000 every month; 8 of them make 15,001 to 20,000; 12 of them have
monthly income of 20,001 to 25,000; 10 of them make 25,001 to 30,000; 5
for 30,001 up to 35,000; 11 earn 35,001 to 40,000; 3 earn 40,0001 to
50,000 and 2 make more than 50,001 and above every month.

Since the result presented a scattered frequency of each monthly


income category, it can be concluded that whether a working individual
earns a lot or just enough, theres still a possibility that they will join the
queue in J.Co Donuts or will engage in impulse buying behavior.

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UNIVERSITY OF SANTO TOMAS

Daily Allowance for Students

Table 4.3

The above table (4.3) reveals that among 200 respondents, a total
of 147 are students with daily allowances ranging from 100 to 1,001 and
above. 61 of them said they have daily allowance of 100-200 pesos a day,
while 51 respondents revealed that they received 201-300 pesos
allowance. Both 301-400 and 401-500 have 13 respondents. Meanwhile 9
respondents said they receive 501 and above daily allowance.

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With this result, it can also be concluded similarly on the next
preceding question, that daily allowances doesnt matter when people
would like to buy J.Co Donuts or engage in impulse buying.

How often do the respondents go to Malls?

Table 4.4

Figure 4.4: Pie Chart of How Often Respondents Go to Mall

Table 4.4 and Figure 4.4 presents how often respondents go to


mall. In a total of 200 respondents, 64 perceived that they go to mall once

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a week. 74 respondents said that they go to mall more than once a week.
49 respondents go to the mall twice a month and 13 said that go to malls
at least once a month. Since majority of the respondents (37%) go to the
mall more than once a week, it can be assumed that there is a big
possibility for them to see the long customer queues in J.Co Donuts stores
resulting for them to join the said queue.

Branch
Table 4.5

It can be seen in the above table (Table 4.5) that the most visited
J.Co Donuts Branch is the branch located in SM North which garnered 65
or 25.7% of the total respondents followed by Trinoma Branch with a small

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UNIVERSITY OF SANTO TOMAS


difference of less than 2%. Third is the SM Mall of Asia branch which is of
22.9% of the total respondents. It can also be inferred from the table
above that almost 70% of the responses would lead to three J.Co Donuts
stores, specifically SM North, Mall of Asia and Trinoma. The explanation
for this is the fact that 30% of the respondents are actual consumers of
the three branches. In UST, where 70% of the survey respondents came
from, is just one jeepney/FX away from SM North and Trinoma. That is
why theres a very high chance that respondents have been to those
stores as compared to other stores like that of in Green Hills, Alabang
Town Center and UP Town Center.

How do you first know J.Co Donuts?

Table 4.6

Table 4.6 shows the result of multi-response question, that out of 4


possible sources of information regarding J.Co Donuts, the main source is

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family/friends with 101 or 47% responses, second is by seeing the actual
stores in the malls with 92 or 42% responses. The use of internet and the
influence of Trimedia are believed to be very weak which only contributed
8.4% and 2% respectively. This is because J.Co donuts do not have TV
Commercials or even many advertisements in social networks.

Research Objectives Results

The Researchers found that customer queue affects the


attitude of consumers, specifically cognitive, affective and psychomotor
domains, positively. It has been proven that the attitude towards customer
queue is a stimulus to impulse buying and that such induces the
customers to join the queue for their first time. Also, according to the
results, repurchase incidence are likely to happen due to satisfaction
because of the product they have tasted from J.CO Donuts.

It can also be derived from the results that when people


contemplate (cognitive) before giving in to their feelings or emotions, the
less likely they would act upon it. Cognitive outcomes often represent the
outcomes most closely related to deeper thinking (Bloom, 1948); if the

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consumers think twice before joining a long customer queue, there are
things that they would want to consider. First, if it is reasonable to devote

their time to fall in line for a product they have not tried before. Second, if
the product really is of quality for them to buy it and third, if they will be
satisfied after the purchase. That is why the relationship between
cognitive and impulsivity is inverse. This is also because when you
engage in impulse buying, the use of cognition is less likely to happen.
This is in congruence with what Beatty and Ferell (1998) believes that
impulse buying refers to immediate purchases which are without preshopping objectives.

