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Well spacing, Well Placement, Reservoir Engineering

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SPE

SPE 14517

A Study of Reservoir Parameters

West Virginia

Affecting

Gas we!!

spacing

in

by K. Aminian, S. Ameri, and M.S. Saradji, * West Virginia U., and C.D. Locke, BDM Corp.

Now with U.S. DOE/METC

SPE Members

This paper waa praaantad at the SPE 1985 Eastern Regional Meeting Held in Morgantown,West Virginia November 6-S, 1985. The material is sub@ctto

correctionby the author. Permission to copy is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 worda. Write SPE, P.O. Box 8SSSS6,Richardson,Texaa

7506$SSS6. Telex: 7S0869 SPE DAL.

Abstract

Introduction

reservoir deliverability

optimization. A single well

seldom provides the desired rate of production from

a given reservoir. Generally,the totalrate of gas

production increases with the number of the wells

completed in the gas reservoir. At the same time,

inter-wellinterferencetends to reduce this increase

in total rate of production as the number of

thera

producing wells are increased. C!43neequently$

must exist a weU-spacing which will result in the

mc~t effkiefit.~~@-v-~~y from a naturai gas

reservoir. This optimum well spacing depends upon

the producing formation characteristics

as well as

economics s2ffiekidevelopment.

are depleted, more efficientmethods of extraction/

recovery must be used to insure a reliablesupply

of natural gas in the future.

Generally,a single

well seldom provides sufficientwithdrawal capacity

for a whole reservoir. Totsl production can be

increased by drillingand producing additionalwells,

but inter-wellinterference tends to diminish the

:-e----.11..

.USSGin tahi

rate of production as the number

of producing wells are increased, Consequently:

there must existan optimum number of wellsand an

optimum spacing pattarn which will result in the

most efficientrecovery of natural gas from a

reservoir.

provide a general guideline based on reservoir

engineering principals for efficientwell spacing

pertaining to gas producing formations in West

Virginia. The objectivewas achieved by developing

a general reservoir model which simulatesthe flow

of gas in a reservoircontainingseveral wells. The

model was then used to study the parameters which

affectwell interferenceand spacing. The model has

the advantage of also accounting for the inertial

component of pressure drop in gas flow through

porous media, a factor which was found to affect

well interference.

Winegenl as The density of wells that willresultin

the greatestultimateprofitto operator. Defined in

these terms, it implies that the evaluation of

differentdevelopment programs willbe controlledby

such economic factors as drillingand completion

cost, net price of hydrocarbons, intarestrate, and

operating life. The optimum number of wells that

are identicalin their geometry as well as production

capacity in a reservoir can be estimated when the

reservoir is substantiallyuniform throughout. If,

however, the reservoir is highly hetrogenaous or

contains numerous faults,no known general model

lends itselfto a realisticestimate of optimum well

spacing.

Benson formations were collectedand interpreted.

Tineinterpreteddata were statistically

analyzed and

the results were utilizedin conjunction with the

model to provide general guidelinespertaining to

~Mc&g

fop gae weiis producing from these two

horisons in West Virginia.

in a gas reservoir,it is necessary to identifyand

study the reservoir and well parameters w~.~~~.

controlthe reservoirdeliverability

y and interference.

The objectiveof this study is to determine general

guidelines for optimum well spacing for efficient

recovery of naturalgas in West Virginia. The result

of this study can be used as a technicalbasis for

evaluatingstate-widegas well spacing regulationsor

to determine the most efficient

gas fielddevelopment

method by the individualoperator.

at end of paper.

251

A STUDY OF RESERVOIR

PARAMETERS AFFECTING

SPE 14517

IN WEST VIRGINIA

where:

Gas flow in reservoirs has been discussed in

literally

hundreds of technicalpapers over the past

of fieici

data has been presented

40 year=. A W-eaitii

mathematical

with

increasingly complex

along

treatments.

The

partial differentialequations

describing gas flow in a porous medium is given

below:

v(w)

- 0 ~

(1)

A1-Hussainy,Ramey, and Crawford2 and is defined as:

(2)

can greatly facilitate

the incorporationof viscosity

and gas deviationfactorinto a mathematicalmodel of

gas flow. The final form of the equation which

describes the flow of gas through porous media can

be obtained by combining Equations 1 and 2 with the

equation of state of real gas (Equation 3) and

Darcys Law (Equation4) as follows:

P

us

PM

j--T

K Cip

- 6.328 --z

(3)

drainage have given ample evidence that gas can

move throughout a continuous porous reservoirover

a distance far exceeding any spacing normally

employed in gas fields6. Both from s practica!e!xi

an analyticalpoint of view, it is convenient to

distinguishbetween, and treat separately,multi-well

systems in which wells form groups distributedover

areas small compared to totalarea of hydrocarbon

bearing sand and those in which the well system is

distributedover allor a,large part of the reservoir

or producing aand7. The former types of situations

willarise during the early stages of development of

a large reservoir.

