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Performance Test of Francis Turbine

Experiment # 2

I.

Objectives
1. To study the operation of the Francis Turbine
2. To determine the torque and power output of the Francis Turbine
3. To determine the overall efficiency of the Francis Turbine
4. To determine the performance parameters of the Francis Turbine

II.

Materials and Apparatus


Axial Pump
Centrifugal Pump
Francis Turbine
1 Pipe wrench
1 Steel tape
6 Unit standard weights

III.

Theory
A Francis Turbine is a hydraulic reaction turbine used to extract energy from a
reservoir of fluid (Ingram 2009). This reaction turbine extracts kinetic energy as well as
pressure energy of water in order to drive the turbine. The water first enters a case from
which it flows through a set of stationary guide vanes arranged in a ring about the axis of
the turbine. Flow continues through the adjustable guide vanes of wicket gates into the
runner. From the runner, it discharges into a draft tube for final delivery to the tail race.
The guide vanes give the water a definite tangential component, thereby imparting
angular momentum to the fluid entering the rotor. Figures of the turbine are shown
below:

Lasa, Ling, Ragaza


Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering
USC-TC, Talamban, Cebu City, Philippines

Figure 1. Exploded View of a Francis Turbine

Figure 2. Exploded View of a Francis Turbine

Lasa, Ling, Ragaza


Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering
USC-TC, Talamban, Cebu City, Philippines

Figure 3: Parts of a

Francis Turbine and

Section of Vanes

Figure 4: Section Through Part of a Francis Turbine

Lasa, Ling, Ragaza


Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering
USC-TC, Talamban, Cebu City, Philippines

Hydraulic turbines are usually classified in terms of total head. For any position in a fluid
system, the total head is given by the equation:
p V2
H= + + z
2g
where H is the total head of the fluid, p is the pressure at a certain point, is the specific
weight of the fluid, V is the velocity of the water at that same certain point, g is the
acceleration due to gravity and z is the elevation head.
The Bernoullis equation establishes how pressure and velocities vary in a fluid
flow system (Potter et al. 2012). The equation is derived from the principle of the
conservation of energy with the assumptions that the fluid has negligible viscosity, is
incompressible and in a steady flow. The formula below shows the Bernoullis equation:
p1 V 21
p2 V 22
+ + z1 = + + z2 + H T
2g
2g
where p1 is the pressure before entering the Francis turbine, is the specific weight of
water, V1 is the velocity before entering the Francis turbine, g is the acceleration due to
gravity, z1 is the elevation head of the Francis turbine, p 2 is the pressure after the Francis
turbine, V2 is the velocity after the Francis turbine, z 2 is the elevation head of the Francis
turbine outlet and HT is the head of the turbine. Points 1 and 2 can be visualized in the
figure shown below:

Lasa, Ling, Ragaza


Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering
USC-TC, Talamban, Cebu City, Philippines

Figure 1: Energy Balance in the Francis Turbine System


The volume flow rate of the water passing through the Francis turbine is
determined using the triangular weir and rectangular weir located in the reservoir under
the Francis turbine. The head value of the triangular weir along with the rectangular weir
can be obtained through the float reading located over the weirs. The formula of the total
volume flow rate is shown below, where the flow rate to be determined is the difference
of the volume flow rate of the triangular weir and the volume flow rate of the rectangular
weir.
QT =2.49 h2.483.33 h1.5
1 ( L0.2 h1)
where QT is the total volume flow rate in cubic feet per second passing through the
Francis turbine, h is the head of the triangular weir in feet, L is the length of the
rectangular weir in feet and h1 is the head of the rectangular weir in feet. The coefficient
of flow in the rectangular weir or Francis formula is 3.33, since it is a thin edged-weir
(Horton 1907)
The power input of the Francis turbine is governed by the formula:
P = QT H T
where is the specific weight of water, Q T is the total volume flow rate passing through
the Francis turbine and HT is the total head before entering the Francis turbine. While the
Power output of the Francis turbine is governed by the formula:
Pout =2 TN
where T is the torque determined through the Prony brakes lever arm multiplied by the
force or weight applied to it and N is the speed of the Francis turbines shaft. The overall
efficiency is the ratio of the output power to the input power as shown:
Overall Efficiency=

2 TN
100
QT H T

Lasa, Ling, Ragaza


Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering
USC-TC, Talamban, Cebu City, Philippines

IV.

Procedure
STARTING UP:
1. Make sure before starting that the pipe lines are free from foreign matter. Make sure
that the gate valves leading to the Francis turbine from the centrifugal pump are fully
closed. Also note whether all the joints are water tight and leak proof.
2. In priming the centrifugal pump, open the priming cap and the gas cock to permit an
exit for the air when replaced with water.

3. Open the gate valve to


the centrifugal
pump
from
the axial pump to let water prime
Figure
5. Priming
Cup
and
the pump making sure all other
gate
valves within the pipeline towards the other
Gas
Cock
pumps are closed.

Lasa, Ling, Ragaza


Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering
USC-TC, Talamban, Cebu City, Philippines

4. Turn on the axial pump by pressing the upper push button to start priming the
centrifugal pump.Figure
The centrifugal
notline
pump
6. Axial pump
pumpwill
pipe
forwater when it is turned on
priming
without priming (Vlachopoulos (2016)).

5. Rotate the motor shaft to make sure that there are no bubbles that can permit
Figure 7. Axial Pump Switch
cavitation or else it can damage the impeller blades when in operation (Brennen
(1994)).

