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Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association

ISSN: 0002-2470 (Print) (Online) Journal homepage: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/uawm16

Jet Aircraft Operations: Impact on the Air


Environment
R.E. George , J.S. Nevitt & J.A. Verssen
To cite this article: R.E. George , J.S. Nevitt & J.A. Verssen (1972) Jet Aircraft Operations: Impact
on the Air Environment, Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association, 22:7, 507-515, DOI:
10.1080/00022470.1972.10469667
To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00022470.1972.10469667

Published online: 15 Mar 2012.

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Date: 17 November 2016, At: 11:48

R. E. George, J. S. Nevitt and J. A. Verssen

Los Angeles County Air Pollution Control District

This paper is directed to those concerned with the air


environment and its degradation by the burden of
pollution from jet aircraft operations. A summary is
presented of the results of a comprehensive air pollution
study of jet aircraft operations at the Los Angeles
International Airport (LAX). Included in the data
obtained from this study are jet engine exhaust measurements for currently used turboprop, turbojet and
turbofan engines; measurements of specific contaminants in the atmosphere inside and outside of passenger terminals and ticketing areas, and in aircraft
cabins during ground operations including passenger

Mr. George is Director of Enforcement, Mr. Nevitt is


Senior Air Pollution Analyst, and Mr. Verssen is Intermediate Air Pollution Analyst of the County of Los
Angeles, Air Pollution Control District, 434 South San
Pedro Street, Los Angeles, California 90013. This paper
was presented as Paper No. 71-117 at the 64th Annual
Meeting of the APCA in June 1971 at Atlantic City, N. J.

July 1972

Volume 22, No. 7

loading and taxiing prior to takeoff; also presented are


ambient air measurements in a two-mile radius of the
airport. An evaluation is made of the emissions of
contaminants from air transport operations and all
related ground activities including motor vehicles, that
contribute to the total atmospheric contaminant burden
at the airport.
Jet aircraft operations at the Los Angeles International Airport are a conspicuous source of visible
pollution as well as the target of many citizens' complaints of the unwholesome effects of odors and of
property soiling. Jet aircraft emissions are compounded by emissions from collateral ground activities
at airport terminals. These emissions are suffered not
only by area residents but by other exposed persons in
the airport environs. Study results show that aircraft
contribute about 91% of the particulates and 44% of
the carbon monoxide emissions at LAX. Carbon
monoxide emissions from ground operations were
found to be more than 55% of the total CO emissions
from all sources.
507

Figure 1. Sampling the exhaust of the No. 2 inboard JT4A turbojet


gas turbine aircraft engine mounted on a United DC-8. The sampling
procedure requires from 5 to 9 minutes for each simulated operating
mode.

There is an increasing awareness of the potential hazard at


every major airport in the world due to pollution caused by the
operation of jet aircraft. The Federal Government indicated
its interest in the jet aircraft pollution problem nationally in
the Air Quality Act of 1967, enacted by the U. S. Congress.1
In the Act, the Secretary of the Health, Education, and Welfare was directed to conduct "a full and complete investigation and study of the feasibility and practicability of controlling emissions from jet and piston aircraft engines and of
establishing national emission standards with respect
thereto." This interest was reiterated in the Clean Air Act
amendments of 1970.2 In Section 231, the Environmental
Protection Agency was directed to ". . . commence a study
and investigation of emissions of air pollutants from aircraft
in order to determine the extent to which such emissions
affect air quality in air quality control regions throughout
the United States, and the technological feasibility of controlling such emissions. . ."
The Los Angeles County Air Pollution Control District
(APCD) came to grips with the aircraft pollution problem
over 12 years ago when commercial jet transport operations
were inaugurated at the Los Angeles International Airport
(LAX) in January 1959. At that time, a thorough investigation of air traffic and jet engine emissions was undertaken.
Results of this study, which included detailed engine tests and
estimates of the pollution potential of jet aircraft, were
published by the District in April I960.3
These early tests provided a starting point for a new study
in 19684 to update the initial investigations and supplement
them with emission tests for a new generation of turbofan
aircraft engines and late model turbojet and turboprop
engines. The primary interest of this 1968 study was to obtain the most complete and comprehensive information
possible on the kinds and quantities of air contaminants
emitted by jet aircraft, particularly at LAX. Other important aspects were investigations on possible approaches to
control of jet aircraft pollution and decisions on the scope of
the District's legal jurisdiction in the aviation field.
508