Moreover, if consumers focus more on what they feel


(affective), the more they become impulsive. That is why based from the
results; people are less likely to care about the long line. What is more
important to them is to satisfy their cravings. It is aforementioned that out
of 200 respondents, 125 are female; a study in France found that food
cravings are more common in women than men (Lafay et al., 2001).
Demographic results show that 75% of the respondents go to the mall
more than once a week, based on the same study conducted by Lafay et
al. (2001), over one-quarter of women surveyed reported weekly food

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cravings. The respondents do not mind waiting and seeing long lines to
purchase the product as long as they get to try it. Hence, there is a direct
relationship between affective and impulsivity.

Lastly, the consumers are overpowered by the stimulus that


leads them to join the customer queue. According to Veeraghan & Debo
(2009), customers choose longer lines because they are influenced by
queue externalities. Customer queue has been found to be an effective
stimulant in attracting consumers; it increases the perceived value of the
product, thus consumers would strictly prefer longer ones. That is why
there is also a direct relationship between psychomotor and impulsivity.

However, it is not absolute because results show that some of the


consumers are not willing to wait and finish the line. A queue can
influence the activity a wait involves, which seem to cause certain degree
of anxiety in waiting. Furthermore, queue is considered as a time filler (cf.
Maister,1985). The change of mind is assumed to take place to
consumers who are practical. According to the study of Lu, Musalem,
Olivares, & Schilkrut (2012), practical consumers are likely to leave the
line because they consider the prices.

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64

Furthermore, according to the results, as the consumer


engage in impulse buying in J.Co Donuts stores, they derive satisfaction
since unplanned purchase is due more because of satisfaction of their
cravings. The founder of J.Co Donuts considers the Philippines as one of
their best market for the reason that Filipinos love to eat sweets (BizNews
Asia, 2013). Consumers are satisfied because J.Co Donuts offers goodtasting products that satisfy their cravings.

1. The attitude of the consumers towards customer queue in J.co


Donut stores to covering the three dimensions namely:
Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor.
TABLE 4.7

COGNITIVE
J.Co Donuts demand rate, compared to
other stores, suggests that it is classy.
J.Co Donuts' freshly baked donuts have
a positive impact to customers.
J.Co Donuts is overrated.
AFFECTIVE
Long customer queue in J.Co Donuts
stores makes me curious about their

Mean

SD

2.037

0.413

Verbal
Interpretation
Disagree

2.015

0.719

Disagree

1.635

0.635

Disagree

2.460
2.191

0.966
0.185

Disagree
Disagree

1.920

0.739

Disagree

UNIVERSITY OF SANTO TOMAS


product.
Long customer queue hinders me from
lining up.
It disappoints me whenever I see long
customer queue in J,Co Donuts stores.
It is irritating to see and join a long
customer queue in J.Co Donuts stores.
PSYCHOMOTOR
I tend to join the customer queue
whenever I see it long.
I am going to wait and finish the long line
in order to purchase J.Co Donuts'
products.
I dont join in long customer queues
I will ignore the idea of buying when I
see the line is long.
I would walk out of the line if it is taking
too long.

65

2.235

0.839

Disagree

2.325

0.826

Disagree

2.285

0.853

Disagree

2.416

0.097

Disagree

2.555

0.944

Agree

2.420

1.019

Disagree

2.365

0.886

Disagree

2.445

0.861

Disagree

2.295

1.031

Disagree

Table 4.7 presents the attitude of the consumers in terms of


Affective, Cognitive and Psychomotor towards customer queue in J.co
Donut stores.

The verbal interpretation of the responses of the respondents in


terms of the Cognitive domain is Disagree with mean of 2.037. The
respondents disagree that J.Co Donuts is overrated and their freshly
baked donuts have a positive impact to customers. The respondents also
find J.Co Donuts demand rate, compared to other stores, do not suggest
that it is classy.

