Roles of local and regional governments

A Strategy and Program for a Climate Neutral Berlin in 2050
1st World Community Power Conference, Fukushima, 3. November 2016

Dr. Felix Groba
Head of Energy Working Unit
Berlin Senate Department on Urban Development and Environment
Special Unit on Climate and Energy

Senatsverwaltung für Stadtentwicklung und Umwelt Berlin

Berlin: Facts and Figures



Capital city of Germany and one of the 16 German states (Länder)
Administration: Central administration (Senatsverwaltungen) and 12 districts

Population: about 3.5 million, density: 3809 inhabitants/km2
High population growth, forecast: 3.75 million by 2030
Refugees: approximately 40.000 in 2015

GDP 2012 at 117.3 billion (low), above- (German) average growth rate of 2.2 %
unemployment rate at about 11 % in 2014
(German average 6.7 %), decreasing tendency
mainly service sector, also creative industries, research,
media and IT, tourism (about 9 million visitors per year)


green city: around one third of the city's area is
composed of forests, parks, gardens, rivers and lakes
remarkable public transport system, biggest metro system in Germany
motorisation rate: 324 cars/1000 residents in 2014 (German
average 538/1000); more than 50 % of all households own no car
share of private motorized transport is decreasing despite of growing population
(from 38 % in 1998 to 30 % in 2013)

Senatsverwaltung für Stadtentwicklung und Umwelt Berlin

Challenges and Opportunities

• Stagnant trend of CO2 emission reduction
• Growing city
• High percentage of fossil energies
• Urban area, limited space for expansion of renewable energies
© fresch-energy/


• Role of cities in climate policy increasingly acknowledged
• Lot of flexibility options (e.g. heating networks, power-to-x-technologies)
• fürBerlin
as window
innovative ideas
und Umwelt
• High readiness for behavioural change in Berlin (e.g. sharing economy)

Status-Quo of Energy Supply
CO2-Emissions by fuel sources 1990 - 2012


CO2-Emissions in tonnes per capita

PEC by fuels in 2012

Emission by Source 2010

Substantial coal substitution since 1990
central and large scale CHP important
Lowest per capita Emission in Germany
Renewable generation marginal (electricity
and heat) but highest share of green
electricity consumers
• Major emission source: Buildings (private,
industry, services)
Senatsverwaltung für Stadtentwicklung und Umwelt Berlin

New Strategy: Climate-Neutral Berlin 2050

2011: Coalition agreement : „Getting Berlin climate neutral by 2050“
2012: Public vote on taking energy grids in municipality control and
founding a public electricity company
• 2012: Special Unit on Climate Protection and Energy



Development and communication of energy and climate policy positions
respecting special urban characteristics and needs
Coordination of activities of other ministries, districts, private actors.
Development of a schedule on reaching the goal.

Senatsverwaltung für Stadtentwicklung und Umwelt Berlin

Triad of Instruments on policy

Feasibility Study
Climate Neutral Berlin

2012 - 2014

Berlin Energy and
Climate Protection
Programm (BEK)
• Research study
• City Government
Juni 2016
Senatsverwaltung für Stadtentwicklung und Umwelt Berlin

Applications on running
energy grids by municipal
(since 2013)
Founding a public electricity
company for decentralised
renewable energey
generation (in 2014)

Turnaround Law
Berlin (EWG)

Drafting Process
2013 -2015
City Parliament
April 2016)

Feasibility study:
Climate-Neutral City Berlin 2050

• Can Berlin become climate neutral?
• Which requirements have to be fulfilled?
• Analysis of CO2-emissionen &
reduction potentials
• Reference scenario & two alternative
future development scenarios for
objective achievement
• Recommendations for a climate
protection path

• 85 % Emission reduction possible
• Linking electricity & heat sector by using excess
electricity from renewable in Berlin and suburbs
• Large potential for solar energy (PV and thermal)
• Recommendations of action for each action field
Senatsverwaltung für Stadtentwicklung und Umwelt Berlin
• Very positive regional effects on the economy



Feasibility study:
Climate-Neutral City Berlin 2050

für Stadtentwicklung
und Umwelt
Source: Machbarkeitsstudie

Energy Turnaround Act Berlin
Intention •

Makes climate targets and their instruments legally binding

(40 % until 2020, 60% until 2030, 85 % bis 2050 compared to 1990)

• Makes climate action and adaptation planning and its
monitoring mandatory
• Role model function of the public sector mandatory

• Came into force on 6 April 2016
• Next step: Implementation of Berlin Climate and Energy Programme

Role model of public administration and buidlings
• CO2-neutral public administration by 2030
• Renovation roadmaps for public buildings
• Climate policy on district level mandatory
• Climate protection agreements with industry
• Adaptation planning and climate education
becomes mandatory
• Development of Berlin Energy an Climate Program and
regular monitoring legally binding (indifferent of political
Senatsverwaltung für Stadtentwicklung und Umwelt Berlin
party changes)
Content •

Berlin Energy and Climate Program
Function • Key plan of strategies and measures (Roadmap)
• Measures cover all relevant sectors (energy supply,
economy, transport, urban development & buildings,
private households & consumption)
• Focus on 2030 and flexible due to fixed program-cycle
Elements • Mandatory by Energy Turnaround Act
• Broad public participation (online participation,
workshops, events)
• Focus on implementation of specific measures (100):
• Masterplan Solar City ● Densification of head grids
• Shifting modal split
● Flexibility option
• City planning
● […]
Update • Senate decision on 7 June 2016, review under
new Senate obligatory, Sub-programme on adaptation
Senatsverwaltung •
für Stadtentwicklung
und Umwelt Berlin of first measures started

Berlin Energy and Climate Program

All information available on , commenting possible
Senatsverwaltung für Stadtentwicklung und Umwelt Berlin

Roles of local and regional governments
- Summary Challanges

• Cities account for the largest share of economic acitivies,
population and hence CO2-Emissions
• Energy and climate policy of cities has to fit in national regulation
which eventually does not respect city specifities

• Communities/cities often closer to important actors which enhances
participation and policy support
• Set their own goals and implement respective implementation
• Soft measures to raise awareness among stakeholders:
(Information campaigns, Education, Workshops, promotion
of best practices projects)
• Policies to enable stakeholders to act by providing
incentives (loans, guarantees, subsidies, grants)
• Policies regulating the performance of stakeholder and
sanctioning the lack of it. (Mandates to achieve
objectives, city planning tools)
Senatsverwaltung für Stadtentwicklung und Umwelt Berlin


Source: Following Azevedo et. al (2013)

Thank You!


Senatsverwaltung für Stadtentwicklung und Umwelt Berlin

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