On July 15, 1969, Assembly Bill 988,5 drafted by the District and passed by the California State Legislature, was
signed into law. This bill added Section 24242.5 to the
California Health and Safety Code, limiting the emission of
visible air contaminants from aircraft. The provisions of
this precedent setting legislation would have become operative on Jan. 1, 1971. However, the Clean Air Amendments,
signed into law one day earlier on Dec. 31, 1970, pre-empted
the District from enforcing the aircraft regulation.
The District's investigation of the aircraft pollution
problem in 1968 provided general background information
as to the nature and extent, effects or impact, and methods
of reduction of jet aircraft engine exhaust emissions. In
addition, there were research and study areas indicated
which are the subject of the present paper. The purpose of
this paper is to summarize the findings of a comprehensive
investigation of the impact of jet aircraft operations on the
air environment in the vicinity of a major air terminal. This
latest study by the District was conducted as a contractual
effort for the Environmental Protection Agency.6 The
study which was made at the Los Angeles International
Airport during the period June 30, 1969, through Nov. 18,
1970, had as its objectives to determine:
Total pollutant emissions from aircraft and ground operations.
Measurement of exhaust emissions from Pratt and Whitney
JT4A and JT9D engines to complete the emission data
previously obtained by the APCD for other contemporary
gas turbine aircraft engines.
Atmospheric concentrations of CO and particulate matter
at ground level within and around the airport.
Measurement of CO exposure within aircraft cabins during
all ground operations.
Scope of Study
Aircraft Operations

Emissions estimates were made of the total quantities of


air pollutants emitted annually from air carrier and general
aviation aircraft at LAX in the following categories:
Turbojet, turbofan and turboprop commercial aircraft.
Piston-engine commercial aircraft.
Piston-engine private aircraft.
Contaminant emission data for gas turbine engine commercial aircraft were obtained from specific engine tests.
Exhaust measurements were made of CO, NOX, hydrocarbons
and other organic gases, and particulates, during operating
modes simulating idle, taxi, take-off, climb-out, and landing.
Emissions from piston-engine aircraft were estimated using
available engine exhaust emission data.
Completing the turbine engine testing program, exhaust
emission measurements were made in this study on each of
two Pratt and Whitney engines not previously tested
a JT4A engine mounted on a United DC-8 aircraft, as shown
in Figure 1, and a JT9D engine mounted on an American
747 aircraft. Static tests were conducted using sampling
and analytical methods developed and utilized in previous
APCD studies of jet aircraft. Two replicate tests were conducted on each engine during the simulated operating modes
of idle or taxi, take-off, climb-out, and landing.
Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association

Airport boundary'
O

Mobile station
sampling sites
Air sampling
station-fixed

Scale in miles
0

Mobile station
overnight site

V* Vi % 1

Figure 2. Air Sampling LocationsMobile and Background Sites.

Ground Operations

Using previously determined source test data and survey


information developed in this study, tonnage emissions
estimates were made of pollutants from the following ground
operations within the LAX boundary indicated in Figure 2:
Aircraft fueling systems
Service vehicles
Aircraft engine run-up during maintenance and groundcheck
Motor vehicles within the airport complex
Miscellaneous sources
Atmospheric Measurements

Carbon monoxide and particulate concentrations were


selected as the indicators of aircraft pollutant contributions
because of their relatively high emission rates and the ease
with which these contaminants can be monitored. Measurements were made of ambient concentrations of CO and suspended particulates at fixed and mobile sites outside airport
locations, inside airport terminals, and in residential and
commercial areas in a 2-mi. radius of the airport. (Figure 2)
Two outside fixed air sampling sites were selected to measure background levels for comparison with values recorded at
other locations with higher pollutant exposure potential.
Sampling at the fixed sites was continuous and encompassed
normal, low, and peak periods of aircraft and vehicular
traffic at the airport. Also included were periods when high
air pollution potentials existed in the metropolitan Los
Angeles area. Outdoor ambient air measurements were
made with a mobile air monitoring laboratory in areas adJuly 1972

Volume 22, No. 7

jacent to, and circumscribing the airport complex. Sampling


was conducted each weekday and on 6 weekend days, during
a continuous 6-hour period at each preselected site.
The following air sampling instruments were located in
three study areas:
Passenger Terminal Locations
Satellite No. 2 and Satellite No. 7
Two CO instruments (inside and outside air)
Two "Km" particulate instruments (inside and outside air)
One pair of "Hi-Vol" particulate instruments (outside air)
Ticketing Building No. 7
One CO instrument (inside air)
One CO instrument (outside air, Oct.-Nov. only)
Two "Km" particulate instruments (inside and outside air)
Control Tower (Outside Air)
One CO instrument
One "Km" particulate instrument (Oct.-Nov. only)
One pair of "Hi-Vol" particulate instruments
Background Locations (Outside Air)
FA A Range Site and Security Office Site
One CO instrument
One "Km" particulate instrument
Mobile Air Monitoring Locations
Outside air around the airport was sampled at 26 sites with
one CO and one "Km" particulate matter instrument.
Aircraft Cabin Air Sampling

Carbon monoxide concentrations were measured in a


United 727 aircraft cabin while the plane boarded passengers
and performed all runway taxi and idle operations up to the
point of take-off.
509

Table I. Annual jet-powered aircraft LTO by make and model, and gas turbine engine LTO by type, at LAX 1970.
Manufacturer of
gas turbine
engine