UNIVERSITY OF SANTO TOMAS


On the other hand, the verbal interpretation of the responses of the
respondents in terms of the Affective domain is also Disagree with mean
of 2.191. Responses show that long customer queue does not hinder
them from lining up. The long queue does not make them curious about
the product. Furthermore, it does not disappoint them and they dont find
long customer queue in J.Co Donuts stores irritating to see and join the
long customer queue.

In terms of the Psychomotor domain, the verbal interpretation of the


responses of the respondents is Disagree with mean value of 2.416.
Consumers seem to focus primarily on the length of the line when
deciding to join the queue, however they are not drawn away by longer
ones (Lu, 2012). Another study strengthens this result which states that
long queues may be created by chance, possibly triggering other
customers to join the same queue (Vaararaghavan). It is in congruence to
the results in terms of psychomotor. Respondents tend to consider joining
customer queue when they see it long. More respondents are not willing
to finish the long line in order to purchase the product compared with
those respondents who would not walk out of the line if it is taking them
too long.

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67

FIGURE 4.5

Figure 4.5 presents the comparison of how strong the stimulus affects
the three dimension of attitude. It is shown that the Psychomotor is the
greatest affected domain of behavior by the long customer queue, next is
the Affective domain and the least affected is the Cognitive domain.

2. The correlation of the attitude towards customer queue and


impulse buying of customers in J.CO Donut stores in Manila.

TABLE 4.8
Mean

SD

IMPULSIVITY
I feel satisfied whenever I bought something I
patiently fallen in line for.
I go to the mall whenever I need to buy
something.
I am willing to spend money for a product I
have not tried before.
I buy things planned.

2.861

0.244

Verbal
Interpretation
Like Me

3.005

0.786

Like Me

3.070

0.720

Like Me

2.755

0.818

Like Me

3.125

0.701

Like Me

I buy things unplanned because of curiosity.

2.865

0.861

Like Me

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68

I buy things unplanned to be part of the trend.

2.510

0.972

Like Me

I buy things unplanned to satisfy my cravings.

3.181

0.757

Like Me

I spend hard-earned money wisely.

3.090

0.745

Like Me

2.905

0.787

Like Me

2.505

0.935

Like Me

2.770

0.775

Like Me

2.550

0.819

Like Me

I feel satisfied even the purchase was


unplanned.
The long line in J.Co Donuts triggered me to
buy J.Co products for the first time.
Word of mouth persuaded me to buy J.Co
donuts' product the first time.
I only buy when there is a short line in a J.Co
Donuts stores.

Table 4.8 presents the impulsivity of the respondents. The


respondents describe themselves as someone who would go to the mall
whenever they need to buy something and someone who buys things
planned, thus making them a wise spender. However, they are willing to
spend money for a product that they have not tried before. Although they
consider themselves as someone who buy things planned, unplanned
purchase are likely to happen. Results show that unplanned purchase is
due more because of satisfaction of cravings derived thereafter, next is
due because of curiosity and lastly, because of the want to be part of the
trend or the bandwagon. After-purchase Satisfaction is derived by the
respondents even if the purchase is unplanned.

More respondents were triggered to buy J.Co Donuts on their first


purchase due to Word-of-mouth rather than the persuasion due to the
long line of people waiting. It can also be seen that many respondents
would prefer buying J.Co Donuts when it has shorter line. Since

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69

unplanned purchase is due more because of satisfaction of cravings,


respondents feel satisfied whenever they buy something they patiently
queued for.

TABLE 4.9

IMPULSIVITY
COGNITIVE
AFFECTIVE
PSYCHOMOTOR

Correlation
Coefficient

Degree of
Association

Relationship

Pvalue

Verbal
Interpretation

-0.286

Moderate

Inverse

0.002

Significant

0.344

Moderate

Direct

0.000

Significant

0.315

Moderate

Direct

0.002

Significant

Table 4.9 shows the significant relationship between the attitude


towards customer queue and impulse buying of customers in J.CO Donut
stores in Manila. The p-values of are below 0.050 which means that null
hypotheses are rejected at 0.05 and therefore conclude that there is
significant relationship between the attitude towards customer queue in
terms of Affective, Cognitive and Psychomotor and impulse buying of
customers in J.Co Donut stores in Metro Manila. Each coefficient falls
within 0.250 to 0.750 which means that there is moderate degree of
relationship between the attitude towards customer queue and impulse
buying of customers in J.CO Donut stores. The coefficient of cognitive and
impulsivity presents a negative value which means that there is an inverse

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70

relationship; this indicates that as the respondents perception in terms of


cognitive increases, their impulsivity decreases.