Flow interferenceamong a multitudeof flowing

wellsdraining from oilproducing reservoirhas been

discussed and effectiveflows for a discretenumber

of wells has been mathematically evaluated by

Muskat7~8.

It was shown by Muskat that the

pressure dWributiep. et sp. imiivid*ua!

we!!j ear~

be expressed as:

Pj = Pe + -.@2nKh

(4)

(8)

f,;

(Ji

-.

in ~

~%1

+ i=l Qi In ~e

iZj

I

(9)

where:

(5)

Pe

= reservoirpressure

f1ow rate

Qi

z

Equation 5 is essentiallythe diffusivityequation in

ri

= well bore radius

terms of real gas potential. This equation is,

rii = distancebetween the WaIIS

ao~d~~~

=X~SX.S.

however, non-!inearand no ana!yticd

r:

= reservoirradius

Equation 5 is solved numericallyby finite-difference ~=

-.

.. i1ity

...-

permeab

techniques in reservoirsimiiitors,

h=

thickness

B=

formation volume factor

It has long been establishedthat Darcys Law

viscosity

P=

(Equation 4) becomes inadequate in describing high

velocity g$jas flow

through

porous

media.

Upon applying Equation 9 to 2 wells,of spacing

Forchheimer proposed the followingequation:

d2 and common well radius of rw and pressure of

Pw, the interferenceeffect (which is expressed by

dp

.- . PV

~--+ @pi/z

(6)

the

total flux capacity from the two wells to two

dL

non-interferingwells)may be expressed as:

The firstterm on the right-hand side is the Darcy

Q~+Q.2

or viscous wmponent while the second is a high

ln(re/rw)

productivity

index ratio = -

= -----velocity or non-Darcy component.

In this latter

(lo)

2Q0

term, # is the velocitycoefficientor coefficientof

rinertial resistance. This term has been called

turbulence factor and

correlated with

the

permeability by Katz and Corne114 and ~tz and

and for four wellsin square pattern of side d4:

Janicek5. The high velocitycomponent in Equation 6

is negligibleat low flow velocitiesand is generally

ln(re/rw)

productivity _

_ -

Q1+QPW9

= --.---... .

omitted from liquid flow equations. For a given

(11)

index

ratio

re4

4Q0

pressure draw-down, however, the velocityof gas is

in

at leastan order of magnitude greater than for oil,

/Zrwd;

[1

because of the low density of gas, The high-velocity

component.is,therefore,always included in equations

Muskat carried through similar applications to

describing the flow of real gas through a porous

groups of 5, 9, and 16 wells. The same principles

medium.

had been utilizedby Dereiewaki9 tQ determine the

effectiveflow for gas reservoirs. The modifiedform

The p~eudo-steady-statesolutionof Equation 5

of the Mus kat Equation for gas wellsis as follows:

for radial flow when the non-Darcy effects are

included is given below:

in192

[1

m(p) m(wf) = -fi

[

,

SPE 14517

K. AMINIAN,

S.

AMERI,

M.S.

account for the pressure drop due to inertialeffect.

This adjustment, however, is empiricaland, in order

to obtain the general solutionfor a multi-wellgas

system, it is necessary to start with Equation 5 and

combine it with Equation 6. The finalequation can

be solved by employing a reservoir simulator.

Reservoir simulation is the proceaa whereby the

behavior of a hydrocarbon reservoiris inferredfrom

the behavior of a mathematicalmodel which describes

it. Reservoir simulators offer the advantage of

accounting for many parameters,and variableswhich

affect reservoir or well behavior and which are

ignored

in

conventional analysis techniques.

Numerical reservoirmodels have been developed and

successfully employed

to

optimize reservoir

development and production. GAS 3D2 is a general

purpose

multi-dimensional, single-phase, gas

simulator which

developed for the

has been

Department of Energy10. Two solutionalgorithms are

availablein GAS 3D2. For most problems, iterative

solutionwith LSOR (Line Successive Over-Relaxation)

is recommended, as it ia very powerful and requires

very littlearray storage.