Make and model


of aircraft on
which the engine
is mounted

Pratt and Whitney

Boeing 707

4,015

16,060

General Electric

Convair 880

3,285

13,140

JT4A-ll
JT4A-11
JT3C-7

Pratt and Whitney


Pratt and Whitney
Pratt and Whitney

Boeing 707
Douglas DC-8
Boeing 720

4
4
4

JT3Db
CJ803-23
JT3D
JT3D

Pratt and Whitney


General Electric
Pratt and Whitney
Pratt and Whitney

Boeing 707
Convair 990
Boeing 720
Douglas DC-8

4
4
4
4

JT8Db
JT8D
JT8D

Pratt and Whitney


Pratt and Whitney
Pratt and Whitney

Boeing 727
Boeing 737
Douglas DC-9

3
2
2

JT9Db

Pratt and Whitney

Boeing 747

730
5,813
3,650
10,193
36,500
211
16,060
26,133
78,904
62,415
13,870
14,600
90,885
6,168

2,920
23,252
14,600
40,772
146,000
844
64,240
104,532
315,616
187,245
27,740
29,200
244,185
24,672

Allison
Rolls Royce

Lockheed L-100
Fairchild F27A

4
2

2,920
5,110
8,030
201,480

11,680
10,220
21,900
676,345

Engine
model
number

Type of gas
turbine engine
Turbojet (water injection)

JT3C-6b
b

CJ805-3B

Turbojet (dry)

Turbojet (dry)
Total
Turbofan

Total
Turbofan
Total
Turbofan

Turboprop

501-D
Dart-7

Number
of engines

Number of
aircraft LTO
at LAX per year

per

aircraft

Total
Grand total

Total number of
engine LTOa
at LAX per year

a Landing-take off cycle.


This engine model tested and results assumed to represent the group listed under "Type of gas turbine engine".

Table I I . Annual tons of air contaminants emitted at LAX by gas turbine aircraft engines, 1970.
Engine
model
number"
JT4A
JT9D
JT3D
JT8D
JT3C-6
CJ805
501-D
Total

Number
Particulate
of engine,
matter
Carbon monoxide,
LTO/yr
b
Ib/LTO tons/yr 4 Ib/LTOC tons/yr"1
atLAX
40,772
24,672
315,616
244,185
16,060
13,140
21,900
676,345

10.000
8.256
6.278
6.188
8.976
6.148
4.956

205
100
990
755
70
40
55

36.954
28.510
35.008
18.782
26.738
17.010
1.100

2,215

755
350

5,525
2,295
215
110
12

Oxides of
nitrogen
Ib/LTO tons/yr 1
4.232
7.764
2.774
2.608
1.854
2.590
4.834

9,260

85
95
440
320
15
17
55
1,,025

Combustible
organic gases
Ib/LTO tons/yr d
10.872
8.648
7.810
70.724
4.140
18.246
3.014

220
105

1,230
8,635
35
120
35

10,380

Sulfur dioxide
Ib/LTO tons/yr d
2.408
2.390
1.550
1.392
2.396
1.882
1.194

50
30
245
170
19
12
13
540

Total air
contaminant
tons/yr d
1,315
680

8,430
12,175
355
300
170

23,425

a A test was run on an engine of this model number. See Table I for engine group represented by each test.
t> From Table I.
o Values derived from engine tests performed by the Los Angeles County Air Pollution Control District.
<J Emitted within LAX Boundary.

Results and Discussion


Aircraft and Ground Operations

Estimates were developed of the total quantities of air


pollutants emitted annually from all aircraft and ground
operations within the boundary of Los Angeles International
Airport (LAX). For 1970, these combined pollutants
totaled nearly 45,000 tons in this 4.7 sq mi area. Aircraft
emissions were 57.5%, and emissions from ground operations
comprised 42.5% of the total.
Aircraft Flight Surveys. Table I shows 1970 LAX survey
data on the total number of jet aircraft flights and also the
distribution of gas turbine aircraft engines by make, model,
and number. Engine models are divided into seven groups,
each containing an engine tested by the APCD and assumed
to have exhaust emissions representative of that group.
The jet aircraft pollution contribution was developed from
information on number of nights, engine type, average time
in each flight mode, and exhaust analyses. These data were
obtained in a mid-1970 survey of air carriers operating at
LAX. Detailed flight data were developed for the operating
modes used during arrival, departure, and the taxi and idle
operations. Piston-powered aircraft emissions were estimated from observation of flight operations, monthly flight
count data, fuel consumption rates for each operational
mode, and exhaust emission factors for uncontrolled motor
vehicle engines.
510

Aircraft Emissions at Los Angeles International Airport.


