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Chapter 15

Explicit Dynamics

15.1

Basics of Explicit Dynamics

15.2

Step-by-Step: High-Speed Impact

15.3

Step-by-Step: Drop Test

15.4

Review

Section 15.1

Basics of Explicit Dynamics

Key Concepts

Explicit Integration Methods

Solution Accuracy

Integration Time Steps

Automatic Mass Scaling

Static Damping

M

{D} + C {D } + K {D} = {F }

<Transient Structural> solves the above equation using the following algorithm:

+ (1 )D

D n+1 = D n + t D

n

n+1

1

+ (1 2 )D

Dn+1 = Dn + tD n + t 2 2 D

n

n+1

2

The parameters and are chosen to control characteristics of the algorithm such as

accuracy, numerical stability, etc.

It is called an implicit method because the response at the current time step depends on

not only the historical information but also the current information; iterations are

needed in a single time step.

{D} + C {D } + K {D} = {F }

<Explicit Dynamics> solves the above equation using the following algorithm:

t

D n+ 1 = D n 1 + D

n

2

Dn+1 = Dn + D n+ 1 t

2

It is called explicit methods because the response at the current time can be calculated

explicitly; no iterations within a time step is needed.

Solution Accuracy

<Explicit Dynamics> uses the principle of conservation of energy to monitor the solution

accuracy.

It calculates overall energy at each cycle. If the energy error reaches a threshold, the

solution is regarded as unstable and stops. The default threshold is 10%.

Energy Error =

the energy error.

In this case, the

solution is quite

stable.

With explicit methods, the integration time step needs to be small enough to ensure

stability and accuracy of the solution. The German mathematicians, Courant, Friedrichs,

and Lewy, suggested that, in a single time step, a wave should not travel further than the

smallest element size, i.e.

h

c

where h is the smallest element size, c is the wave speed in the element.

Because of the CFL condition, when generating meshes for <Explicit Dynamics>, make

sure that one or two very small elements do not control the time step. In general, a

uniform mesh size is desirable for <Explicit Dynamics> simulations.

and is the mass density of the element. Further, = m V , where m is the

mass and V is the volume of the element. Therefore the CFL condition yields

t fh

m

VE

The idea of mass scaling is to artificially increase the mass of small elements,

so that the stability time step can be increased.

Static Damping

designed for solving transient dynamic

problems.

force, to critically damp the lowest mode

of oscillation.

Section 15.2

High-Speed Impact

10

Section 15.3

Drop Test

R20

5 m/s

body is made of an

aluminum alloy.

120

10

R3

20

Unit: mm.

60

modeled with arbitrary sizes, we

will use 160x80x10 (mm).

11

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