On the other hand, the models; affective and impulsivity and


psychomotor and impulsivity presents a positive value which means that
there is direct relationship between affective or psychomotor and
impulsivity. This means that as the respondents perception in terms of
affective or psychomotor increases, their impulsivity also increases.

3. The after-purchase satisfaction of customers who bought


J.CO donuts out of impulse.

TABLE 4.10
Mean

SD

Verbal
Interpretation

2.325

0.225

Unlike Me

2.455

0.890

Unlike Me

Not even the long line of J.Co Donuts


discourages me to buy.

2.455

0.901

Unlike Me

I feel satisfied whenever I buy


something I patiently fallen in line for.

3.005

0.786

Like Me

I will never buy products in J.Co Donuts


again because falling in line wastes my
time.

2.065

0.716

Unlike Me

REPURCHASE INCIDENCE
Despite the long line of people waiting
in J.Co Donuts store, I still fall in line to
buy their products.

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71

Table 4.10 presents the respondents perception in terms of


repurchase incidence. The data shows that the respondents are someone
who would not fall in line to buy the product because the long line of
people waiting in J. Co Donut stores discourage them. However, they still
perceive themselves as someone who feels satisfied whenever they buy
something that they patiently fallen in line for. Because of the satisfaction
derived, repurchase are apt to happen.

TABLE 4.11
Correlation Degree of
PVerbal
Relationship
Coefficient Association
value Interpretation
Impulsivity and
After-purchase
satisfaction

0.423

Moderate

Direct

0.000

Significant

Table 4.11 shows the significant relationship between the Impulse


buying behavior by the consumers and the after-purchase satisfaction
derived in J.Co Donut stores. As observed, the p-value presents 0.000
which means that null hypotheses are rejected at 0.05 and so, we can
therefore conclude that there is significant relationship between the
Impulse buying behavior of the consumers in J.Co Donut stores and the
after-purchase satisfaction derived from it. The coefficient falls within

UNIVERSITY OF SANTO TOMAS


0.250 to 0.750 which means that there is moderate degree of relationship
between the two mentioned variables.

The model presents a positive correlation coefficient which means


that there is a direct relationship between the two. This indicates that as
the Impulse buying behavior of the consumers increases; repurchase
incidence in J.Co Donut stores due to after-purchase satisfaction also
increases.

HYPHOTESIS RESULTS:
In the conducted study, the first null hypothesis which states that
Consumers have a negative attitude towards the customer queue in J.Co
Donuts stores shall be rejected. This is because it turned out that the
consumers have a positive attitude towards it because it entices, attracts
and invites them to join the said queue.

Regarding the three domains of behavior, the second hypothesis is


likewise rejected because customer queue in J.Co Donuts stores
significantly affect the cognitive domain of behavior. However, they have
an inverse relationship which means that the more consumers think

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before they buy, the less likely they join the customer queue in J.Co
Donuts stores.

With regards to the third and fourth hypothesis, both shall also be
rejected because customer queue in J.Co Donuts stores significantly
affects the affective, as well as the psychomotor domain of behavior. The
said stimulus actually gives the consumers a positive feeling that makes
them join the queue.

The next hypothesis which states that There is no relationship


between the Cognitive dimension of attitude and Impulse Buying. shall
likewise be rejected because the results revealed that there is a
relationship between cognitive and impulse buying. The result of which is
inverse because as the consumers think, the less likely they would
engage in impulse buying behavior. As stated earlier, impulse buying does
not really constitute thinking before purchasing a product.

The same marks should apply to the sixth and seventh hypothesis
which states that there is no relationship between affective or
psychomotor domain of behavior to impulse buying. Both shall also be
rejected. This is because the results showed that they have a direct
relationship which means that the more consumers act upon what they

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feel; the more it is possible that they would engage to an impulse buying
behavior.