Estimated annual contaminant emissions from jet engines
operated within the boundary of LAX are shown in Table II.
These data were developed from tests made on the following
engines:
TurbofanPratt & Whitney JT3D, JT8D, JT9D
Turboje1>-Pratt & Whitney JT3C-6, JT4A
General Electric CJ805
Turboprop'Allison 501D
There is a noticeable difference in visible contaminants
emitted from these various engines. The JT9D emits practically no visible contaminants. The JT8D engine produces
the greatest amount of visible emissions as well as emitting
total air contaminants at the highest rate of the seven models
of jet engines tested. Combustors are now available for
retrofit in the JT8D engine which greatly reduce both visible
and invisible contaminant emissions.
Similar flight data were also developed for commercial
two-engine and four-engine aircraft and private piston-engine
aircraft operating at the airport. A summary of annual
emissions at LAX from all jet and piston aircraft is shown
in Table III.
Air Contaminants from Ground Operations. Emissions
resulting from ground operations are shown in Table IV.
These estimates were developed for the following ground
operations at the airport:
Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association

139 aircraft fueling stations


1127 pieces of internal combustion power-operated ground
service equipment
189 motor vehicles in airport use
15,330 gas turbine aircraft engine "run-ups" per year, for
an average of 25 minutes each
92,328,000 motor vehicles entering and leaving the airport
boundary per year and consuming about 7,590,000 gallons
of gasoline per year within the area
Miscellaneous sources including: abrasive blast cabinets,
baghouses, boilers, degreasers, loading racks, multiplechamber incinerators, paint bake ovens, paint spray
booths, floating roof tanks, underground tanks, and
vapor recovery systems.
From ground operations, the largest contribution to total
emissions is by motor vehicles entering and leaving the airport boundary. It can be determined from Tables III and
IV that, of the total emissions within the airport boundary,
motor vehicles are responsible for about 36% of the CO,
29% of all NOX, and 11% of all combustible organic gases
emitted. Aircraft account for about 91% of the 6.7 tons of
particulate matter emitted daily, 54% of the CO, 53% of the
NOX, 73% of the combustible organic gases, and 73% of the
SO2. Total emissions within the 4.7 sq mi airport boundary average 122 tons/day. Jet aircraft produce 53% of the
total atmospheric contaminant loading within the airport
boundary and are responsible for practically all visible contaminant emissions. All aircraft using LAX emit an additional 45 tons/day below 3500 ft in Los Angeles County but
outside the airport boundary.
Data developed in this portion of the airport study indicate
that emissions from ground operations are a substantial
portion of the total pollutants emitted annually at LAX.

Carbon monoxide emissions from ground operations, for


example, are more than 55% of total CO emissions from all
sources. In view of this, it is important that any studies or
inventories directed at airport contributions to the atmospheric pollution burden include considerations for emissions
from ground operations.
Atmospheric Measurements

The objective of the atmospheric sampling program conducted at the airport was to measure concentrations of
CO and particulate matter at ground level in the vicinity of
and within the airport complex. Sampling was conducted
on a 24-hr/day basis from May 10,1970 to Nov. 11,1970.
Nine fixed station sampling sites were selected in the airport area to give representative diurnal concentration levels
resulting from aircraft, vehicular and other collateral activities. These sites were located in and around the airport
complex so data could be collected to show the impact of
airport activities on pollutant concentrations at ground
level. To establish background levels of CO and Km particulates, one sampling site was placed near the west end of
the south runways. This site, No. 204, was upwind of all
airport operations and not appreciably influenced by industrial or vehicular activity. These contaminants were also
measured northeast (downwind) of the airport complex at
Site No. 209.
Mobile sampling sites were selected to determine the effect
of airport activities on selected locations in the area adjacent
to and circumscribing the airport. Atmospheric measurements were made at each of 26 sites on an average of five
days selected at random over the 7-mo period. Sampling
was performed during the daytime for continuous 6-hr periods.
Carbon monoxide levels were determined at the fixed
station and mobile laboratory sites with MSA, Model 200,

Table III. Annual aircraft emissions tonnages at LAX, 1970.

Aircraft
Commercial transports
Turbojetsb
Turbofans0 d
Turboprops
Total
Commercial transports
Piston enginee
Private aircraft
Piston engine1
Total

Particulate
matter

Carbon
monoxide

Contaminants in tons/yr a
Comb. org.
Oxides of
nitrogen
gases

Total

10,380

80
445
13
540

23,425

80

300

...

2,000

20

10,890

1,110

10,685

540

25,450

9,970

12

120
855
55

2,215

9,260

1,030

1,610

:-15
1,845

1,080
8,170

55

Negligible
2,220

Sulfur
dioxide

375

35

1,970
21,285
170

25

a Emitted within LAX boundary.


t> Turbojets include the following gas turbine aircraft engines: JT3C-6 (water injection), JT4A, CJ805-3B, and JT3C-7.
cd Turbofans include the following gas turbine aircraft engines: JT3D, JT8D, JT9D, and CJ805-23.
Turboprops include the following gas turbine aircraft engines: 501-D and Dart-7.
e
Piston engine commercial transports include: 4 engine aircraft, 2 engine aircraft 12,500 pounds and heavier, and helicopters.
i Piston engine private aircraft include: single engine aircraft and twin engine aircraft lighter than 12,500 Ib.
Table IV. Annual tons of air contaminants emitted at LAX from ground operations within the airport boundary, 1970.