For very difficult

problems where LSOR converges very slowly,a direct

solution algorithm which is baaed on D4 ordering

scheme may be used if sufficientcore storage is

available. A complete descriptionof the simdkter

and its various routines are given in the published

manuallO.

Data Collection

and Analysis

Methodology

used ta evaluate the formation permeabilityand/or

flow capacity (permeability

y x thickness). This was

achieved by entering the pressure and open flow

into the computer program/equation 7 to determine

permeability. Figures 1, 2A, and 2B are the

quick-reference plots which can be used for the

same purpose and exhibit the relationshipbetween

open flow,pressure,and flow capacityfor Big Injun

It must, however, be

and Benson horizons.

recognized that these resultsare based on a radial

model pseudo-steady state flow assumption and will

--if the

actuaiflow in the reservoiris

ordy

- be correct

close to the assumed flow regime.

reservoir,it is necessary to develop a reservoir

model which simulates the gas flow in a reservoir

containing several wells.

The simulator should

include a numerical model of the reservoir in which

the individualreservoir parameters can be assigned

to each element of model grid, and a system of

equations describing the flow of the gas into

individualwells. The model then willbe employed to

investigate the effect of various rock and fluid

g 17,

.nA

properties on ~p.~~~f$~~pa~~

-..

~p=c~r,

&am

--reservoirs. Considerablework has been accomplished

and reported in the literature.In order to minimize

duplication of effort, GAS

3D2 (Sawyer 1983)

simulatorwas obtained. Using this simulatoras the

starting point, changes to reflect the effect of

non-Darey flow in the reservoirwere madel1*12 since

it was believed that the non-Darcy effects in gas

reservoirsare important to consider.

During the study of well interference,

it became

Qp.~y

significant

when a group of wells are placed in small

~ee&;Gr,

~f ~~e regervo~r

. The uniform distribution

of

all the reservoir area will result in

wells over

non-interferringwell behavior. In other words, each

well willdrain a certainsectionof the reservoirand

other wells willonly simulateboundary effectsat the

edges of its drainage area. In the light of this

result,a reservoir model based on Equation 7 was

developed to study the uniform well-spacing. A

computer

program

based on

this model was

developed11~12. This program contains the routines

ta convert the pressure ta real gas potential

(pseudo-pressure)and convert the real gas potential

back to pressure.

FDC/GR,

sNP-cNL/GR; IL); initlhSOpe?! f]ew petentki, ir,itkd

pressure, well location,and depth was collectedfdr

the wells that were producing from Big Injun and

was limitedto

Benson horizons. The data collection

gas-producing wells and was performed in such a

fashion as to attempt to avoid data-clustering,

thereby creating a uniformly distributed sample

across West Virginia.

The major sources of data included:

1.

potentialand well location.

2.

Survey for various well logs.

3.

(under development by the Petroleum

---, IMX?TC?)

...- .-.

Engineering Department Of ww

f~~

DOI?

for initial

pressure, depth, and other relevant

data.

:Aa..

++#4

-4:---- -c

ifitervrii8and

gesi-bearhig

LU=lluu!a..wl!

delineationof respective values of porosity,water

saturation,and, hence, the gas saturation.

analyzed

to evaluate the representative ranges of major

reservoir parameters. The results of data analysis

and statistical

analyaisare summarized in Table L

Results

-..---This segment of the paper deals with simulation

d .J~i,-.fi

tk,seariy #tages of Ciev-eiqmient

~e~s~~~=

in a

gas reservoirwhen the group of wellsare placed in

an area small in comparison to the totalreservoir

size and the interferenceeffect are significant.

Several cases for study were considered. They

included 2-well,4-well (4-spot),and 5-well (5-spot)

The average flow rate per well was

cases.

calculatedusing the simulatcmand compared to the

flow rate of a single well producing from the same

reBervoir. It became evident that the reservoirsize

and distance between the wells are the two major

parameters controllingthe interference, This result

is similar to those concluded by Mus kat8 for oil

wells. To compare the resultsof the simulatorwith

those proposed by Muskat$ the interferenceeffect

was calculated and shown in Figure 3 for 4-well

A STUDY OF RESERVOIR

PARAMETERS AFFECTING

determine which (ifany) have a significant

effecton

interference. It became evident during various

simulationruns that fluidpropertiesand some of the

reservoir characteristicssuch as thickness and

porosity do not have any significanteffect on

interference. However, permeabilityappears to have

an effect.

To further study the effect of

permeability,several

runs with differentpermeability

values were made. Figure 3 summarizes the results.