The last hypothesis which states that the consumer would feel
regretful after engaging in impulse buying due to customer queue in J.Co
Donuts shall also be rejected because the results revealed the contrary.

Therefore, it shall be concluded that customer queue is in reality an


activating stimulus that triggers impulsiveness on the part of the
consumers, as well as the potential consumers and may therefore
increase sales on the part of the entrepreneurs.

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CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Conclusions
This study was conducted for the purpose of knowing the attitude of
consumers towards customer queue in J. Co Donuts stores and its
relation to impulse buying. The descriptive method of research was
utilized and the correlational study using survey was used for gathering
data. The questionnaire served as the instrument for collecting data and
the respondents were first-hand individuals who experienced falling in line
in the said establishment.

In this study, customer queue being the stimulus was tested if it is


related to impulse buying. It is seen that attitude towards a stimulus may
and will induce impulsiveness on part of the consumers because they
have a positive attitude towards customer queue in J. Co Donut stores. As
presented in Chapter 4, the three domains of behavior are positively
affected by the stimulus. Thus, it may contribute an effective way for the
inducement of consumers in a particular store. Also, the researchers
found that customer queue has a direct relationship to impulse buying
which means that when a consumer sees a long customer queue, there is

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a big possibility that one will engage to impulse buying. This study proves
that satisfaction may be derived after engaging in an impulse purchase
resulting for a consumer to buy again.

Recommendations
In view of the foregoing results, it is shown that customer queue
influences the purchasing behavior of an individual which makes them
engage in impulse buying. The proponents present the following
recommendations:

With the recognizable success and high demand of J.Co Donuts,


expansion should be considered. J.Co should expand their market to key
cities like Iloilo City, Cebu City, and Davao City. There are only three cities
mentioned for the purpose of reaching these markets, at the same time,
maintaining the customer queues in J.Co Donuts stores in Metro Manila.

Managers and marketers should come up with marketing


techniques and strategies that would employ both external and internal
stimulus. This would boost the curiosity of consumers and will induce
them to join customer queues. External stimulus may include promotional
strategies, the use of television advertisements or commercials and print
ads in newspaper or magazines. This will result to brand familiarity of such

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establishment to the consumers. This is also a way to catch the attention
of potential consumers, especially to newly introduced products.

Internal stimulus, on the other hand, may include having a well


improved interior design or store ambiance. The proponents recommend
the use of open window store and kitchens to induce consumers. This will
result to word-of-mouth, increase market span and long customer queues.

There should also be a queuing system that controls its length. One
or two cashiers in an establishment are also recommended. Limited
number of cashiers generates longer customer queue. The longer lines of
people waiting, the higher impulse incidence would take place.

Entertainment should also be added to the facilities of an


establishment that uses the queuing technique. This is to minimize the
agony of waiting and to divert their attention from the length of the queue.
This would also avoid consumers to balk out of from the line.
Entertainment in an establishment may include televisions and music.

The proponents also recommend other researchers to have a study


regarding the sustainability of long customer queue and how to maintain it

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for a long period of time. Researchers should also explore other
environmental stimulus that would result to impulse buying.

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CURRICULUM VITAE
Landayan, Emmanuel A.

An active senior legal management student


from the University of Santo Tomas from
Guiguinto Bulacan. He participated in various
seminars and leadership trainings within the
country including the 6-day 7th National
Leadership Training for Student Government officers held in Baguio City.
He is also a recipient of the 2010 Presidential Leadership Award from then
President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo as recognition for his dedication as
the schools Supreme Student Government President of Guiguinto
National Vocational High School. At present, he is an active member of
numerous youth and civic organizations in school and in his hometown.
He is currently the Secretary of the Parish Commission on Youth of St.
Ildephonse Parish in Guiguinto, and the founding President of Malis Youth
Ministry, the local chapter in their barangay. He is also the class president
of their class for two years now.

Pastrana, Mae Sharmane T.