Ground operation source


Aircraft fueling systems"
Operation of service vehicles'3
Aircraft engine run-up during maintenance and groundcheck0
Vehicles entering and leaving the airportd
Miscellaneous sourcese
Total

Particulate
matter

Contaminants in tons/yr
Combustible
Carbon
Oxides of
organic
monoxide
nitrogen
gases
...

20
110
40
40
210

4,245

200

510

30
600
150
980

8,980
1

13,735

Sulfur
dioxide

Total

55
905

...
12

5,380

615

25
30
135
200

1,630
605

3,810

55

1,290
11,280
930

18,935

139 aircraft fueling stations.


b
1,217 pieces of power operated ground service equipment plus 189 motor vehicles.
o
An average of 15,330 engines are run-up per year for an average of 25 minutes each.
d
Approx. 92,328,000 transient motor vehicles consume 7,590,000 gallons of gasoline per year within the boundary of LAX.
e
Miscellaneous sources: abrasive blast cabinets, baghouses, boilers, degreasers, loading racks, multiple chamber incinerators, paint bake ovens,
paint spray booths, floating roof tanks, underground tanks, vapor recovery systems.
July 1972

Volume 22, No. 7

511

long-path (approximately 1 m) nondispersive infrared gas


analyzers, as shown in Figure 3. Suspended particulates
were measured by two types of instrumentation, the automatic Chaney aerosol recorder, "Km," and the Curtin hivolume air sampler, "Hi-Vol," the latter shown in Figure 4.
Results of Fixed Station Sampling. Hourly average data
for Km and CO by month for each fixed sampling site are
shown in Table V. Also shown for comparison are data
from APCD air monitoring stations at Lennox (Station No.
76) and Downtown Los Angeles (Station No. 1).
An examination of the data indicates that CO readings,
with one exception, are higher at inside locations than at the
outside sampling locations. The exception is the Ticketing
Building No. 7, which is close to heavy auto traffic. Km
values in general are about the same inside and outside.
An inspection of diurnal Km data has shown that an increase
in outside readings is followed by a similar increase at the
inside locations. However, diurnal data for CO show no
such correlation, and there are frequent incidents of sharp
increases in concentration at irregular hours. These peak
inside CO readings were found to be caused by gasolinepowered maintenance equipment. However, this intermittent source was definitely not sufficient to account for
the average inside readings being significantly higher than
outside values. Other possible explanations for this phenomenon are human activity or facilities associated with operation
of the terminal.
Comparison of outside values at the airport locations with
those at Downtown Los Angeles and Lennox shows no significant difference in CO levels. Monthly average values at
Downtown Los Angeles (4-6 ppm) and Lennox (6-7 ppm)
are within the range of ambient concentrations measured at
the airport stations (2-18 ppm). However, Km X 10
particulate values in the terminal area of the airport (30-

Figure 3. Inside view of sampling station No. 205, outside of Ticketing Building No. 7, showing carbon monoxide recording chart above the MSA Lira infrared
analyzer.

512

67) are significantly higher than those recorded at Lennox


(12-22) and Downtown Los Angeles (23-34). Some data on
Hi-Vol particulate sampling in areas outside the airport indicate that the weights of this suspended material at those
locations are only slightly lower than at airport locations.
Results of Mobile Lab Sampling. The APCD's mobile air
monitoring laboratory was used to sample in general areas
adjacent to and circumscribing the airport complex. Sampling was conducted each weekday during the morning and
on 6 weekend days during the afternoon, for a continuous
6-hr period at each of 26 preselected sites. Locations of these
sites are given in Figure 2, and the average Km and CO data
for the total sampling at each site are summarized in Table VI.
A progression of sampling sites from the ocean inland to the
airport and beyond shows progressively higher particulate
levels, becoming a maximum immediately adjacent to and
downwind of the airport. Sampling averages were 7, 18,
and 44 Km units X 10 for Sites 31, 23, and 18, respectively.
Levels for Downtown Los Angeles averaged 29 for the months
of May through October.
Compared to the Km particulate levels monitored, CO
values were narrower in range, and showed a more random
pattern of distribution. The lowest CO average was 3 ppm,
recorded at Site 11 just northwest of the airport. The highest, 11 ppm, was found at Site 18, adjacent to and downwind
of the airport. In general, for both particulates and CO,
values measured at upwind sites north and west of the airport complex were lower than those measured at sites east of
the complex.
Aircraft Cabin Air Sampling

Carbon monoxide concentrations inside an aircraft cabin


were measured during operating modes including the period
when the aircraft boarded passengers, left satellite, taxied,
and idled on the runway prior to take-off.

Figure 4. Sampling station No. 203, outside Satellite


No. 2, showing Hi-Vol particulate matter samplers.

Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association

Table V. Summary of air monitoring data: May-October 1970.

Station no.

Carbon monoxide
1-hr avg., p p m
Range
Arith.
Max.
Mean
Min

Location

MAY (from 5/10/70)


204
F.A.A. VOR Site West End
209
Command Post, East End
201
Control Tower, Admin. Bldg.
203
Satellite 2
202
Satellite 2
208
Satellite 7
207
Satellite 7
205
Ticketing Bldg., No. 7
206
Ticketing Bldg., No. 7
76
Southwest Coastal (Lennox)0
1
Central (Downtown L.A.)