As can be seen, with an increase in permeabilitythe

iat.ei%s~eaee

decreases especiallyat short distances.

This could be explained by the fact that non-Darcy

effectswillincreaaewith an increasein permeability,

and the non-Darcy effects,as were found earlier,

the interferenceeffects.

tend to reduce

SPE 14517

reservoir is unique for that reservoir and its

conditions and constraints. These conditions and

constraintsinclude the economics (cost of drilling

and price of gas), gas purchase contract conditions,

state-wide regulations,line pressure, and reservoir

characteristics. Many of the above mentioned

conditions and constraintscan not be generalized

especial]

y the economics,and, as a result,a general

spacing can not be recommended which would be

optimum under all circumstances. However, the

general guidelinesdeveloped during this study can

Discussion

be used as technicalbasis to evaluate the positive

and negative aspects of specific spacing and

Table I summarizes the results of statistical development programa.

analysis of the interpreted data and shows the

representativevalues of major reservoir parameters

The results obtained in this study are only

that were obtained during data collection and

applicable to continuous, homogeneous formations.

analysis. These results were used in conjunction

The results should not be extended to naturally

with the results of model studies to determine a

fractured reservoirsor tight formations where the

general guidelinefor well epacing in the formations

nature of gas flow is differentthan those assumed

under study.

in this study. Differentreservoir models should be

employed/developed for those reservoirs.

As mentioned earlier,two situationswill arise

when well spacing is considered. One situationdeals

Conclusion

are

pkmeci

in a smfiii

portion of a reservoir. This simulationleads to

This research task has been a preliminarystudy

mutual interferencebetween the wells. The extent of

and, consequently,requires many modificationsand

interfa~Qnc~w~ii ~~p~~d O= se>~eraip=~~~=~ef~ ~H

cansiciemtieriii

to provide generaiizeciconciusdons.

this case. They are: distance between the wells, Having the extent of this study in mind, the

the number of wells,permeabilityof the formation, followingconclusions

are

made:

and reservoir size.

The reservoir size is the

variable that can not be generalized, thus, a

1. The various simulationrunu indicatedthat

not be determined.

representive average value can

interferenceeffectsare significant

when a

The sizes of the reservoirs have been found to be

group of wellsare placed in an area smallin

highly variable. Other parameters such as the

comparion to the totslarea of the reservoir.

number of wells and distance between the wells can

be decided during drillingand development stages

2. When a uniform spacing is employed in a

rock

while the formation permeabilityis a reservoir

completelyhomogeneous reservoir,interference

y values inTable 1,

property. Based on permeability

effectsare non-existant.

Figures 4 and 5 were developed for Big Injun and

Benson.

The 4-well case has beon cho~en as an

3. During the early stages offielddevelopment,

example case and the effectof distance between the

when interferenceeffectsare significant,

it

wells and

reservoir sizo on

was found that the reservoirsize,distance

interference are

illustrated.These figures have been developed,first

between the wells,number of wells,and

by calculatingproductivityindex ratio (Equation 11)

formationpermeabilityare tho factorswhich

based on reservoir radius and distance between the

controlthe inter-wellinterference.

wellsand ~ with the aid Of Figure 4f t-he interfemmce

effect has been evaluated for the proper formation

4. Well interfcrenco only affeciathe viscous

permeability.Similarplots can be developed for any

component (Darcy)o~ the pressure drop and

desired number of wells.

tho inertial(non-Darey ) wmponent is not

affectedby well interference.As a result,

The second situationariaes when the reservoir

interferenceeffectsare lesR extensivein a

is completely developed and each well drains a

gas reservoirin comparison to a similar

certainsegment of the reservoirand other wells just

situationin an oilreservoir.

determine the boundary of the drainage area. In a

wi4h

...

-.

IN WEST VIRGINIA

~cmpietueiyk.mmgaeci-us ail

d uriiforin

reservoir for

such a situationto occur, it is necessary to have

the same distancebetween the wells. Otherwise,the

performance of the individualwellswould be inferior

to a single well (interferenceeffects). Howevefi,if

the reservoiris heterogeneous and non-uniform,the

distance between the wells should be decided based

on the characteristics

of various segments of the

reservoir. Based on the average characteristics

of

the two formations,Figures 8 and 9 were developed

using uniform spacing model (based on Equation 7).

the allowable flow rate

These

figures show

(estimated as 25% of AOF ) versus the distance

between the well (twicethe drainage radius).

case.

interference estimated based on the productivity

index ratio (as proposed by Muskat) is higher than

those obtained from the simulationstudy. It must be

noted, however, that the Muskat equation is based on

liquidflow, i.e.,the non-Darcy effectsare ignored,

while the simulator accounts for such effects.

