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You are on page 1of 14

Experiment # 2

I.

Objectives

1. To study the operation of the Francis Turbine

2. To determine the torque and power output of the Francis Turbine

3. To determine the overall efficiency of the Francis Turbine

4. To determine the performance parameters of the Francis Turbine

II.

Axial Pump

Centrifugal Pump

Francis Turbine

1 Pipe wrench

1 Steel tape

6 Unit standard weights

III.

Theory

A Francis Turbine is a hydraulic reaction turbine used to extract energy from a

reservoir of fluid (Ingram 2009). This reaction turbine extracts kinetic energy as well as

pressure energy of water in order to drive the turbine. The water first enters a case from

which it flows through a set of stationary guide vanes arranged in a ring about the axis of

the turbine. Flow continues through the adjustable guide vanes of wicket gates into the

runner. From the runner, it discharges into a draft tube for final delivery to the tail race.

The guide vanes give the water a definite tangential component, thereby imparting

angular momentum to the fluid entering the rotor. Figures of the turbine are shown

below:

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

USC-TC, Talamban, Cebu City, Philippines

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

USC-TC, Talamban, Cebu City, Philippines

Figure 3: Parts of a

Section of Vanes

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

USC-TC, Talamban, Cebu City, Philippines

Hydraulic turbines are usually classified in terms of total head. For any position in a fluid

system, the total head is given by the equation:

p V2

H= + + z

2g

where H is the total head of the fluid, p is the pressure at a certain point, is the specific

weight of the fluid, V is the velocity of the water at that same certain point, g is the

acceleration due to gravity and z is the elevation head.

The Bernoullis equation establishes how pressure and velocities vary in a fluid

flow system (Potter et al. 2012). The equation is derived from the principle of the

conservation of energy with the assumptions that the fluid has negligible viscosity, is

incompressible and in a steady flow. The formula below shows the Bernoullis equation:

p1 V 21

p2 V 22

+ + z1 = + + z2 + H T

2g

2g

where p1 is the pressure before entering the Francis turbine, is the specific weight of

water, V1 is the velocity before entering the Francis turbine, g is the acceleration due to

gravity, z1 is the elevation head of the Francis turbine, p 2 is the pressure after the Francis

turbine, V2 is the velocity after the Francis turbine, z 2 is the elevation head of the Francis

turbine outlet and HT is the head of the turbine. Points 1 and 2 can be visualized in the

figure shown below:

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

USC-TC, Talamban, Cebu City, Philippines

The volume flow rate of the water passing through the Francis turbine is

determined using the triangular weir and rectangular weir located in the reservoir under

the Francis turbine. The head value of the triangular weir along with the rectangular weir

can be obtained through the float reading located over the weirs. The formula of the total

volume flow rate is shown below, where the flow rate to be determined is the difference

of the volume flow rate of the triangular weir and the volume flow rate of the rectangular

weir.

QT =2.49 h2.483.33 h1.5

1 ( L0.2 h1)

where QT is the total volume flow rate in cubic feet per second passing through the

Francis turbine, h is the head of the triangular weir in feet, L is the length of the

rectangular weir in feet and h1 is the head of the rectangular weir in feet. The coefficient

of flow in the rectangular weir or Francis formula is 3.33, since it is a thin edged-weir

(Horton 1907)

The power input of the Francis turbine is governed by the formula:

P = QT H T

where is the specific weight of water, Q T is the total volume flow rate passing through

the Francis turbine and HT is the total head before entering the Francis turbine. While the

Power output of the Francis turbine is governed by the formula:

Pout =2 TN

where T is the torque determined through the Prony brakes lever arm multiplied by the

force or weight applied to it and N is the speed of the Francis turbines shaft. The overall

efficiency is the ratio of the output power to the input power as shown:

Overall Efficiency=

2 TN

100

QT H T

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

USC-TC, Talamban, Cebu City, Philippines

IV.

Procedure

STARTING UP:

1. Make sure before starting that the pipe lines are free from foreign matter. Make sure

that the gate valves leading to the Francis turbine from the centrifugal pump are fully

closed. Also note whether all the joints are water tight and leak proof.

2. In priming the centrifugal pump, open the priming cap and the gas cock to permit an

exit for the air when replaced with water.

the centrifugal

pump

from

the axial pump to let water prime

Figure

5. Priming

Cup

and

the pump making sure all other

gate

valves within the pipeline towards the other

Gas

Cock

pumps are closed.

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

USC-TC, Talamban, Cebu City, Philippines

4. Turn on the axial pump by pressing the upper push button to start priming the

centrifugal pump.Figure

The centrifugal

notline

pump

6. Axial pump

pumpwill

pipe

forwater when it is turned on

priming

without priming (Vlachopoulos (2016)).

5. Rotate the motor shaft to make sure that there are no bubbles that can permit

Figure 7. Axial Pump Switch

cavitation or else it can damage the impeller blades when in operation (Brennen

(1994)).