Oa
O
O
O
la
O
1
O
1

1
1
1
1
2
2

19
21
21
15
35
22
63

3.0
3.4
4.8
3.7
8.0
5.3

11.1

4
...

...

...

5
2
1

70
35
35

13.6

1
1
2
1
2
1
2

6
18
12
26
79
18
90

2.2
3.2
4.6
6.2
9.3
4.8

2
2
1

66
18
24

13.3

1
1
1
1
2
1
1

5
8
10
20
110
24
75

1.7
3.3
4.4
4.6
9.8
5.1
9.8

...
3
2
2

51
20
25

13.1

1
1
1
1
1
1
3

12
14
14
29
141
28
74

2.2
3.6
5.1
5.5

3
2
1

132
23
27

1
1
2
2
2
2
3

18
31
27
46
79
27
39

3*
1
1

86
41
24

1
1
3
2
3
1
3
2
4
1
1

23
27
24
40
68
37
35
51
92
34
30

o
o

6.2
5.5

Particulate matter
1-hr avg., Km

Range
Max.
Min
1
1

T1
5
10
5
6
1
4

66
84
...
106
106
122
103
84
124
48
116

xio
Arith.
Mean

24-hr avg., Mg/m3


Range
Arith.
Max.
Min
Mean

8.6

18.4
...
36.2
29.7
56.0
55,3
39.6
46.6
12.6
23.3

59
54

215
203b

104
119b

100

230

137

62
64

168
151

110
114

102

185

143

65
75

180
168

112
110

92

175

134

60
65

179
169

108
116

91

192

136

55
67

111
285

144
150

88

303

168

59
64

502
320

146
155

98

490

189

JUNE
204
209
201
203
202
208
207
205
206
76
1

F.A.A. VOR Site West End


Command Post, East End
Control Tower, Admin. Bldg.
Satellite 2
Satellite 2
Satellite 7
Satellite 7
Ticketing Bldg., No. 7
Ticketing Bldg., No. 7
Southwest Coastal (Lennox)0
Central (Downtown L.A.)

o
o
o
o
1

'

o
1

o
1

o
o

11.3
6.2
5.0

1
1
...
2
1
2
1
4
9
1
5

219
100
117
183
135
98
55
75

14.8
...
36.2
36.5
51.6
58.6
41.9
48.4
11.9
22.5

1
1

50
80

14.3

1
2
3
4
2
10
1
5

202
120
137
170
90
112
64
95

36.8
42.5
55.2
61.9
43.1
49.1
11.7
29.4

1
1

50
84

11.5
19.3

1
2
2
10
2
11
1
2

214
115
140
135
105
109
73
100

36.7
40.7
56.9
66.6
46.1
53.6
14.7
29.7

1
1

92
77

1
5
6
10
1
4
2
7

172
110
160
150
130
153
70
96

18.3
23.3
..
44.9
43.0
63.2
58.8
46.1
48.3
20.2
33.8

1
1
1
4
5
4
10
14
10
3
5

100
93
114
280
114
180
118
140
100
78
110

22.5
23.2
30.4
50.8
40.2
58.6
56.1
48.3
46.3
22.0
32.5

45
60

7.5

JULY
F.A.A. VOR site West End
Command Post, East End
Control Tower, Admin. Bldg.
Satellite 2
Satellite 2
Satellite 7
207 Satellite 7
205
Ticketing Bldg., No. 7
206
Ticketing Bldg., No. 7
76
Southwest Coastal (Lennox)0
1
Central (Downtown L.A.)
204
209
201
203
202
208

o
o
o
o
1

o
1

o
o

6.1
5.0

9.2

AUGUST
204
209
201
203
202
208
207
205
206
76
1

F.A.A. VOR Site West End


Command Post, East End
Control Tower, Admin. Bldg.
Satellite 2
Satellite 2
Satellite 7
Satellite 7
Ticketing Bldg., No. 7
Ticketing Bldg., No. 7
Southwest Coastal (Lennox)0
Central (Downtown L.A.)

SEPTEMBER
204
F.A.A. VOR Site West End
209
Command Post, East End
201
Control Tower, Admin. Bldg.
203
Satellite 2
202
Satellite 2
208
Satellite 7
207
Satellite 7
205
Ticketing Bldg., No. 7
206
Ticketing Bldg., No. 7
76
Southwest Coastal (Lennox)0
1
Central (Downtown L.A.)
OCTOBER
204
F.A.A. VOR Site West End .
209
Command Post, East End
201
Control Tower, Admin. Bldg.d
203
Satellite 2
202
Satellite 2
208
Satellite 7
207
Satellite 7
205
Ticketing Bldg., No. 7
206
Ticketing Bldg., No. 7
76
Southwest Coastal (Lennox)0
1
Central (Downtown L.A.)