Similarresultsfor 2-well case and 5-well case were

obtained11~12.

..

.a.e~]

ir=w

~f

--

W-MC*I

SPE 14517

K. AMINIAN,

S.

AMERI,

producing formationif sufficient.

data is

availableto determine the general

characteristics

of the formation,

!!!?!!l?nG!?!&c.rf?

B=

Cg

G=

h=

K=

M=

m=

n=

P=

Q,q

R=

re

rW

s=

s=

T=

~=

v=

P

0=

P

P

=

=

=

M.S.

[;QScompressibility,psil

Gas Gravity, Dimensionless

FormationThickness,ft

Permeability,mcl

Molecular Weight, Ibmol

Real Gas Pot.entinl,

psi2/cp

Exponent.of BackPressureEquation,

Dimensionless

Pressure, psi

FJOW Rate, NCII/D

UniversalGas Constant

Reservoir Radius, ft

Wellbore Radius, ft

Skin Factor, Dimensionless

Length, ft

Temperature,R

~j.~e,~~~

Velocity, ft/sec

Density, lbm/ft3

Porosity, fraction

Viscosity,cp

TurbulenceFactor, ft-]

10.

P.B.,1966,The Flow of Real Gases Through

J. Pet.Te@..,624.

Porous Media,

4.

1953,Flow of Gases

Through Porous Media,Ind. Eng. Chem., Vol.

45, 2145.

5.

of Unsteady State Gas Flow Calculations,

paper presented at Research Conference on

Flow of Natural Gas from Reservoirs,University

of Michigan,Ann Arbor.

6.

Wells,Trans. AIME, Vol.213, P. 213.

7.

Muakat,

M., 1946,The Flow of Homofleneoug

g~!d~.~.h~~g.~h.

Poroug, J.W. Edward8, Inc.,Ann

Arbor, Michigan.

8.

Production,McGraw-HillBook Company, Inc.

9.

1982,Deliverability

Interferencein Gas

Storage Reservoirs,paper presented at AGA

TransmissionConference,Chicago,ILL.

Simulatorfor Single or Multi-wellstudies

GAS3D2, Version 1.00,DoIi/MC/21990-1441,

,McwgaE:owfillm?gy Technology Center.

12. Sarad.ii.

M.S.,A TheoreticalStudy of Different.

Reser~oir Parameters AffectingGas Well

Deliverability

and Spacing in West Virginia,

Masters thesis,West V}rginiaUniversity,

Department of Petroleum Engineering,

Morgantown, WV, (under preparation),1985.

Determine the Optimum Spacing of Wells,The

Petroleum Engineer,p. 67.

Forchheimer,

P., 1901,Wasserbewegung durch

Boden, ZZ~tz,ver deutach, ~,

45, 1731.

for NaturalGas Production in West Virginia,

FinalReport,West---VirginiaUniversityEnergy

Research Center, 1s85.

Referenqe&

3.

LOCKE

SPE

14517

TABLE I

PARAMETER

BIG

MEAN

95%

L.L.

IOOROS

ITY

(%)

THICKNESS

(FT)

(MD)

PERMEABILITY

DEPTH (FT)

BENSON

INJUN

Cir,

.

95%

MEAN

L,L,

UiLi

CII,

U,L,

11.96

11,56

12,36

8,51

8,21

8,81

18.97

15,51

22,43

10,32

8,50

12,14

66,83

65,26

68.40

67s 41

65,69

69,14

10,10

172.33

2024,40

8.084

169,66

1945s 68

12,04

5,20

3,86

6.37

213,12

35,80

28,11

43.41

4284,54

4169,70

4399,40

2103.12

25000

20000

15e00

10000

5000

e

0

200

4@e

660

Fig.l-Ab801uto

(0/J%4]jOU

M014

N3d0

(x)om

ZllnlOSSW

801tmw1s

30 s17ns3ti

\\\\N-

(0/J~W)40tl

MOld

N3d0

3LITIO!33H

W

(ZIOW13kiolu7nwIs

40 sllns3~

450

400

350

300

250

RESERVIJIR

Fig.5-Effecf

RWJIUS, FT

Distance

500

\

4s0

400-

350.

1 I

~---&-f-l-f1s00

Dlstence

The

lblls.

ft

550

Betueen

De

fIL

2000

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