A senior Legal Management student from the
University of Santo Tomas. She is active in
different organizations inside and outside the
university. She hails from Kalibo, Aklan and
represented the province in various Western
Visayas Regional Athletic Association Meet.

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She was a member of the University of Santo Tomas Tennis Team from
years 2010-2013. She was also a recipient of scholarship grant of the
University of Santo Tomas from first year to third year in college. She
participated in various seminars and conferences. She was a member of
the Promotions Committee and Documentations Committee of the Legal
Management Society in S.Y. 2012-2013. At present, she is a member of
the Marketing Committee of the Legal Management Society, and a Civil
Service Exam Professional level exam passer in 2013. Also, she is an
Associate Vice President of the Alliance of the Legal Management
Association of the Philippines.

Guzman, Charmaine A.

Born and raised in Valenzuela City, she is


currently a senior student of the University of
Santo Tomas, taking up Bachelor of Arts, major
in Legal Management. She is an active
member of the UST Legal Management
Society and elected as the Vice President-Internal in the said
organization. She participated in different contests and debates such as
Talastasan: Filipino Debates and won the Overall Best Speaker award;
Champion in a Marketing debate having the motion, Is America to be
blamed for Capitalism in the Philippines?; champion in the Essay-writing
contest held in San Beda College, Mendiola. In addition, she also
conducted an event entitled Hope for Greeneration in coordination with
the Climate Change Commission, and attended numerous seminars about
Human Rights, Intellectual Property, and Territorial Disputes: An open
forum about Scarborough Shoal, to name a few.

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85

Perez, Kristine Keryn U.

A senior legal management student from the


University of Santo Tomas who is an active
officer in different organizations inside and
outside the university. She is currently the
Senior

Associate

Marketing

of

the

Vice

President

Alliance

of

for
Legal

Management Associations of the Philippines, Inc (ALMAP), the Chairman


of the Marketing Committee of the UST Legal Management society and
the Chief marketing officer of their family business, VJ Manila. She is the
project head of M.Y.O.M (Make your own merchandise) 2013 and the
subhead of Promotions committee in S.Y. 2012-2013 in the UST Legal
Management Society. Her leadership abilities and discipline were
developed from her High school years where she became the Class
President for 3 years. She also became the class president of their block
in her second year of college. Also, she was able to serve her whole high
school community in La Consolacion College, Caloocan when she
became the Student Council Vice President for External affairs in her 4th
year high school and a student council representative in her lower years.
She is also a Model platoon in their ACP. Being a student leader, she
participated in various leadership seminars, trainings and conferences.
She is proud to be able to divide her schedule in school, organizations
and business all at the same time.

UNIVERSITY OF SANTO TOMAS

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APPENDIX II
TIMETABLE FOR RESEARCH

RESEARCH
OBJECTIVES
Thesis Title
Approval
Making of Chapter
1: The Problem
and its
background

TIMETABLE
2013
Jun

Jul
8

Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb

12

Submission to
Thesis Adviser for
revision

28

Making of Chapter
2: Review of
Related Literature

12

Submission to
Thesis Adviser for
revision
Drafting of Survey
Questionnaire

28

Making of Chapter
3: Research
Methodology
Submission to
Thesis Adviser for
revision
Revision of all the
corrections from
Chapters 1-3

2014

22
22

06

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27

Distribution of
Survey
Questionnaires
RESARCH
OBJECTIVES

90

Jun

Jul

Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb

Consultation with
Statistician

31

Encoding of Results

31

Making of Chapter
4: Results and
Discussion

09

Making of Chapter
5: Conclusions
and
Recommendations
Submission to
Thesis Adviser for
revision
Revision of all the
corrections from
Chapters 1-5
Group Meeting in
preparation for the
thesis defense

10

Submission of
Finished Thesis

17

10

11

16

21

Thesis Oral
Defense

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91

APPENDIX III
BUDGETARY REQUIREMENTS
SOURCES OF EXPENSES

QUANTITY

AMOUNT (PHP)

ITEMS
Printing (Pre-test, actual survey
and four copies of thesis)

810

P810.00

Statistician Consultation

P1,500.00

Book binding

P450.00

Total

P2,031