o
o
o
o
1

o
1

o
1

o
o
o
o
o
o
1

o
1

o
1

o
o
o
o
o
o
1

o
1

o
1

o
o

10.9
5.6

10.1

15.8
6.6
0.4
3.9
5.0
6.4
7.2

10.3
7.0
8.2

.
12.6
6.0
4.6
4.9
5.9
7.1
7.4

10.4
7.7
8.3

18.5
15.0
6.0
6.0

a "O"Outside; "I"Inside.
b Highest measured value, 586 /jg/m', is suspect and was disregarded. Next highest value, 203 /ig/ms probably correct.
Stations 76 and 1 are APCD Monitoring Stations.
On 10-13-70 the carbon monoxide instrument operating at Station No. 201 was exchanged with the Km instrument operating at Station No. 205.

c
d

July 1972

Volume 22, No. 7

513

Runway Operations. Two mid-morning tests were conducted. On the first run the test plane was immediately
behind a two-engine DC-9 and four-engine 707 for 17 min.
CO concentration inside the cabin during this run ranged
from 3 to 4 ppm, which was unchanged from the level measured when parked in the maintenance area. On the second
run, the test plane was behind two two-engine DC-9's for
12 min on the taxi-way, and behind one for 6 min at the takeoff spot. On the taxi-way the CO concentration measured
in the cabin ranged from 4 to 7 ppm. Analyses of grab
samples taken in plastic bags showed concentrations of 7
and 8 ppm. In summary, the CO concentrations inside the
aircraft ranged from 2 to 7 ppm and usually averaged 4
ppm. These levels are comparable to background values

and significantly lower than average concentrations at other


airport monitoring sites.
Passenger Loading Operations.

Carbon monoxide con-

centrations inside aircraft cabins were measured continuously


while passengers were boarding from Satellite No. 7 through
the enclosed telescoping ramps. The sampling equipment
package was placed near the end of the enclosed ramp and
the sampling tube was extended inside the aircraft. This
same test was repeated at each of four gates circumscribing
the satellite. No smoking is allowed in the cabin during
boarding operations. The test data showed that CO concentrations in aircraft loading passengers at Satellite No. 7
ranged from 9 to 14 ppm and are usually about 10 ppm.

Table VI. Mobile lab sampling summary: May to November 1970. (One-Hour Average)

Station
no.

1
3
6
8
10
11
12
13
15
16
17
18
20
22
23
24
25
27
29
30
31
33
36
38
39
41

"LAX" a
Sta. 76b

Direction
3nd m'' c
from I.AX
tower
NW
NNE
N
NE
WNW
WNW
NW
NE
ENE
W
WNW
NNE
ENE
ENE
WSW
E
E
SW
ESE
ESE
SW

s
ssw
SSE
NE
E
S
ESE

2.2
1.9
1.4
2.2
3.0
1.9
1.4
1.5
2.2
2.5
2.3
0.4
1.2
2.1
1.5
1.1
1.6
1.0
1.3
2.2
2.2
1.2
2.1
2.2
3.4
3.1
0.2
1.7

Min.
1
1
3
4
2
1
3
3
2
2
1
6
4
3
2
2
2
1
7
4
3
2
3
3
1
2
1
1

Carbon monoxide, ppm


Range
Arith.
Max.
Mean
7
11
9
8
12
7
12
17
13
6
18
25
19
16
7
9
10
13
20
27
7
8
10
12
17
21
19
19

4.5
5.0
5.7
5.5
4.5
3.4
5.3
8.2
5.7
3.7
5.4

11.4
8.8
7.7
3.8
5.7
5.4
6.4

11.2
8.6
5.1
5.0
6.1
5.8
7.5
7.8
4.4
5.5

Min.

Particulates, Km X 10
Range
Max.

2
5
5
12
8
5
7
22
12
2
4
18
13
18
5
5
17
9
16
2
2
3
2
2
15
18
3
1

34
67
47
45
50
47
50
58
60
45
110
94
62
73
45
55
93
68
80
76
22
24
40
51
70
97
80
59

Arith.
Mean
14.7
23.3
18.2
27.3
23.5
20.2
24.1
37.7
32.7
13.1
24.3
43.7
33.6
36.0
18.3
21.1
39.4
35.3
43.2
22.3
6.8

11.4
13.0
18.1
41.1
46.4
43.9
15.0

a Parking site for Mobile Lab when not sampling at other locations. Located near airport Fire Station. Data is average of 38 days of sampling during
same hours established for other sites, i.e., 0600-1100 hr except on Friday and Sunday, when sampling was done during 1300-1800 hr.
b Data for same dates and hours of Mobile Lab sampling at "LAX" location.