Shaft

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

USC-TC, Talamban, Cebu City, Philippines

6. When the water is already overflowing in the priming cup and the gas cock, close

both of them.

bypass

is open

andoverflowing

the valve near the turbine is closed. Turn

Figure

9.valve

Priming

Cup

with pump.

water

on the motor to start the centrifugal

8. Observe the pressure gauge, and when the reading is 0.5, abruptly open the valve near

Figure 10. Centrifugal Pump Motor

the centrifugal pump as fast as possible.

Switch

Gauge

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

USC-TC, Talamban, Cebu City, Philippines

9. Turn off the axial pump and close the gate valve used for priming as the centrifugal

Centrifugal Pump Gate

pump can pump Figure

water on12.

its own.

Valve

10. Use a pipe wrench to spin the turbine shaft to relieve internal friction.

11. Open the gate valve to give cooling water to flow to the wooden brake to stop it from

Figure 13. Francis Turbine

burning due to heat from friction. shaft

Lasa, Ling, Ragaza

Gate Valve

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing

Engineering

USC-TC, Talamban, Cebu City, Philippines

12. Add standard weights in the pan and balance it by adding or releasing the brake to

determine the force.

13. To add brake, rotate the knob clockwise, and to release the brake rotate it counter

clockwise.

hanger

14. Now adjust the vane setting. Make sure that the setting is not zero because it will not

Figure

16. Prony Brake Knob

turn the vanes (Potter

et.al. (2012)).

15. To measure the volume flow rate, use the flow meter head using the triangular weir

Control

subtracted by the rectangular weir. When the water levels on the crest, the flow meter

reading must be in zero, if not then subtract or add the corresponding needed value.

The volume flow rate reading is then recorded.

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

USC-TC, Talamban, Cebu City, Philippines

16. Calculate the total head using the Bernoullis Equation, given the parameters velocity,

Figure 18. Rectangular (left) and Triangular (right) Weir

pressure and flow rate.

Flow Meter

17. Tabulate all the acquired data.

SHUTTING DOWN:

18. Remove all the dead weight on the hanger and release the brake.

19. Fully close the gate valve that enables water to the Francis turbine.

Figure 19. Francis Turbine Gate

21. Partially close the gate valve nearValve

the centrifugal pump that enables water flow to the

Francis turbine until the pressure gage reads critical value (indicated by red mark)

then simultaneously shut down the centrifugal pump motor and close the gate valve

abruptly.

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

USC-TC, Talamban, Cebu City, Philippines

22. Report any damage done or wear in the equipment and experimental set-up as this

may risk the safety of the next group to operate.

Speed

(rpm)

Torque

(Nm)

V.

Power

(kW)

1. Have Torque

this table done

for every Vane angle setting desired and head desired:

Speed

Power

(Nm)

(kW)

Speed

Torque

Power

(rpm)

(Nm)

Vane Angle: 10

Head: 4 f

(kW)

Speed

(rpm)

Torque

(Nm)

Power

(kW)

Vane Angle: 10

(rpm)

Vane Angle: 20

Vane Angle: 20

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

USC-TC, Talamban, Cebu City, Philippines

1. Plot the data in a graph to visualize with the speed in rpm as the abscissa and power in

kW as the ordinate. Also repeat with the torque in Nm as the ordinate.

2. Have one graph of all the power and torque of different vane angles and head to visualize

the turbines performance.

Have a table below to calculate the turbines efficiency.

Vane

Angle

VI.

Volume Flow

Rate

Velocity

Pressure

Head

Head

Power

Shaft

Torque Efficiency

References

Brennen, C., (1994). Cavitation Parameters and Inception. Hydrodynamics of

Pumps, 87-91.

Horton, Robert E. (1907). Weir Experiments, Coefficients and Formulas, Washington

Government Printing Office, 9.

Ingram, Grant (2009). Basic Concepts in Turbomachinery, Grant Ingram and Ventus

Publishing Aps. 54.

Potter, M.C., Wiggert, D.C., Ramadan, B.H. (2012). Mechanics of Fluids, 4th Edition,

Cengage Learning, Stamford, USA, 88-89.

Potter, M., Wiggert, D., Ramadan, B., (2012). Turbopumps. Mechanics of Fluids,

Cengage Learning, Stamford, USA, 602 605.

Vlachopoulos, J., (2016). Pumps and Turbines. Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics,

19/5.

Lasa, Ling, Ragaza

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

USC-TC, Talamban, Cebu City, Philippines

Source: http://www.pxlseals.com/public/files/modules/upload/racine/Hydro/ENfrancis1.jpg

Figure 2: Exploded View of a Francis Turbine

Source:

http://rivers.bee.oregonstate.edu/sites/default/files/imagecache/module/types_of_wate

r_turbine_daviddarling.jpg

Figure 3: Parts of a Francis Turbine and Section of Vanes

Douglas, J.F., Gasiorek, J.M., Swaffield, J.A., Jack, L.B., Fluid Mechanics, 5th

Edition, Pearson, England. 832-833

Figure 4: Section Through Part of a Francis Turbine

Douglas, J.F., Gasiorek, J.M., Swaffield, J.A., Jack, L.B., FluiMechanics, 5th Edition,

Pearson, England. 832-833

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

USC-TC, Talamban, Cebu City, Philippines

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