Figure 8. Centrifugal Pump


Shaft

Lasa, Ling, Ragaza


Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering
USC-TC, Talamban, Cebu City, Philippines

6. When the water is already overflowing in the priming cup and the gas cock, close
both of them.

7. Make sure that the


bypass
is open
andoverflowing
the valve near the turbine is closed. Turn
Figure
9.valve
Priming
Cup
with pump.
water
on the motor to start the centrifugal

8. Observe the pressure gauge, and when the reading is 0.5, abruptly open the valve near
Figure 10. Centrifugal Pump Motor
the centrifugal pump as fast as possible.
Switch

Figure 11. Centrifugal Pump Pressure


Gauge

Lasa, Ling, Ragaza


Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering
USC-TC, Talamban, Cebu City, Philippines

9. Turn off the axial pump and close the gate valve used for priming as the centrifugal
Centrifugal Pump Gate
pump can pump Figure
water on12.
its own.
Valve

OPERATION and DATA GATHERING:


10. Use a pipe wrench to spin the turbine shaft to relieve internal friction.

11. Open the gate valve to give cooling water to flow to the wooden brake to stop it from
Figure 13. Francis Turbine
burning due to heat from friction. shaft

Figure 14. Cooling Water


Lasa, Ling, Ragaza
Gate Valve
Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing
Engineering
USC-TC, Talamban, Cebu City, Philippines

12. Add standard weights in the pan and balance it by adding or releasing the brake to
determine the force.

13. To add brake, rotate the knob clockwise, and to release the brake rotate it counter
clockwise.

Figure 15. Dead Weight


hanger

14. Now adjust the vane setting. Make sure that the setting is not zero because it will not
Figure
16. Prony Brake Knob
turn the vanes (Potter
et.al. (2012)).

Figure 17. Vane Setting


15. To measure the volume flow rate, use the flow meter head using the triangular weir
Control
subtracted by the rectangular weir. When the water levels on the crest, the flow meter
reading must be in zero, if not then subtract or add the corresponding needed value.
The volume flow rate reading is then recorded.

Lasa, Ling, Ragaza


Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering
USC-TC, Talamban, Cebu City, Philippines

16. Calculate the total head using the Bernoullis Equation, given the parameters velocity,
Figure 18. Rectangular (left) and Triangular (right) Weir
pressure and flow rate.
Flow Meter
17. Tabulate all the acquired data.

SHUTTING DOWN:
18. Remove all the dead weight on the hanger and release the brake.
19. Fully close the gate valve that enables water to the Francis turbine.

20. Close the cooling water gate valve.


Figure 19. Francis Turbine Gate
21. Partially close the gate valve nearValve
the centrifugal pump that enables water flow to the
Francis turbine until the pressure gage reads critical value (indicated by red mark)
then simultaneously shut down the centrifugal pump motor and close the gate valve
abruptly.

Lasa, Ling, Ragaza


Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering
USC-TC, Talamban, Cebu City, Philippines

22. Report any damage done or wear in the equipment and experimental set-up as this
may risk the safety of the next group to operate.

Speed
(rpm)

Torque
(Nm)

V.

Power
(kW)

Suggested Tabulation of Results

1. Have Torque
this table done
for every Vane angle setting desired and head desired:
Speed
Power
(Nm)
(kW)
Speed
Torque
Power
(rpm)
(Nm)
Vane Angle: 10
Head: 4 f

(kW)
Speed
(rpm)

Torque
(Nm)

Power
(kW)
Vane Angle: 10

(rpm)

Vane Angle: 20

Vane Angle: 20

Lasa, Ling, Ragaza


Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering
USC-TC, Talamban, Cebu City, Philippines

1. Plot the data in a graph to visualize with the speed in rpm as the abscissa and power in
kW as the ordinate. Also repeat with the torque in Nm as the ordinate.
2. Have one graph of all the power and torque of different vane angles and head to visualize
the turbines performance.
Have a table below to calculate the turbines efficiency.
Vane
Angle

VI.

Volume Flow
Rate

Velocity

Pressure
Head

Head

Power

Shaft
Torque Efficiency

References
Brennen, C., (1994). Cavitation Parameters and Inception. Hydrodynamics of
Pumps, 87-91.
Horton, Robert E. (1907). Weir Experiments, Coefficients and Formulas, Washington
Government Printing Office, 9.
Ingram, Grant (2009). Basic Concepts in Turbomachinery, Grant Ingram and Ventus
Publishing Aps. 54.
Potter, M.C., Wiggert, D.C., Ramadan, B.H. (2012). Mechanics of Fluids, 4th Edition,
Cengage Learning, Stamford, USA, 88-89.
Potter, M., Wiggert, D., Ramadan, B., (2012). Turbopumps. Mechanics of Fluids,
Cengage Learning, Stamford, USA, 602 605.
Vlachopoulos, J., (2016). Pumps and Turbines. Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics,
19/5.

Figure 1: Exploded View of a Francis Turbine


Lasa, Ling, Ragaza
Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering
USC-TC, Talamban, Cebu City, Philippines

Source: http://www.pxlseals.com/public/files/modules/upload/racine/Hydro/ENfrancis1.jpg
Figure 2: Exploded View of a Francis Turbine
Source:
http://rivers.bee.oregonstate.edu/sites/default/files/imagecache/module/types_of_wate
r_turbine_daviddarling.jpg
Figure 3: Parts of a Francis Turbine and Section of Vanes
Douglas, J.F., Gasiorek, J.M., Swaffield, J.A., Jack, L.B., Fluid Mechanics, 5th
Edition, Pearson, England. 832-833
Figure 4: Section Through Part of a Francis Turbine
Douglas, J.F., Gasiorek, J.M., Swaffield, J.A., Jack, L.B., FluiMechanics, 5th Edition,
Pearson, England. 832-833

Lasa, Ling, Ragaza


Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering
USC-TC, Talamban, Cebu City, Philippines