514

Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association

Conclusions
Aircraft and Ground Operations

Jet flights account for 53% of the total atmospheric pollution burden generated within the boundary of Los Angeles
International Airport (LAX). About 90% of the particulate
matter and 72% of the hydrocarbons in this total originate
from jet sources.
Ground operations account for 42% of total air contaminant
emissions and 55% of total CO emissions at LAX.
LAX is a significant area source of air contaminants,
generally upwind of metropolitan Los Angeles. Total
emissions within the 4.7 sq mi airport area are 122 tons/day,
or an emission density of 26 tons/day/sq mi. Aircraft
using LAX emit an additional 45 tons/day below 3500 ft
altitude in Los Angeles County but outside of the airport
boundary.
The 6.7 tons of particulate matter emitted daily in the
4.7 sq mi LAX source area exceeds the atmospheric loading
rate of particulates from any area of comparable size in
Los Angeles County.
About 70% of total jet aircraft operation time, to and
from 3500 ft altitude, is spent in the idle and taxi mode, which
accounts for about 55% of total aircraft emissions.
Particulate emissions from jet aircraft engines are very
conspicuous during both final approach and take-off. However, about 40% of particulate matter emitted from jet
flights occurs during taxi and idle modes after arrival touchdown and before initiating the take-off run. This and the
previous conclusion emphasize the gains that could be
achieved by minimizing engine running time on the ground.
The JT8D engine emits total air contaminants at a rate
about twice that of any of the other six models tested. Its
35% portion of the engine flights at LAX thus accounts for
55% of total emissions from all jetflightsat the airport.
The new "smokeless" JT9D turbofan engine, which powers
the 747 superjet, emits less visible emissions and about the
same total weight of air contaminants per flight as the lower
thrust JT4A turbojet and JT3D turbofan engines used on
B-707 and DC-8 aircraft, and one-half of the total for the
unmodified JT8D turbofan engine mounted on the shorthaul B-727, -737, and DC-9 aircraft.
Atmospheric Measurements

One result of airport activities is an increased soiling


effect. Atmospheric contamination measurements of particulates by Km show significantly higher values in the airport
area (30-67 Km X 10) than at a location several miles removed, such as Downtown Los Angeles (23-34 Km X 10),
although total weight of particulate material, Hi-Vol, varies
little between the areas.
Monthly average CO values at Downtown Los Angeles
(4-6 ppm) and Lennox (6-7 ppm) are within the range of
ambient concentrations measured at the airport stations
(2-18 ppm).
Atmospheric CO levels average 4 to 11 ppm in areas adjacent to and circumscribing the airport complex. Generally,
July 1972

Volume 22, No. 7

carbon monoxide levels were higher east and east-northeast


(downwind) of the airport. These values are within the
range of concentrations observed at fixed sampling sites
within the airport boundary.
CO levels at paired inside-outside sampling locations, with
one exception, are higher at the inside station. Statistical
analysis indicates that higher internal readings are caused by
undetermined emission sources.
Highest monthly average ground level CO concentration
of 18 ppm was observed outside Ticketing Building No. 7,
close to heavy auto traffic. The emission inventory indicated
that auto traffic is an appreciable contributor to the observed
contaminant levels and should be considered in any appraisal
of the impact of an airport on the surrounding community.
Mobile lab sampling at sites surrounding and adjacent to
the airport area shows increasing Km particulate values
(soiling effect) from the ocean, upwind of the airport, to a
maximum immediately downwind of the airport. CO values
are more randomly distributed and tend to be higher along
major auto traffic routes.
Aircraft Cabin Air Sampling

During runway operations, carbon monoxide concentrations in aircraft cabins ranged from 2 to 7 ppm and usually
averaged 4 ppm. These values are comparable to airport
background values and significantly lower than levels to
which the air traveler is exposed during his stay at the air
terminal prior to taxiing onto the runway.
Acknowledgments

The data presented in this report on JT4A and JT9D


aircraft engine tests, atmospheric sampling, and aircraft
cabin air sampling were developed from work performed by
the Los Angeles County Air Pollution Control District under
Contract No. CPA 22-69-137 with the Environmental Protection Agency.
Personnel, aircraft, and equipment provided by the following organizations are gratefully acknowledged: Federal
Aviation Administration, U. S. Department of Transportation; Department of Airports, City of Los Angeles;
American Airlines; and United Air Lines.
References

1. Air Quality Act of 1967, Public Law 90-148, 90th Congress,


S780, Nov. 21, 1967.
2. Clean Air Act, Public Law 91-604, 91st Congress, as amended,
December 31, 1970.
3. R. E. George and R. M. Burlin, "Air Pollution from Commercial Jet Aircraft in Los Angeles County," Los Angeles
County Air Pollution Control District, April 1960.
4. R. E. George, J. A. Verssen, and R. L. Chass, "Jet Aircraft:
A Growing Pollution Source," Los Angeles County Air Pollution Control District, November 1969.
5. Assembly Bill No. 988, adding Section 24242.5 to the Health
and Safety Code, California State Legislature, July 1969.
6. Los Angeles County Air Pollution Control District, California,
"Study of Jet Aircraft Emissions and Air Quality in the
Vicinity of the Los Angeles International Airport," Environmental Protection Agency Contract CPA 22-69-137, April,
1971. EPA Abstract 17028, APTIC No. 35271, NTIS: PB
198699.
515